Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast

    譯者: Teresa Chou 審譯者: Regina Chu

  • Openness. It's a word that

    開放,這個名詞

  • denotes opportunity and possibilities.

    代表著機會和潛在的可能性。

  • Open-ended, open hearth,

    開放式的,開放式平爐,

  • open source, open door policy,

    開放原始碼,門戶開放政策,

  • open bar. (Laughter)

    開放酒吧(免費暢飲酒吧), (笑聲)

  • And everywhere the world is opening up,

    世界上的每個角落 都變得更加開放,

  • and it's a good thing.

    這是件好事。

  • Why is this happening?

    這為什麼會發生呢?

  • The technology revolution is opening the world.

    技術革命開放了這個世界。

  • Yesterday's Internet was a platform

    昨天的網際網路

  • for the presentation of content.

    是展示內容的平台。

  • The Internet of today is a platform for computation.

    今天的網際網路是計算的平台。

  • The Internet is becoming a giant

    網際網路成為一個

  • global computer, and every time you go on it,

    巨型的全球電腦,每一次你登錄,

  • you upload a video, you do a Google search,

    你上傳一個影片,你上谷歌搜索,

  • you remix something,

    你就重混了一些東西,

  • you're programming this big global computer

    你在這個大家共享的 巨型全球計算機上

  • that we all share.

    做程式設計。

  • Humanity is building a machine,

    人類正在建造一個機器,

  • and this enables us to collaborate in new ways.

    這使我們能夠用全新的方式合作。

  • Collaboration can occur on

    這種合作可發生在

  • an astronomical basis.

    龐大的基礎上。

  • Now a new generation is opening up the world as well.

    現在新一代正也在開放這個世界

  • I started studying kids about 15 years ago,

    我大概從十五年前起開始研究孩子,

  • -- so actually 20 years ago now --

    事實上,大約 20 年前就開始了。

  • and I noticed how my own children were

    我注意到自己的孩子

  • effortlessly able to use all this sophisticated technology,

    能輕鬆自如地使用這些複雜的科技,

  • and at first I thought,

    一開始我認為

  • "My children are prodigies!" (Laughter)

    「我的孩子是神童!」 (笑聲)

  • But then I noticed all their friends were like them,

    但很快我就發現, 他們的朋友也同樣厲害,

  • so that was a bad theory.

    所以我的理論不成立。

  • So I've started working with a few hundred kids,

    我研究過數百個孩子,

  • and I came to the conclusion

    得出的結論是,

  • that this is the first generation to come of age

    他們是和數位時代同時到來的一代。

  • in the digital age,

    他們沉浸於位元中,

  • to be bathed in bits.

    我稱他們為「網絡一代」

  • I call them the Net Generation.

    我說過,這些孩子是不同的。

  • I said, these kids are different.

    他們不害怕科技, 因為這種害怕並不存在。

  • They have no fear of technology, because it's not there.

    科技對他們就像空氣一樣。

  • It's like the air.

    這也和我不害怕冰箱的道理一樣。

  • It's sort of like, I have no fear of a refrigerator.

    並且—(笑聲)

  • And — (Laughter)

    沒有比第一代數位原住民

  • And there's no more powerful force to change

    更強大的力量可以改變每個機構。

  • every institution than the first generation of digital natives.

    我則屬於數位時代的移民。

  • I'm a digital immigrant.

    我不得不學習這個語言。

  • I had to learn the language.

    全球範圍的經濟危機 也在使這個世界更加開放。

  • The global economic crisis is opening up the world as well.

    從工業時代的不透明體制,

  • Our opaque institutions from the Industrial Age,

    陳舊的公司體制,

  • everything from old models of the corporation,

    到政府、媒體、華爾街,

  • government, media, Wall Street,

    都處於停滯或凍結

  • are in various stages of being stalled or frozen

    甚至是萎縮或崩潰的各個階段,

  • or in atrophy or even failing,

    這樣的危機正在全球 產生「燃燒的平台」效應。

  • and this is now creating a burning platform in the world.

    想想華爾街。

  • I mean, think about Wall Street.

    其核心運作模式

  • The core modus operandi of Wall Street almost brought down

    幾乎讓全球資本市場瀕臨崩潰。

  • global capitalism.

    你們都了解燃燒的平台是什麼意思,

  • Now, you know the idea of a burning platform,

    即保持現狀的成本

  • that you're somewhere where the costs of staying where you are

    高於改變現狀所需的資本,

  • become greater than the costs of moving to something different,

    而這改變或許是徹底不同的改變。

  • perhaps something radically different.

    我們需要改變,

  • And we need to change

    開放我們所有的機構。

  • and open up all of our institutions.

    所以這種科技的推動,

  • So this technology push,

    新世代的驅動,

  • a demographic kick from a new generation

    和來自新全球經濟環境的

  • and a demand pull from a new

    需求推動,

  • economic global environment

    造成全世界的開放。

  • is causing the world to open up.

    現在,我認為,事實上,

  • Now, I think, in fact,

    我們正處於人類歷史的 一個轉折點,

  • we're at a turning point in human history,

    現在我們終於能夠重建

  • where we can finally now rebuild

    許多工業時代的機構,

  • many of the institutions of the Industrial Age

    為它們制定一套新準則。

  • around a new set of principles.

    那,什麼是開放呢?

  • Now, what is openness?

    事實上,開放有許多不同的涵義,

  • Well, as it turns out, openness

    而每一種涵義都有對應的原則,

  • has a number of different meanings,

    與文明的轉變相呼應。

  • and for each there's a corresponding principle

    第一個是合作。

  • for the transformation of

    這種開放對組織的意義就是

  • civilization.

    組織的疆界變得更具滲透性、

  • The first is collaboration.

    靈活、和開放。

  • Now, this is openness in the sense of the boundaries

    圖片中的男士,

  • of organizations becoming more porous and fluid

    我要講述他的故事。

  • and open.

    他名叫羅伯·麥克伊文。

  • The guy in the picture here,

    我很想說,「我有這個智庫,

  • I'll tell you his story.

    在全世界尋找驚人的案例。」

  • His name is Rob McEwen.

    但我知道這個故事的原因是,

  • I'd like to say, "I have this think tank, we scour the world

    他是我的鄰居。(笑聲)

  • for amazing case studies."

    其實他搬到我們家對面,

  • The reason I know this story

    然後他辦了一個 敦請睦鄰的雞尾酒聚會,

  • is because he's my neighbor. (Laughter)

    他說,「你是唐·泰普斯科特。 我讀過很多您的書。」

  • He actually moved across the street from us,

    我說,「很好!你是做什麼工作的?」

  • and he held a cocktail party

    他回答說,「我以前是個銀行家

  • to meet the neighbors, and he says, "You're Don Tapscott.

    而現在我是個金礦工人。」

  • I've read some of your books."

    接著他告訴我了這個驚奇的故事。

  • I said, "Great. What do you do?"

    他接管了這個金礦,而他的地質學家

  • And he says, "Well I used to be a banker

    無法告訴他金子在哪裡。

  • and now I'm a gold miner."

    他給了他們更多的錢研究地質數據,

  • And he tells me this amazing story.

    他們研究之後,依然無法告訴他

  • He takes over this gold mine, and his geologists

    從哪裡開始投產。

  • can't tell him where the gold is.

    幾年之後,他非常沮喪,準備放棄。

  • He gives them more money for geological data,

    但有一天,他靈光一現。

  • they come back, they can't tell

    他想著,「如果我的地質學家 不知道金子在哪裡,

  • him where to go into production.

    也許外面有人會知道。」

  • After a few years, he's so frustrated he's ready

    所以他做了一件 「激進」的事情。

  • to give up, but he has an epiphany one day.

    他把那些地質數據

  • He wonders, "If my geologists don't know where the gold is,

    發佈了出去,然後在網路上 舉辦了一個競賽,

  • maybe somebody else does."

    叫做 「黃金公司大挑戰」。

  • So he does a "radical" thing.

    基本上就是 50 萬美元的獎金

  • He takes his geological data,

    獎勵給任何人,只要他 能夠告訴我,我是否有金子

  • he publishes it and he holds a contest on the Internet

    如果有,在哪裡呢?(笑聲)

  • called the Goldcorp Challenge.

    他收到了來自世界各地的提案。

  • It's basically half a million dollars in prize money

    他們用了一些他從未聽說過的技術,

  • for anybody who can tell me, do I have any gold,

    而他的 50 萬美元的獎金,

  • and if so, where is it? (Laughter)

    為羅伯·麥克伊文找到了 價值 34 億美元的金子。

  • He gets submissions from all around the world.

    他公司的市值

  • They use techniques that he's never heard of,

    從 9000 萬美元暴漲到 100 億美元,

  • and for his half a million dollars in prize money,

    因為他是我的鄰居,我可以告訴你,

  • Rob McEwen finds 3.4 billion dollars worth of gold.

    他非常快樂。(笑聲)

  • The market value of his company

    你知道,大家都說 有才能的人就在公司裡,沒錯吧?

  • goes from 90 million to 10 billion dollars,

    你最寶貴的資產(員工) 每晚都從電梯出去。

  • and I can tell you, because he's my neighbor,

    但他用不同的角度看待有才的人。

  • he's a happy camper. (Laughter)

    他想知道, 能相媲的人是誰?

  • You know, conventional wisdom says talent is inside, right?

    他本可以炒掉他的地質部門, 但是他沒有。

  • Your most precious asset goes out the elevator every night.

    你知道,很多好的提案

  • He viewed talent differently.

    並非出自地質學家。

  • He wondered, who are their peers?

    它們出自電腦科學家,工程師之手。

  • He should have fired his geology department, but he didn't.

    最後的贏家是一個電腦繪圖公司,

  • You know, some of the best submissions

    這家公司製作了金礦的三維模型,

  • didn't come from geologists.

    你可以在電腦模型中上天入地

  • They came from computer scientists, engineers.

    看到金子在哪裡。

  • The winner was a computer graphics company

    他幫助我們理解到社群媒體

  • that built a three dimensional model of the mine

    已經變得具有社會生產力。

  • where you can helicopter underground

    這不只是在網上交交朋友,

  • and see where the gold is.

    這是一種新的生產模式。

  • He helped us understand that social media's becoming

    而他創造的「思想集合」, 一個開放的思想集合市場,

  • social production.

    匯集了有獨特心智的人們,

  • It's not about hooking up online.

    成為變革的一部分,

  • This is a new means of production in the making.

    是組織體系結構中的深遠改變,

  • And this Ideagora that he created, an open market, agora,

    是我們如何協調能力

  • for uniquely qualified minds,

    以創新和創造產品和服務,

  • was part of a change, a profound change in the deep structure

    與世界的其他地區交流,

  • and architecture of our organizations,

    就政府而言, 是我們如何創造公共價值。

  • and how we sort of orchestrate capability to innovate,

    開放是為了合作。

  • to create goods and services,

    第二個,開放是為了透明化。

  • to engage with the rest of the world,

    這是不同的。我們在討論

  • in terms of government, how we create public value.

    組織內利害關係人間信息的交流:

  • Openness is about collaboration.

    僱員、顧客、商業夥伴、股東等等。

  • Now secondly, openness is about transparency.

    在任何地方,我們的機構暴露無遺。

  • This is different. Here, we're talking about the communication

    大家都被維基洩密弄得不成人形,

  • of pertinent information to stakeholders of organizations:

    但是這只是冰山一角。

  • employees, customers, business partners, shareholders,

    你看,大家都瞭若指掌,每個人,

  • and so on.

    而不只是阿桑奇, (維基解密的董事與發言人)

  • And everywhere, our institutions are becoming naked.

    都有有力的工具發掘信息,

  • People are all bent out of shape about WikiLeaks,

    仔細檢查,通知大家,

  • but that's just the tip of the iceberg.

    甚至組織集體反應。

  • You see, people at their fingertips now, everybody,

    機構變得赤裸裸呈現,

  • not just Julian Assange,

    如果你也想赤裸裸呈現,

  • have these powerful tools for finding out what's going on,

    嗯,是有一些從其而來的必然推論。

  • scrutinizing, informing others,

    我是說,比如,

  • and even organizing collective responses.

    健身不再可有可無。(笑聲)

  • Institutions are becoming naked,

    對吧?或是如果你想裸體, 你最好好好鍛鍊一下肌肉。

  • and if you're going to be naked,

    這裡,我所謂的鍛鍊, 是說你需要有價值,

  • well, there's some corollaries that flow from that.

    因為價值前所未見地明顯。

  • I mean, one is,

    你自稱你有好的產品。 那麼最好是真的好產品。

  • fitness is no longer optional. (Laughter)

    但你同樣需要有價值。

  • You know? Or if you're going to be naked, you'd better get buff.

    你需要讓正直誠實成為

  • Now, by buff I mean, you need to have good value,

    組織的骨頭及基因,

  • because value is evidenced like never before.

    如果你不這樣做, 你就無法建立信任,

  • You say you have good products.

    而信任,是這個新的 網路世界的必要條件。

  • They'd better be good.

    這挺好的,沒什麼壞處。

  • But you also need to have values.

    陽光是最好的消毒劑。

  • You need to have integrity as part of your bones

    而我們需要很多陽光 來清潔這個藏汙納垢的世界。

  • and your DNA as an organization,

    開放的第三個意義和與其對應的原則

  • because if you don't, you'll be unable to build trust,

    就是分享。

  • and trust is a sine qua non of this new network world.

    這個與透明化也不同。

  • So this is good. It's not bad.

    透明化是關於信息的交流。

  • Sunlight is the best disinfectant.

    分享是放棄一些資產,智慧財產權。

  • And we need a lot of sunlight in this troubled world.

    有很多相關的著名故事。

  • Now, the third meaning and corresponding principle

    IBM (國際商用機器) 送了價值四億美元的軟體

  • of openness is about sharing.

    讓 Linux (開放核心) 系統運動發展,

  • Now this is different than transparency.

    而得到了幾十億美元的收益 。

  • Transparency is about the communication of information.

    常言道,

  • Sharing is about giving up assets, intellectual property.

    「嗯,我們的智慧財產權屬於我們,

  • And there are all kinds of famous stories about this.

    如果有人想要侵權,

  • IBM gave away 400 million dollars of software

    我們就會找我們的律師, 然後起訴侵權者。」

  • to the Linux movement, and that gave them

    唱片公司如此做也沒成功,對吧?

  • a multi-billion dollar payoff.

    我是說, 他們- 他們有技術中斷的問題,

  • Now, conventional wisdom says,

    但他們不採取商業模式創新 來作為對應,

  • "Well, hey, our intellectual property belongs to us,

    反而尋求法律途徑,

  • and if someone tries to infringe it, we're going to get out

    而這個帶給你貓王和披頭四的行業

  • our lawyers and we're going to sue them."

    現在正在起訴兒童,

  • Well, it didn't work so well for the record labels, did it?

    並且岌岌可危。

  • I mean, they tookThey had a technology disruption,

    所以我們需要換個角度 來思考智慧財產權。

  • and rather than taking a business model innovation

    我來告訴你一個事例。

  • to correspond to that, they took and sought a legal solution

    製藥界現在深陷困境。

  • and the industry that brought you Elvis and the Beatles

    第一,這個行業搞不出什麼新藥了,

  • is now suing children

    這對於人類健康來說是個大問題,

  • and is in danger of collapse.

    而製藥業還有更大的問題,

  • So we need to think differently about intellectual property.

    他們就快要墜入 所謂的「專利懸崖」裡。

  • I'll give you an example.

    你們知道這意味著什麼嗎?

  • The pharmaceutical industry is in deep trouble.

    他們會在接下來的 12 個月中

  • First of all, there aren't a lot of big inventions

    失去 20% 到 35% 的收入。

  • in the pipeline, and this is a big problem for human health,

    那你要怎麼辦?

  • and the pharmaceutical industry has got a bigger problem,

    減少迴紋針之類的支出?不是的。

  • that they're about to fall off something

    我們需要改造整個科研體系。

  • called the patent cliff.

    製藥界需要把他們的資產變成公有財。

  • Do you know about this?

    同業需要開始分享 市場競爭前的研究。

  • They're going to lose 20 to 35 percent of their revenue

    他們需要開始共享

  • in the next 12 months.

    臨床試驗數據,

  • And what are you going to do,

    這樣做,可以讓各方受益,

  • like, cut back on paper clips or something? No.

    不僅僅是為了醫藥行業,

  • We need to reinvent the whole model of scientific research.

    也是為了人類。

  • The pharmaceutical industry needs to place assets

    第四個開放的意義

  • in a commons. They need to start sharing precompetitive research.

    和與之對應的原則

  • They need to start sharing

    是賦權。

  • clinical trial data,

    我不是說母親自主權之類的意思。

  • and in doing so, create a rising tide that could lift all boats,

    知識和智慧就是力量,

  • not just for the industry but

    因為力量已經更加分散,

  • for humanity.

    隨之而來式的權力分配

  • Now, the fourth meaning

    和權力去集中化和去集體化

  • of openness,

    都在世界各地進行。

  • and corresponding principle, is about empowerment.

    開放的世界帶來自由。

  • And I'm not talking about the motherhood sense here.

    現在我們以阿拉伯之春為例。

  • Knowledge and intelligence is power,

    有關社群媒體的角色的辯論

  • and as it becomes more distributed, there's a

    與社會變化已經塵埃落定了。

  • concomitant distribution

    你知道,一個字,突尼西亞。

  • and decentralization and disaggregation of power

    它最後也演變成其他許多字。

  • that's underway in the world today.

    但在突尼西亞革命,

  • The open world is bringing freedom.

    新的媒體並沒有引發革命;

  • Now, take the Arab Spring.

    它是由不公平引起的。

  • The debate about the role of social media

    社群媒體沒有引起革命;

  • and social change has been settled.

    革命是由年輕人的一代引起的,

  • You know, one word: Tunisia.

    他們要求工作機會、希望

  • And then it ended up having a whole bunch of other words too.

    他們不想再被當成唯命是從的愚民。

  • But in the Tunisian revolution,

    但是如同網路降低交易費用

  • the new media didn't cause the revolution;

    和商業與政府相互合作的成本,

  • it was caused by injustice.

    它同時降低了異議者和叛變者的成本,

  • Social media didn't create the revolution;

    甚至暴動的成本,

  • it was created by a new generation of young people

    是大家原來並不瞭解的。

  • who wanted jobs and hope and

    你知道,在突尼西亞革命時,

  • who didn't want to be treated as subjects anymore.

    與政權有關聯的狙擊手在街上

  • But just as the Internet drops transaction and collaboration

    殺害手無寸鐵的學生。