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  • Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast

    譯者: Chen-Han Hsiao 審譯者: jimi charlie

  • My passions

    我的熱情

  • are music, technology and making things.

    是音樂,科技,以及創造東西。

  • And it's the combination of these things

    而且就是這些東西的組合

  • that has led me to the hobby of sound visualization,

    促使我對聲音的圖像化產生興趣,

  • and, on occasion, has led me to play with fire.

    而且,有時,促使我去玩火.

  • This is a Rubens' tube. It's one of many I've made over the years,

    這是魯本斯管.近幾些年來我做的其中一個,

  • and I have one here tonight.

    今天晚上呢我也帶來了一個.

  • It's about an 8-foot-long tube of metal,

    這東西是一支大約8英尺長的金屬管,

  • it's got a hundred or so holes on top,

    管上差不多有一百多個小孔,

  • on that side is the speaker, and here

    那邊有個喇叭,而這邊呢

  • is some lab tubing, and it's connected to this tank

    有一些實驗用的管子,而且是和這個裝滿丙烷

  • of propane.

    的容器連接的.

  • So, let's fire it up and see what it does.

    那麼,我們現在就把它點燃看看會發生什麼事.

  • So let's play a 550-herz frequency

    嗯...我們先試試550赫茲的頻率吧

  • and watch what happens.

    看看會有什麼效果.

  • (Frequency)

    (頻率)

  • Thank you. (Applause)

    謝謝.(觀衆鼓掌)

  • It's okay to applaud the laws of physics,

    確實值得讚揚物理定律的美,

  • but essentially what's happening here

    但是實際發生的是

  • -- (Laughter) --

    (笑聲)

  • is the energy from the sound via the air and gas molecules

    聲音的能量透過空氣和氣體分子

  • is influencing the combustion properties of propane,

    來影響丙烷的燃燒性質,

  • creating a visible waveform,

    因而產生一個可見的波形,

  • and we can see the alternating regions of compression

    而且我們能看到這些一下子壓縮

  • and rarefaction that we call frequency,

    又接著膨脹的變化區段,我們把它叫頻率,

  • and the height is showing us amplitude.

    而這個高度告訴我們的是振幅.

  • So let's change the frequency of the sound,

    好吧.那讓我們改變一下聲音的頻率,

  • and watch what happens to the fire.

    然後再看看火會發生什麽變化

  • (Higher frequency)

    (更高的頻率)

  • So every time we hit a resonant frequency we get a standing wave

    所以每當我們調到共鳴頻率時,會有駐波產生

  • and that emergent sine curve of fire.

    而那個像正弦函數的火焰就會出現.

  • So let's turn that off. We're indoors.

    好吧我們還是把這關了.我們在室內呢.

  • Thank you. (Applause)

    謝謝. (觀衆鼓掌)

  • I also have with me a flame table.

    我今天還帶來了一個火焰桌.

  • It's very similar to a Rubens' tube, and it's also used

    它跟魯本斯管挺像的,而且它還能用來

  • for visualizing the physical properties of sound,

    將聲音的物理性質圖像化,

  • such as eigenmodes, so let's fire it up

    比如說特徵模式,那我們把它點燃吧

  • and see what it does.

    然後看看會發生什麽.

  • Ooh. (Laughter)

    喔~(笑聲)

  • Okay. Now, while the table comes up to pressure,

    好吧.現在,當這個桌子受到到壓力,

  • let me note here that the sound is not traveling

    此時我注意到聲音(波形)不是以完美的直線在傳遞

  • in perfect lines. It's actually traveling in all directions,

    實際上是在各個方向傳遞,

  • and the Rubens' tube's a little like bisecting those waves

    而魯本斯管有點像是用一條線將這些波形分兩半

  • with a line, and the flame table's a little like

    而這個火焰桌有點像

  • bisecting those waves with a plane,

    用一個面將這些波分兩半,

  • and it can show a little more subtle complexity, which is why

    而它可以呈現一些微妙的複雜性,這就是爲啥

  • I like to use it to watch Geoff Farina play guitar.

    我喜歡用它去看Geoff Farina彈吉他.

  • (Music)

    (音樂)

  • All right, so it's a delicate dance.

    不錯,這是個曼妙的舞蹈.

  • If you watch closely — (Applause)

    如果你看的近一點--(觀衆鼓掌).

  • If you watch closely, you may have seen

    如果你仔細看,你可以發現

  • some of the eigenmodes, but also you may have seen

    一些特徵模式,不過你還可以發現

  • that jazz music is better with fire.

    爵士樂在火焰的陪襯下就感覺不錯.

  • Actually, a lot of things are better with fire in my world,

    實際上,我的世界裡,好多東西在火焰的陪襯下就不錯,

  • but the fire's just a foundation.

    不過火焰只不過是個陪襯.

  • It shows very well that eyes can hear,

    可以將耳朵能聽見的顯示得很清楚,

  • and this is interesting to me because

    我對這個很感興趣

  • technology allows us to present sound to the eyes

    因爲科技允許我們去用眼睛來感受聲音

  • in ways that accentuate the strength of the eyes

    從而加強我們眼睛接受聲音的敏銳度

  • for seeing sound, such as the removal of time.

    比如時間的轉移.

  • So here, I'm using a rendering algorithm to paint

    那麽這裏呢,我用透視演算法去畫出

  • the frequencies of the song "Smells Like Teen Spirit"

    歌曲"Smell Like Teen Spirit"的頻率

  • in a way that the eyes can take them in

    我們的眼睛因而可以將它們讀入

  • as a single visual impression, and the technique

    成爲一種獨一無二的直覺印象,這技術

  • will also show the strengths of the visual cortex

    也能印證視覺皮質對圖案辨認的能力

  • for pattern recognition.

    也能印證視覺皮質對圖案辨認的能力

  • So if I show you another song off this album,

    如果我給你這首專輯裏面另外一首歌,

  • and another, your eyes will easily pick out

    再另外一首,你的眼睛會輕易地捕捉到

  • the use of repetition by the band Nirvana,

    樂隊Nirvana(在音樂中)所使用的重複性,

  • and in the frequency distribution, the colors,

    以及在頻率分布,顔色方面,

  • you can see the clean-dirty-clean sound

    你可以發現這個一會兒清晰一會兒吵雜的聲音

  • that they are famous for,

    那種讓他們成名的音樂特色,

  • and here is the entire album as a single visual impression,

    這是個以獨特的直覺印象呈現的整張專輯,

  • and I think this impression is pretty powerful.

    我認爲這種印象十分的強大.

  • At least, it's powerful enough that

    至少,強大到

  • if I show you these four songs,

    如果我給你看四首歌,

  • and I remind you that this is "Smells Like Teen Spirit,"

    而且我提醒你這首是"Smells Like Teen Spirit",

  • you can probably correctly guess, without listening

    在不聽音樂的情況下,你可能會猜到這首歌,

  • to any music at all, that the song

    在不聽音樂的情況下,你可能會猜到這首歌,

  • a die hard Nirvana fan would enjoy is this song,

    Nirvana的死忠歌迷所喜愛的這首歌,

  • "I'll Stick Around" by the Foo Fighters,

    由Foo Fighters所製作的“I’will Stick Around”,

  • whose lead singer is Dave Grohl,

    他們的主唱是Dave Grohl,

  • who was the drummer in Nirvana.

    他是Nirvana的鼓手.

  • The songs are a little similar, but mostly

    這些歌曲都有點相似, 不過主要是

  • I'm just interested in the idea that someday maybe

    我覺得有一想法蠻有趣的,就是有一天我們買這首歌

  • we'll buy a song because we like the way it looks.

    是因爲我們喜歡它顯現的方式

  • All right, now for some more sound data.

    好吧, 再多呈現一點聲音數據,

  • This is data from a skate park,

    這是從滑冰公園所擷取的數據,

  • and this is Mabel Davis skate park

    而這是Mabel Davis滑冰公園

  • in Austin, Texas. (Skateboard sounds)

    在德州的奧斯丁.(滑板的響聲)

  • And the sounds you're hearing came from eight

    你聽到的聲音是從八個

  • microphones attached to obstacles around the park,

    在公園附近障礙上的麥克風擷取來的,

  • and it sounds like chaos, but actually

    聽起來有點混亂,不過實際上

  • all the tricks start with a very distinct slap,

    所有的特技從一個明顯拍擊聲開始,

  • but successful tricks end with a pop,

    不過成功的特技最後會砰一聲結束,

  • whereas unsuccessful tricks

    而沒表演好的特技

  • more of a scratch and a tumble,

    還會摻雜更多的刮傷和翻滾的聲音,

  • and tricks on the rail will ring out like a gong, and

    而在欄杆上的特技會發出一個像是敲鑼的聲音,

  • voices occupy very unique frequencies in the skate park.

    而這些聲音在這個公園都有著獨特的頻率,

  • So if we were to render these sounds visually,

    所以,我們要是想把這些聲音圖像化,

  • we might end up with something like this.

    我們應該要得到像這樣的東西.

  • This is all 40 minutes of the recording,

    這是40分鐘的記錄,

  • and right away the algorithm tells us

    從這演算法我們立即發現

  • a lot more tricks are missed than are made,

    沒做成功的特技比成功的特技還要多,

  • and also a trick on the rails is a lot more likely

    而且在這些欄杆上的特技很有可能會

  • to produce a cheer, and if you look really closely,

    帶來更多的歡呼聲,如果你非常仔細看的話,

  • we can tease out traffic patterns.

    我們可以找出關於(滑冰公園內)流量的圖案.

  • You see the skaters often trick in this direction. The obstacles are easier.

    你會看到溜冰的人通常朝這個方向,(這方向的)障礙比較少.

  • And in the middle of the recording, the mics pick this up,

    然後在這個記錄的中央, 麥克風把這個記錄下來,

  • but later in the recording, this kid shows up,

    但是在這記錄的後面,這個小孩出現,

  • and he starts using a line at the top of the park

    他在公園最高處沿著一條新的路線開始溜冰

  • to do some very advanced tricks on something

    做一些難度高的特技

  • called the tall rail.

    稱作高欄特技.

  • And it's fascinating. At this moment in time,

    而這相當有看頭.在這個時候,

  • all the rest of the skaters turn their lines 90 degrees

    其餘所有溜冰的人都把他們的路線轉了90度讓路給他.

  • to stay out of his way.

    其餘所有溜冰的人都把他們的路線轉了90度讓路給他.

  • You see, there's a subtle etiquette in the skate park,

    你可以看到,在這個公園裡有個約定俗成的禮儀

  • and it's led by key influencers,

    是由頗具影響力的人主導的,

  • and they tend to be the kids who can do the best tricks,

    而他們傾向是作高難度動作的小孩,

  • or wear red pants, and on this day the mics picked that up.

    或者是穿紅褲子的,而這天麥克風就記錄下這現象.

  • All right, from skate physics to theoretical physics.

    好吧,從溜冰物理到理論物理.

  • I'm a big fan of Stephen Hawking,

    我是Stephen Hawking的大粉絲,

  • and I wanted to use all eight hours

    我想用他在劍橋八個小時的講座來表示我對他的敬意

  • of his Cambridge lecture series to create an homage.

    我想用他在劍橋八個小時的講座來表示我對他的敬意.

  • Now, in this series he's speaking with the aid of a computer,

    現在呢,在這堂講座裡,他借助於電腦作演講,

  • which actually makes identifying the ends of sentences

    這樣確實比較容易分辨句子是否結束

  • fairly easy. So I wrote a steering algorithm.

    因此我寫了個操縱算法.

  • It listens to the lecture, and then it uses

    它一邊聽講座,然後一邊利用

  • the amplitude of each word to move a point on the x-axis,

    每個詞的振幅在x軸方向上來回移動點,

  • and it uses the inflection of sentences

    它還利用句子的音調變化

  • to move a same point up and down on the y-axis.

    針對同一點在Y軸方向上下移動.

  • And these trend lines, you can see, there's more questions

    然後這些指明趨勢的線,你可以看到在物理世界中

  • than answers in the laws of physics,

    未知比已知多,

  • and when we reach the end of a sentence,

    每當我們聽完一個句子,

  • we place a star at that location.

    我們就在(那個句子對應到的)那個地方放一顆星星.

  • So there's a lot of sentences, so a lot of stars,

    所以呢很多句子就產生很多星星,

  • and after rendering all of the audio, this is what we get.

    播完所有的語音檔後,我們就得到了這個

  • This is Stephen Hawking's universe.

    這就是Stephen Hawking的宇宙.

  • (Applause)

    (觀眾鼓掌)

  • It's all eight hours of the Cambridge lecture series

    全部是在劍橋的八個小時的講座

  • taken in as a single visual impression,

    以一個獨一無二的直覺印象呈現,

  • and I really like this image,

    我相當喜歡這個圖案.

  • but a lot of people think it's fake.

    不過很多人認為它是假的.

  • So I made a more interactive version,

    所以我做了個互動版本,

  • and the way I did that is I used their position in time

    而且我所使用的方式是利用他們在時間軸上出現的位置

  • in the lecture to place these stars into 3D space,

    將這些星星放置在3D空間裡(對應位置),

  • and with some custom software and a Kinect,

    同時利用一些客製化軟體和一個Kinect,

  • I can walk right into the lecture.

    這樣我就能”走進”課堂中.

  • I'm going to wave through the Kinect here

    我要握著這個Kinect 作揮手動作

  • and take control, and now I'm going to reach out

    然後作一些操控,接著我伸手去

  • and I'm going to touch a star, and when I do,

    抓一顆星星,當我這樣做的時候,

  • it will play the sentence

    它會播出(這個星星所對應到的)這句話.

  • that generated that star.

    它會播出(這個星星所對應到的)這句話.

  • Stephen Hawking: There is one, and only one, arrangement

    Stephen Hawking:這裡有一個,獨一無二的(星星位置)分布

  • in which the pieces make a complete picture.

    (星星所在的)各個位置構成一個完整的圖案.

  • Jared Ficklin: Thank you. (Applause)

    Jared Ficklin:謝謝 (觀眾鼓掌)

  • There are 1,400 stars.

    這裡面一共有1400顆星星

  • It's a really fun way to explore the lecture,

    這是個很有意思的方式去探索這個講座,

  • and, I hope, a fitting homage.

    我希望(這是表示)合適敬意的方式.

  • All right. Let me close with a work in progress.

    好的.讓我們以接下來的作品來結束今天的演講.

  • I think, after 30 years, the opportunity exists

    我認為,30年後,我們有可能

  • to create an enhanced version of closed captioning.

    去創造沒字幕的特殊版本.

  • Now, we've all seen a lot of TEDTalks online,

    現在,我們在網上可以看到好多TED演講,

  • so let's watch one now with the sound turned off

    因此呢讓我們將聲音關掉去看一個吧

  • and the closed captioning turned on.

    當然我們把字幕打開

  • There's no closed captioning for the TED theme song,

    TED片頭曲是沒有字幕,

  • and we're missing it, but if you've watched enough of these,

    因此我們經常錯過這部分,不過你已經看得夠多了,

  • you hear it in your mind's ear,

    你可以在你心裡聽到這片頭曲,

  • and then applause starts.

    接著呢開始聽到掌聲.

  • It usually begins here, and it grows and then it falls.

    通常(掌聲)是這樣開始,先漸強,最後漸弱.

  • Sometimes you get a little star applause,

    但有時候你僅會有一點的掌聲,

  • and then I think even Bill Gates takes a nervous breath,

    而且我認為即使Bill Gates也緊張地深吸一口氣,

  • and the talk begins.

    然後開始演講.

  • All right, so let's watch this clip again.

    好吧,那麼就讓我們再看一次這個片段.

  • This time, I'm not going to talk at all.

    這次,我不準備說話了.

  • There's still going to be no audio,

    依然是沒有聲音,

  • but what I am going to do is I'm going to render the sound

    不過這回我要做的就是讓這個聲音圖像化, 並顯示在銀幕的最底下

  • visually in real time at the bottom of the screen.

    不過這回我要做的就是讓這個聲音圖像化, 並顯示在銀幕的最底下

  • So watch closely and see what your eyes can hear.

    所以呢 更靠近一點看,看看你的眼睛能”聽”到什麼.

  • This is fairly amazing to me.

    這個對我來說非常神奇

  • Even on the first view, your eyes will successfully

    即使看第一次,你的眼睛也會成功的

  • pick out patterns, but on repeated views,

    擷取一些圖案,不過在重複看之後,

  • your brain actually gets better

    你的腦子將圖案轉化為信息能力方面會變得更好

  • at turning these patterns into information.

    你的腦子將圖案轉化為信息能力方面會變得更好

  • You can get the tone and the timbre

    你可以感覺到說話人的語氣和音色

  • and the pace of the speech,

    以及演講的速度,

  • things that you can't get out of closed captioning.

    這些是你從字幕中得不到的東西.

  • That famous scene in horror movies

    恐怖電影中的經典畫面

  • where someone is walking up from behind

    也就是當有人從後面走來時

  • is something you can see,

    變成了你可以看到的東西,

  • and I believe this information would be something

    因此我相信這個東西會成為

  • that is useful at times when the audio is turned off

    當聲音被關掉的時候的一個有用的工具

  • or not heard at all, and I speculate that deaf audiences

    或者根本無法聽到的時候,我還認為耳聾的觀眾

  • might actually even be better

    會比看正常的聽眾更擅長看聲音

  • at seeing sound than hearing audiences.

    會比看正常的聽眾更擅長看聲音

  • I don't know. It's a theory right now.

    我也不太清楚.目前為這只是個理論.

  • Actually, it's all just an idea.

    實際上,這只不過是個想法.

  • And let me end by saying that sound moves in all directions,

    我結束前我說這樣一句話吧:聲音會向所有的方向移動,

  • and so do ideas.

    想法也會。

  • Thank you. (Applause)

    謝謝 (觀眾鼓掌)

Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast

譯者: Chen-Han Hsiao 審譯者: jimi charlie

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 聲音 星星 頻率 圖案 公園

TED】賈裡德-菲克林。看音樂的新方法(有顏色!還有火!)(Jared Ficklin:看音樂的新方法(有顏色!和火!))。 (【TED】Jared Ficklin: New ways to see music (with color! and fire!) (Jared Ficklin: New ways to see music (with color! and fire!)))

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    Zenn 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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