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  • This is a representation of your brain,

    譯者: Joan Liu 審譯者: Ana Choi

  • and your brain can be broken into two parts.

    這是一個代表你大腦的圖像。

  • There's the left half, which is the logical side,

    而你的大腦可以分成兩個部分。

  • and then the right half,

    左半邊,這是掌控邏輯的一邊,

  • which is the intuitive.

    然後是右半邊,

  • And so if we had a scale to measure the aptitude of each hemisphere,

    它掌控直覺。

  • then we can plot our brain.

    所以如果我們有一個尺度去衡量這兩邊,

  • And for example, this would be somebody who's completely logical.

    那麼我們可以繪製我們的大腦。

  • This would be someone who's entirely intuitive.

    譬如,這是一個完全靠邏輯的人的大腦。

  • So where would you put your brain on this scale?

    這個人是完全直觀。

  • Some of us may have opted for one of these extremes,

    那麼,你會把你的大腦放在這個尺上的哪裡?

  • but I think for most people in the audience,

    有些人可能會選擇其中一個極端,

  • your brain is something like this --

    但我認為,對大多數在台下的人,

  • with a high aptitude in both hemispheres at the same time.

    你們的大腦是這樣的 --

  • It's not like they're mutually exclusive or anything.

    兩個腦半球同時有著很高的潛力。

  • You can be logical and intuitive.

    不是說它們會互相排斥或什麼的。

  • And so I consider myself one of these people,

    你可以既理性又感性。

  • along with most of the other experimental quantum physicists,

    我自認為是一個和很多

  • who need a good deal of logic

    其他的量子物理學家一樣,

  • to string together these complex ideas.

    有很好的邏輯思維

  • But at the same time, we need a good deal of intuition

    能把這些複雜的想法串連起來。

  • to actually make the experiments work.

    但同時,我們也需要很好的直覺

  • How do we develop this intuition? Well we like to play with stuff.

    讓實驗能切實的進行下去。

  • So we go out and play with it, and then we see how it acts,

    我們如何啟發這種直覺呢?嗯,我們喜歡研究東西。

  • and then we develop our intuition from there.

    所以我們會去研究東西,然後我們會看它怎麼反應。

  • And really you do the same thing.

    接著我們從中提升我們的直覺力。

  • So some intuition

    實際上你也做同樣的事情。

  • that you may have developed over the years

    所以有一些直覺,

  • is that one thing is only in one place at a time.

    你可能培養了很多年,

  • I mean, it can sound weird to think about

    像一個事物只能同時出現在一個方位。

  • one thing being in two different places at the same time,

    我的意思是,這聽起來很奇怪去考慮

  • but you weren't born with this notion, you developed it.

    一個事物可以同時出現在兩個不同的地方,

  • And I remember watching a kid playing on a car stop.

    但是你不是天生就有這種概念,你是後天培養的。

  • He was just a toddler and he wasn't very good at it, and he kept falling over.

    我記得看到過一個小孩在阻車器上玩。

  • But I bet playing with this car stop taught him a really valuable lesson,

    他還只是個小朋友,而且非常不擅長玩這個,他一直摔倒。

  • and that's that large things don't let you get right past them,

    但是我打賭跟阻車器玩耍給他上了很有價值的一課,

  • and that they stay in one place.

    就是大型的物體不會輕易的讓你穿過,

  • And so this is a great conceptual model to have of the world,

    而且它們停留在一個地方。

  • unless you're a particle physicist.

    這是世上擁有的一個很具備概念性的模型,

  • It'd be a terrible model for a particle physicist,

    除非你是粒子物理學家。

  • because they don't play with car stops,

    對於粒子物理學家這會是一個很糟糕的模型,

  • they play with these little weird particles.

    因為他們不研究阻車器,

  • And when they play with their particles,

    他們研究那些很小的奇怪微粒。

  • they find they do all sorts of really weird things --

    當他們研究這些微粒的時候,

  • like they can fly right through walls,

    他們發現他們都在做各種很奇怪的事情--

  • or they can be in two different places at the same time.

    比如他們能穿牆,

  • And so they wrote down all these observations,

    或者他們能同時出現在兩個地方。

  • and they called it the theory of quantum mechanics.

    他們寫下這些觀察記錄,

  • And so that's where physics was at a few years ago;

    然後他們把它起名為量子力學理論。

  • you needed quantum mechanics

    而幾年前的物理學就是這樣;

  • to describe little, tiny particles.

    你需要量子​​力學

  • But you didn't need it

    來描述細小,微小的粒子。

  • to describe the large, everyday objects around us.

    但是你不需要

  • This didn't really sit well with my intuition,

    它來描述那些巨大的、生活周遭的尋常物體。

  • and maybe it's just because I don't play with particles very often.

    這並不是很符合我的直覺認知,

  • Well, I play with them sometimes,

    也許只是因為我不太時常研究微粒的緣故吧。

  • but not very often.

    我有時候也會玩這些,

  • And I've never seen them.

    但不是常常。

  • I mean, nobody's ever seen a particle.

    而且我從來沒有看過他們。

  • But it didn't sit well with my logical side either.

    我的意思是,沒有人看過這些微粒。

  • Because if everything is made up of little particles

    但這跟我的理性不大相符。

  • and all the little particles

    因為如果所有東西都是由微小微粒組成的

  • follow quantum mechanics,

    而且所有微粒

  • then shouldn't everything just follow quantum mechanics?

    都遵守量子力學,

  • I don't see any reason why it shouldn't.

    那不是所有東西都應該符合量子力學嗎?

  • And so I'd feel a lot better about the whole thing

    我看不出為什麼不會。

  • if we could somehow show

    所以我覺得

  • that an everyday object

    如果能夠讓

  • also follows quantum mechanics.

    周遭所有東西都遵守量子物理

  • So a few years ago, I set off to do just that.

    會讓我覺得更好過一點。

  • So I made one.

    所以在幾年前,我開始這麼做。

  • This is the first object

    所以我製造了一個東西。

  • that you can see

    這是第一個

  • that has been in a mechanical quantum superposition.

    你可以看得見

  • So what we're looking at here

    且可以表現得如量子力學解釋那樣。

  • is a tiny computer chip.

    所以我們這裡看到的是

  • And you can sort of see this green dot right in the middle.

    一個很小的電腦晶片。

  • And that's this piece of metal I'm going to be talking about in a minute.

    而且你可以稍微看到這中間的綠點。

  • This is a photograph of the object.

    那就是我接下來要講的金屬。

  • And here I'll zoom in a little bit. We're looking right there in the center.

    這是這個物件的照片。

  • And then here's a really, really big close-up of the little piece of metal.

    放大一些看。我們現在看到的是在正中間。

  • So what we're looking at is a little chunk of metal,

    這是非常非常接近地看這塊小金屬。

  • and it's shaped like a diving board, and it's sticking out over a ledge.

    所以我們看到的是這塊小金屬,

  • And so I made this thing

    它的形狀像潛水板,而且它的周圍稍微凸出一些。

  • in nearly the same way as you make a computer chip.

    我用製造電腦晶片幾乎一樣的手法

  • I went into a clean room with a fresh silicon wafer,

    製作這個東西。

  • and then I just cranked away at all the big machines for about 100 hours.

    我拿一個矽晶圓進到一個無塵室,

  • For the last stuff, I had to build my own machine --

    然後跟那些機器工作了大約一百個小時。

  • to make this swimming pool-shaped hole

    在最後的時候,我自己做了一個機器

  • underneath the device.

    來製造下方這個

  • This device has the ability

    游泳池形狀的洞。

  • to be in a quantum superposition,

    這個器具

  • but it needs a little help to do it.

    可以在量子的形態存在,

  • Here, let me give you an analogy.

    但它需要經過一些加工。

  • You know how uncomfortable it is to be in a crowded elevator?

    現在,讓我給你們一個比喻。

  • I mean, when I'm in an elevator all alone, I do all sorts of weird things,

    像是在很擠的電梯裡會感到不適,

  • but then other people get on board

    我的意思是,當我自己一個人在電梯時,我會做很多奇怪的事,

  • and I stop doing those things

    但當有其它人進到電梯時,

  • because I don't want to bother them,

    我停止做這些事,

  • or, frankly, scare them.

    因為我不想要打擾他們,

  • So quantum mechanics says

    或是說嚇壞他們。

  • that inanimate objects feel the same way.

    所以量子力學說,

  • The fellow passengers for inanimate objects

    無生命物體也這麼認為。

  • are not just people,

    對無生命物體來說,

  • but it's also the light shining on it

    乘客不只是人,

  • and the wind blowing past it and the heat of the room.

    也包括了光源、

  • And so we knew, if we wanted to see

    風和房間裡的熱。

  • this piece of metal behave quantum mechanically,

    所以我們知道,如果我們想要看

  • we're going to have to kick out all the other passengers.

    這塊金屬以量子力學的方式呈現,

  • And so that's what we did.

    我們需要把所有乘客都趕出去。

  • We turned off the lights,

    我們就是這麼做的。

  • and then we put it in a vacuum and sucked out all the air,

    我們把燈關掉,

  • and then we cooled it down

    然後用吸塵器把氣體吸掉,

  • to just a fraction of a degree above absolute zero.

    然後讓它冷卻

  • Now, all alone in the elevator,

    至比絕對零度高好幾分之一的溫度。

  • the little chunk of metal is free to act however it wanted.

    現在,自己一個在電梯裡,

  • And so we measured its motion.

    這個小金屬可以做任意的事。

  • We found it was moving in really weird ways.

    所以我們量測它的活動。

  • Instead of just sitting perfectly still, it was vibrating,

    我們發現它以奇怪的方式運動。

  • and the way it was vibrating was breathing something like this --

    它沒有靜止不動,而是在震動。

  • like expanding and contracting bellows.

    而且它震動的方式是有點像這樣的:

  • And by giving it a gentle nudge,

    像是吸氣吐氣的風箱。

  • we were able to make it both vibrate

    當我們給它一點能量,

  • and not vibrate

    我們能夠使它同時震動

  • at the same time --

    及不震動

  • something that's only allowed with quantum mechanics.

    在同一時間 --

  • So what I'm telling you here is something truly fantastic.

    這只有在量子物理中是被容許的。

  • What does it mean for one thing

    所以我在這裡告訴大家的這是一件真的奇妙的事情。

  • to be both vibrating and not vibrating

    一個東西

  • at the same time?

    的同時在震動也不震動,

  • So let's think about the atoms.

    這是什麼意思?

  • So in one case:

    讓我們考慮一下原子。

  • all the trillions of atoms that make up that chunk of metal

    舉例而言:

  • are sitting still

    所有萬億個形成金屬片的原子

  • and at the same time those same atoms

    正保持靜止狀態

  • are moving up and down.

    然後在此同時,同樣的這些原子

  • Now it's only at precise times when they align.

    正在上下移動。

  • The rest of the time they're delocalized.

    只有在特定精確時間,它們是一致的。

  • That means that every atom

    餘下的時間它們則是不定域的。

  • is in two different places at the same time,

    這意味著每個原子

  • which in turn means the entire chunk of metal

    在同一時間在兩個不同的地方,

  • is in two different places.

    進一步說明整個金屬片

  • I think this is really cool.

    在兩個位置。

  • (Laughter)

    我認為這真的很酷。

  • Really.

    (笑聲)

  • (Applause)

    真的。

  • It was worth locking myself in a clean room to do this for all those years

    (鼓掌)

  • because, check this out,

    我這些年把自己鎖在無菌室所做的事都是值得的。

  • the difference in scale

    因為,看看這個,

  • between a single atom and that chunk of metal

    一個原子和一塊小金屬

  • is about the same as the difference

    在尺度上的不同

  • between that chunk of metal and you.

    就跟你和這塊小金屬的不同

  • So if a single atom can be in two different places at the same time,

    差不多。

  • that chunk of metal can be in two different places,

    所以如果一個原子可以同時在兩個地方,

  • then why not you?

    那塊金屬可以同時在兩個地方,

  • I mean, this is just my logical side talking.

    那為什麼你不能?

  • So imagine if you're in multiple places at the same time,

    我的意思是,這只是我的合理推測。

  • what would that be like?

    所以想像你可以同時在不同的地方,

  • How would your consciousness

    那會是怎麼樣的呢?

  • handle your body being delocalized in space?

    你的意識

  • There's one more part to the story.

    能夠接受你同時在不同地方嗎?

  • It's when we warmed it up,

    這個故事還有另一個部份。

  • and we turned on the lights and looked inside the box,

    就是當我們給這個東西加熱,

  • we saw that the piece metal was still there in one piece.

    且我們把燈打開來看這個盒子裡面,

  • And so I had to develop this new intuition,

    我們看到那塊金屬還是在那裡的。

  • that it seems like all the objects in the elevator

    所以我必須發展另一個直覺,

  • are really just quantum objects

    就是看起來像是電梯裡所有的東西

  • just crammed into a tiny space.

    都是量子物體,

  • You hear a lot of talk

    只是放在一個狹小的空間裡。

  • about how quantum mechanics says that everything is all interconnected.

    你們聽過很多說法

  • Well, that's not quite right.

    說量子力學是在說每個東西都有交互作用。

  • It's more than that; it's deeper.

    這並不是完全正確的;

  • It's that those connections,

    應該說,是更深奧的。

  • your connections to all the things around you,

    是這些交互作用,

  • literally define who you are,

    你和你周圍東西的交互作用,

  • and that's the profound weirdness of quantum mechanics.

    事實上定義著你。

  • Thank you.

    而這正是量子力學奇怪的地方。

  • (Applause)

    謝謝。

This is a representation of your brain,

譯者: Joan Liu 審譯者: Ana Choi

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 量子 力學 金屬 微粒 原子

TED】Aaron O'Connell:讓一個可見的量子物體有意義(Aaron O'Connell:Making sense of a visible quantum object)。 (【TED】Aaron O'Connell: Making sense of a visible quantum object (Aaron O'Connell: Making sense of a visible quantum object))

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    Zenn 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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