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  • It is actually a reality today

    譯者: Chen-Han Hsiao 審譯者: Dennis Guo

  • that you can download products from the Web --

    今日的現實

  • product data, I should say, from the Web --

    就是各位可以從網路下載產品

  • perhaps tweak it and personalize it

    或應該說是產品的資料

  • to your own preference or your own taste,

    然後修改 加以個人化

  • and have that information sent

    以符合你的個人的喜好或口味

  • to a desktop machine

    並將這份資訊

  • that will fabricate it for you on the spot.

    傳送到到一部桌上型機器

  • We can actually build for you,

    替你當場做出實物

  • very rapidly,

    就是說 我們實際上

  • a physical object.

    可以快速地

  • And the reason we can do this

    為你做出實物

  • is through an emerging technology

    我們仰賴的

  • called additive manufacturing,

    是一種新興科技

  • or 3D printing.

    稱作添加式製造

  • This is a 3D printer.

    或3D列印

  • They have been around

    這是一台3D打印機

  • for almost 30 years now,

    這種機器

  • which is quite amazing to think of,

    已經出現將近30年了

  • but they're only just starting

    這點還蠻讓人訝異的

  • to filter into the public arena.

    因為它們最近

  • And typically, you would take data,

    才開始滲透入公共領域的應用

  • like the data of a pen here,

    通常的用法是把資料

  • which would be a geometric representation of that product in 3D,

    像這些筆的資料

  • and we would pass that data with material

    就是這些產品在三度空間中的幾何呈現數據

  • into a machine.

    把這些資料連同原料

  • And a process that would happen in the machine

    一起傳送給機器

  • would mean layer by layer that product would be built.

    機器裡的製造過程

  • And we can take out the physical product,

    就是一層一層地建構這項產品

  • and ready to use,

    當我們把實體的產品拿出來

  • or to, perhaps, assemble into something else.

    就可以直接使用

  • But if these machines have been around for almost 30 years,

    或是把它組裝成其他東西

  • why don't we know about them?

    不過 如果這種機器已經存在將近30年之久

  • Because typically they've been too inefficient,

    為什麼我們對它一無所知?

  • inaccessible,

    因為這種機器非常沒有效率

  • they've not been fast enough,

    難以取得

  • they've been quite expensive.

    速度不夠快

  • But today,

    又很昂貴

  • it is becoming a reality

    但是今天

  • that they are now becoming successful.

    這種機器已經逐漸

  • Many barriers are breaking down.

    變得越來越成功

  • That means that you guys

    我們已經突破許多障礙

  • will soon be able to access one of these machines,

    這表示 在座各位

  • if not this minute.

    很快可以有機會使用這種機器

  • And it will change and disrupt

    就算不是此時此刻

  • the landscape of manufacturing,

    而這會改變和瓦解

  • and most certainly our lives, our businesses

    現有的製造格局

  • and the lives of our children.

    影響我們的生活,我們的商業

  • So how does it work?

    和孩子的生活

  • It typically reads CAD data,

    可是這是怎樣達成的呢?

  • which is a product design data

    它經由讀取CAD(電腦輔助設計)資訊

  • created on professional product design programs.

    一種產品設計資料

  • And here you can see an engineer --

    由專業的產品設計軟體產生

  • it could be an architect or it could be a professional product designer --

    而這裡你看以看到一名工程師 --

  • create a product in 3D.

    也可能是一名建築師,或者是一名產品設計師 --

  • And this data gets sent to a machine

    設計了一個3D的產品

  • that slices the data

    這個資料輸送到一個機器

  • into two-dimensional representations of that product

    將數據“切片”

  • all the way through --

    把這個產品進行整體的

  • almost like slicing it like salami.

    二維分解

  • And that data, layer by layer, gets passed through the machine,

    就像切香腸一樣

  • starting at the base of the product

    這些資料,分層通過機器

  • and depositing material, layer upon layer,

    從產品底部開始

  • infusing the new layer of materials to the old layer

    一層一層的澆注材料

  • in an additive process.

    使用加成工藝讓上一層的材料

  • And this material that's deposited

    不斷滲入下一層

  • either starts as a liquid form

    這種澆注材料

  • or a material powder form.

    最開始可能是液體狀

  • And the bonding process can happen

    也可能是粉末狀

  • by either melting and depositing or depositing then melting.

    而粘合工藝的原理

  • In this case, we can see a laser sintering machine developed by EOS.

    可以是先融化再澆注,也可以是先澆注再融化

  • It's actually using a laser

    在這個例子裡 我們看到的是EOS開發的鐳射燒結機

  • to fuse the new layer of material to the old layer.

    它利用鐳射

  • And over time --

    將新加層的材料熔接到前一層

  • quite rapidly actually, in a number of hours --

    經過一段時間 --

  • we can build a physical product,

    其實很快,也就是幾個小時 --

  • ready to take out of the machine and use.

    我們就可以做出實物

  • And this is quite an extraordinary idea,

    拿出機器并投入使用

  • but it is reality today.

    這想法很棒

  • So all these products that you can see on the screen

    並已成為現實

  • were made in the same way.

    你們在螢幕上見到的

  • They were all 3D printed.

    都是用同樣方法做出來的

  • And you can see,

    3D列印的產物

  • they're ranging from shoes,

    可以看到

  • rings that were made out of stainless steal,

    它可以做出鞋子

  • phone covers out of plastic,

    不銹鋼制的戒指

  • all the way through to spinal implants, for example,

    塑膠的手機殼

  • that were created out of medical-grade titanium,

    以及採用醫用鈦製成的

  • and engine parts.

    脊柱植入物

  • But what you'll notice about all of these products

    還有引擎零件

  • is they're very, very intricate.

    請注意 所有這些產品

  • The design is quite extraordinary.

    都非常非常複雜

  • Because we're taking this data in 3D form,

    有著令人驚歎的設計

  • slicing it up before it gets past the machine,

    因為我們使用的是3D形式的資料

  • we can actually create structures

    在製作前全部分解

  • that are more intricate

    我們可以創造出

  • than any other manufacturing technology --

    極其複雜的結構

  • or, in fact, are impossible to build in any other way.

    比現有的任何一種製造技術都複雜

  • And you can create parts with moving components,

    事實上,採用其他技術都無法做出如此複雜的結構

  • hinges, parts within parts.

    你可以做出帶有移動元件的零件

  • So in some cases, we can abolish totally

    鉸鏈,層層嵌套的零件

  • the need for manual labor.

    在某些例子裡,我們可以完全摒棄

  • It sounds great.

    手工的需要

  • It is great.

    聽起來很棒

  • We can have 3D printers today

    而它的確很棒

  • that build structures like these.

    今天的3D打印機

  • This is almost three meters high.

    可以做出這樣的結構

  • And this was built

    這個差不多有3米高

  • by depositing artificial sandstone layer upon layer

    它是由

  • in layers of about five millimeters to 10 mm in thickness --

    層層澆注人工砂岩

  • slowly growing this structure.

    每層5到10毫米厚

  • This was created by an architectural firm called Shiro.

    慢慢生成的一個結構

  • And you can actually walk into it.

    這是Shiro建築師事務所的作品

  • And on the other end of the spectrum,

    人們可以走到裡面去

  • this is a microstructure.

    而在另一個極端

  • It's created depositing layers

    這是一個微縮結構

  • of about four microns.

    這裡的澆注層

  • So really the resolution is quite incredible.

    只有大約4微米

  • The detail that you can get today

    這個精細度是很驚人的

  • is quite amazing.

    今天所能做出的細節

  • So who's using it?

    是很驚人的

  • Typically, because we can create products very rapidly,

    那麼誰在用呢?

  • it's been used by product designers,

    一般來說,因為它能快速製作產品

  • or anyone who wanted to prototype a product

    所以產品設計師是常用者

  • and very quickly create or reiterate a design.

    另外就是任何想製作產品模型

  • And actually what's quite amazing about this technology as well

    並且需要快速製作或複製設計的人

  • is that you can create bespoke products en masse.

    這項科技的另一個驚人之處

  • There's very little economies of scale.

    就是你可以對個性化產品進行一次性成型

  • So you can now create one-offs very easily.

    這樣它的規模效應很小

  • Architects, for example,

    你也能輕鬆地做出一次性設計

  • they want to create prototypes of buildings.

    譬如建築師

  • Again you can see,

    他們要做建築模型

  • this is a building of the Free University in Berlin

    你們看到的

  • and it was designed by Foster and Partners.

    是柏林自由大學的一幢建築

  • Again, not buildable in any other way.

    由福斯特建築事務所設計

  • And very hard to even create this by hand.

    它無法由(除3D列印之外的)其他技術實現

  • Now this is an engine component.

    既是是手工製作也很困難

  • It was developed by a company called Within Technologies

    這是一個引擎部件

  • and 3T RPD.

    由Within技術公司

  • It's very, very, very detailed

    與3T RPD公司開發

  • inside with the design.

    它有非常精細的

  • Now 3D printing

    內部設計

  • can break away barriers in design

    3D列印

  • which challenge the constraints

    能打破設計的藩籬

  • of mass production.

    這大大挑戰了

  • If we slice into this product which is actually sitting here,

    工業生產的限制

  • you can see that it has a number of cooling channels pass through it,

    如果我們把這裡的產品剖開來

  • which means it's a more efficient product.

    可以看到這裡有數條貫穿的冷卻管道

  • You can't create this with standard manufacturing techniques

    這說明這個產品效率更高

  • even if you tried to do it manually.

    你無法用標準的製造技術來實現它們

  • It's more efficient

    完全手工也不行

  • because we can now create all these cavities within the object

    它效率更高的原因便是

  • that cool fluid.

    因為我們可以製造物體內的所有用來冷卻液體

  • And it's used by aerospace

    的腔體

  • and automotive.

    它現在被使用於航空航天

  • It's a lighter part

    和汽車工業

  • and it uses less material waste.

    它很輕

  • So it's overall performance and efficiency

    生產廢料也很少

  • just exceeds standard mass produced products.

    總的來說 相比於標準的量產品

  • And then taking this idea

    它很可行也具有更高效率

  • of creating a very detailed structure,

    運用這項技術

  • we can apply it to honeycomb structures

    我們可以做出其它很細節的結構

  • and use them within implants.

    我們可以做出蜂窩結構

  • Typically an implant

    用於植入體內

  • is more effective within the body

    一般來說

  • if it's more porous,

    植入體有越多孔洞

  • because our body tissue will grow into it.

    它就越有效

  • There's a lower chance of rejection.

    這是因為身體組織可以長在裡面

  • But it's very hard to create that in standard ways.

    減少被排斥的機會

  • With 3D printing,

    但是 如果用傳統方法 這是非常困難的。

  • we're seeing today

    利用3D列印技術

  • that we can create much better implants.

    我們可以看到

  • And in fact, because we can create

    它能夠做出更好的植入體

  • bespoke products en masse, one-offs,

    實際上 由於我們可以打造

  • we can create implants

    客製化、一次性的產品

  • that are specific to individuals.

    我們可以特地打造

  • So as you can see,

    專屬于個人的植入體

  • this technology and the quality of what comes out of the machines is fantastic.

    你可以看到

  • And we're starting to see it being used

    這些技術以及利用其做出來的產品都是非常了不起的

  • for final end products.

    現在我們來看

  • And in fact, as the detail is improving,

    它能做出的最終產品

  • the quality is improving,

    實際上 隨著細節的提高

  • the price of the machines are falling

    以及質量的提高

  • and they're becoming quicker.

    3D印表機價格也正在降低

  • They're also now small enough

    并能越來越快的做出產品

  • to sit on a desktop.

    現在它們已經足夠小到

  • You can buy a machine today for about $300

    可以放到桌子上面

  • that you can create yourself,

    今天你只需要花上300美元

  • which is quite incredible.

    便可以買一個3D印表機來自己做產品

  • But then it begs the question,

    這是很不可思議的

  • why don't we all have one in our home?

    現在有人就會問

  • Because, simply, most of us here today

    為什麼我們不能自己在家裡有一個呢?

  • don't know how to create the data

    因為 簡單的說 在場的各位

  • that a 3D printer reads.

    不知道如何做出

  • If I gave you a 3D printer,

    3D打印機能讀取的數據

  • you wouldn't know how to direct it

    如果我給你一個3D打印機

  • to make what you want it to.

    你會不知道如何指導它

  • But there are more and more

    做出你想要的東西

  • technologies, software and processes today

    現在 技術的進步

  • that are breaking down those barriers.

    越來越多的軟體

  • I believe we're at a tipping point

    正在打破這些障礙

  • where this is now something

    我相信現在

  • that we can't avoid.

    正位於一個轉折點

  • This technology

    我們無法忽視它

  • is really going to disrupt

    這項技術,

  • the landscape of manufacturing

    正在重塑

  • and, I believe, cause a revolution

    製造業的佈局

  • in manufacturing.

    我相信,3D列印會引發

  • So today,

    製造業的革新。

  • you can download products from the Web --

    今天,

  • anything you would have on your desktop,

    你可以從網路上下載你想要的產品

  • like pens, whistles, lemon squeezers.

    任何你想要的

  • You can use software like Google SketchUp

    像鉛筆,口哨,檸檬榨汁機等

  • to create products from scratch

    你可以利用像Google SketchUp的軟體

  • very easily.

    很容易的

  • 3D printing can be also used

    做出這些產品

  • to download spare parts from the Web.

    3D列印也可以用來

  • So imagine you have, say,

    從網路上下載備用零件

  • a Hoover in your home

    想像一下

  • and it has broken down. You need a spare part,

    某天你的吸塵器壞了

  • but you realize that Hoover's been discontinued.

    你需要一個備用零件

  • Can you imagine going online --

    但是發現,Hoover已經停產了

  • this is a reality --

    想像一下 你可以直接去網路上 --

  • and finding that spare part

    這已成為現實 --

  • from a database of geometries

    在停產的數據庫中

  • of that discontinued product

    找到這個備用零件

  • and downloading that information, that data,

    找到這個備用零件

  • and having the product made for you at home,

    下載關於這個產品的信息

  • ready to use, on your demand?

    并在家裡把它做出來

  • And in fact, because we can create spare parts

    並且馬上在你需要時就能用

  • with things the machines

    實際上 因為我們可以做出備用零件

  • are quite literally making themselves.

    這些機器

  • You're having machines fabricate themselves.

    其實可以做出它們自己

  • These are parts of a RepRap machine,

    機器可以自我複製

  • which is a kind of desktop printer.

    這些是RepRap機器的零件

  • But what interests my company the most

    它是一種桌上打印機

  • is the fact that you can create

    但我們公司特別感興趣的是

  • individual unique products en masse.

    你可以做出屬於你

  • There's no need to do a run

    獨一無二的東西

  • of thousands of millions

    你不需要做出

  • or send that product to be injection molded in China.

    成千上萬個

  • You can just make it physically on the spot.

    也不需要把零件送去中國組裝

  • Which means

    你可以當場就做出來

  • that we can now present to the public

    這意味著

  • the next generation of customization.

    我們可以向大眾展示

  • This is something that is now possible today,

    新一代的客戶訂製

  • that you can direct personally

    有一部分現在已經成為可能

  • how you