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  • I am passionate about the American landscape

    譯者: Chiru Chang 審譯者: Sunny Kan Ngai Hang

  • and how the physical form of the land,

    我熱愛美國景觀

  • from the great Central Valley of California

    還有地形

  • to the bedrock of Manhattan,

    從加州的中央谷地

  • has really shaped our history and our character.

    到曼哈頓的岩盤

  • But one thing is clear.

    他們如何的形塑了我們的歷史與特質

  • In the last 100 years alone,

    不過,我們可以非常清楚的看到

  • our country -- and this is a sprawl map of America --

    在過去的100年裡

  • our country has systematically

    我們的國家 -- 這張地圖顯示了美國城市的擴張

  • flattened and homogenized the landscape

    我們的國家已經有系統的

  • to the point where we've forgotten

    將景觀扁平化與均質化

  • our relationship with the plants and animals

    以至於我們忘記了

  • that live alongside us

    與我們同住在一起的動植物

  • and the dirt beneath our feet.

    還有在我們腳底下的泥土

  • And so, how I see my work contributing

    跟我們之間的關係

  • is sort of trying to literally re-imagine these connections

    所以我把我的作品定位

  • and physically rebuild them.

    看作是試圖對這些連結作重新的想像

  • This graph represents what we're dealing with now

    並且實質上將它重新建造出來

  • in the built environment.

    此張圖代表我們目前

  • And it's really a conflux

    人造環境正遇到的處境

  • of urban population rising,

    他實際上是一個

  • biodiversity plummeting

    城市人口增加

  • and also, of course, sea levels rising

    生物多樣性急劇下降

  • and climate changing.

    還有海平面上升

  • So when I also think about design,

    和氣候變化的匯流

  • I think about

    因此,當我在作設計思考時

  • trying to rework and re-engage

    我會想嘗試

  • the lines on this graph

    將這個圖上的線條

  • in a more productive way.

    以更有建設性的方式

  • And you can see from the arrow here

    重新連結

  • indicating "you are here,"

    這個的箭頭

  • I'm trying to sort of blend and meld

    標示你們目前所在的位置

  • these two very divergent fields

    我有點想將都市主義

  • of urbanism and ecology,

    與生態這兩個非常不同的領域

  • and sort of bring them together in an exciting new way.

    混合和融合在一起

  • So the era of big infrastructure is over.

    用一個令人興奮的新方法加以整合

  • I mean, these sort of top-down,

    龐大基礎設施的時代已經結束

  • mono-functional, capital-intensive solutions

    我的意思是,這些自上而下的

  • are really not going to cut it.

    單一功能,資本密集型的解決方案

  • We need new tools and new approaches.

    已經不足以解決問題

  • Similarly, the idea of architecture

    我們需要新的工具和新方法

  • as this sort of object in the field,

    同樣的,把建築物

  • devoid of context,

    當作是個與周邊毫無關係的

  • is really not the --

    獨立物件的這種想法

  • excuse me, it's fairly blatant --

    實在不是

  • is really not the approach

    抱歉,這個作品實在是有夠直接

  • that we need to take.

    實在不是

  • So we need new stories,

    解決問題的辦法

  • new heroes and new tools.

    我們需要新的故事

  • So now I want to introduce you to my new hero

    新的英雄和新的工具

  • in the global climate change war,

    所以,現在我想向你們介紹

  • and that is the eastern oyster.

    我在全球氣候變遷戰爭中的新英雄

  • So, albeit a very small creature

    東方牡蠣

  • and very modest,

    儘管這種小動物

  • this creature is incredible,

    看上去不太起眼

  • because it can agglomerate

    他其實非常不可思議

  • into these mega-reef structures.

    因為它可以聚集成

  • It can grow; you can grow it;

    這些大型的礁堡結構

  • and -- did I mention? -- it's quite tasty.

    它會生長,你也可以養殖

  • So the oyster was the basis

    還有,我有沒有提到,它相當可口

  • for a manifesto-like urban design project

    因此,牡蠣就成了

  • that I did about the New York Harbor

    我在紐約港作的一個近乎宣言式的

  • called "oyster-tecture."

    都市設計案的主題

  • And the core idea of oyster-tecture is to harness the biological power

    我把這設計命題為“蚵築”

  • of mussels, eelgrass and oysters --

    蚵築的核心思想,就是運用

  • species that live in the harbor --

    貽貝、大葉藻和牡蠣等等

  • and, at the same time,

    生活在海港裡的物種

  • harness the power of people

    的生物能

  • who live in the community

    同時運用

  • towards making change now.

    社區居民的力量

  • Here's a map of my city, New York City,

    現在就開始做些改變

  • showing inundation in red.

    這是我的城市,也就是紐約市的地圖

  • And what's circled is the site that I'm going to talk about,

    紅色表示淹沒區

  • the Gowanus Canal and Governors Island.

    圈起來的就是我要談的基地位置

  • If you look here at this map,

    Gowanus運河和總督島(Governors Island)

  • showing everything in blue

    如果你看這邊這張地圖

  • is out in the water,

    藍色

  • and everything in yellow is upland.

    代表水

  • But you can see, even just intuit, from this map,

    黃色代表陸地

  • that the harbor has dredged and flattened,

    即使只是直觀上看這張地圖

  • and went from a rich, three-dimensional mosaic to flat muck

    你都可以看出海港經歷過疏通並整成平地

  • in really a matter of years.

    在幾年之內從一個多樣、立體的鑲嵌體

  • Another set of views of actually the Gowanus Canal itself.

    變成一個平坦的淤泥地

  • Now the Gowanus is particularly smelly -- I will admit it.

    另外就是Gowanus運河本身

  • There are problems of sewage overflow

    目前 Gowanus運河非常臭,這點我不得不承認

  • and contamination,

    運河裡有污水排入

  • but I would also argue that almost every city

    與污染的問題

  • has this exact condition,

    不過我認為幾乎每個城市

  • and it's a condition that we're all facing.

    都有同樣的問題

  • And here's a map of that condition,

    這是一個我們共同面對的問題

  • showing the contaminants in yellow and green,

    這地圖顯示了污染的狀況

  • exacerbated by this new flow of

    污染物以黃色和綠色顯示

  • storm-surge and sea-level rise.

    而最近雨水暴增

  • So we really had a lot to deal with.

    和海平面上升使得問題加劇

  • When we started this project,

    所以我們真的有很多課題需要處理

  • one of the core ideas was to look back in history

    當我們開始這個設計案時

  • and try to understand what was there.

    核心思想之一就是回顧歷史

  • And you can see from this map,

    試圖了解這裡的過去

  • there's this incredible geographical signature

    你可以從這張舊地圖看到

  • of a series of islands

    當時在海港裡有好多

  • that were out in the harbor

    不可思議的地理特徵

  • and a matrix of salt marshes and beaches

    包括一整系列的島嶼,

  • that served as natural wave attenuation

    和整片可以緩衝

  • for the upland settlement.

    浪潮沖蝕陸地

  • We also learned at this time

    的鹽沼和海灘

  • that you could eat an oyster about the size of a dinner plate

    當時

  • in the Gowanus Canal itself.

    你還能從Gowanus運河中

  • So our concept is really this back-to-the-future concept,

    捕到跟餐盤一樣大的牡蠣

  • harnessing the intelligence of that land settlement pattern.

    所以我們的設計概念基本上就是要回到未來

  • And the idea has two core stages.

    要善用這地景形成的智慧

  • One is to develop a new artificial ecology,

    我們的設計概念有兩個核心階段

  • a reef out in the harbor,

    第一階段是要在海港裡建造一個

  • that would then protect new settlement patterns

    新的人工生態珊瑚礁

  • inland and the Gowanus.

    然後靠這個珊瑚礁保護內陸

  • Because if you have cleaner water and slower water,

    和Gowanus運河上的居民

  • you can imagine a new way of living with that water.

    因為如果你有流速較慢和較乾淨的水

  • So the project really addresses these three core issues

    就可以重新想像人與水共同生活的新方法

  • in a new and exciting way, I think.

    所以,我認為這個計畫是用一種新的和令人興奮的方式解決

  • Here we are, back to our hero, the oyster.

    這三個核心課題:水質、河水暴漲、和海平面上升

  • And again, it's this incredibly exciting animal.

    第一項,要回到我們的英雄:牡蠣

  • It accepts algae and detritus in one end,

    它實在是個非常令人興奮的動物

  • and through this beautiful, glamorous

    它從這一端接受藻類和有機碎屑

  • set of stomach organs,

    通過這套美麗動人的

  • out the other end comes cleaner water.

    消化系統

  • And one oyster can filter up to 50 gallons of water a day.

    另一端就跑出乾淨的水

  • Oyster reefs also covered

    一隻牡蠣一天可以過濾高達 50加侖的水

  • about a quarter of our harbor

    牡蠣礁曾經占據

  • and were capable of filtering water in the harbor in a matter of days.

    這海港約四分之一的面積

  • They were key in our culture and our economy.

    幾天之內就可以把海港內的水過濾乾淨

  • Basically, New York was built

    它們對我們的文化和經濟非常關鍵

  • on the backs of oystermen,

    基本上,紐約市

  • and our streets were literally built over oyster shells.

    是靠牡蠣漁民創建的

  • This image

    而我們的街道也都真的建立在牡蠣殼上

  • is an image of an oyster cart,

    這張照片

  • which is now as ubiquitous as the hotdog cart is today.

    是牡蠣攤

  • So again, we got the short end of the deal there.

    它當時就跟現在的熱狗攤一樣普遍

  • (Laughter)

    這樣說起來,我們現在好像過得沒有當時好

  • Finally, oysters can attenuate

    (笑聲)

  • and agglomerate onto each other

    第二,牡蠣出生後

  • and form these amazing natural reef structures.

    會附著到老牡蠣的殼上

  • They really become nature's wave attenuators.

    使得這些結構越長越大而終成天然的礁石構造

  • And they become the bedrock

    他們真的是大自然的消波塊

  • of any harbor ecosystem.

    第三,這些礁石也是

  • Many, many species depend on them.

    所有海港生態系統的基盤

  • So we were inspired by the oyster,

    很多很多物種依賴他們生存

  • but I was also inspired by the life cycle of the oyster.

    我們從牡蠣身上得到靈感

  • It can move from a fertilized egg

    也從牡蠣的生活史得到啟發

  • to a spat, which is when they're floating through the water,

    牡蠣從受精卵開始

  • and when they're ready to attach onto another oyster,

    孵化成幼蟲後漂浮在水中

  • to an adult male oyster or female oyster,

    然後在幾週後

  • in a number of weeks.

    附著到另一個成熟的

  • We reinterpreted this life cycle

    公或母牡蠣的殼上

  • on the scale of our sight

    我們重新以人類視覺的尺度

  • and took the Gowanus

    詮釋了這個生活史

  • as a giant oyster nursery

    把Gowanus運河

  • where oysters would be grown up in the Gowanus,

    當作一個巨大的牡蠣的養殖場

  • then paraded down in their spat stage

    讓牡蠣在運河裡孕育

  • and seeded out on the Bayridge Reef.

    在幼蟲期漂游過這些地方

  • And so the core idea here

    最後在 Bayridge Reef 這邊著床

  • was to hit the reset button

    設計的核心思想

  • and regenerate an ecology over time

    就像是按重新啟動鈕

  • that was regenerative and cleaning

    隨著時間重新形成

  • and productive.

    一個可以再生、淨化、

  • How does the reef work? Well, it's very, very simple.

    而且有生產力的生態系

  • A core concept here

    所以這珊瑚礁到底要怎麼弄?其實非常非常簡單。

  • is that climate change

    核心概念就是

  • isn't something that --

    我們要如何因應

  • the answers won't land down from the Moon.

    氣候變遷

  • And with a $20 billion price tag,

    答案絕不會從天上掉下來

  • we should simply start and get to work with what we have now

    況且有200億美元的價值

  • and what's in front of us.

    我們實在應該就直接以我們現有的

  • So this image is simply showing --

    知識與資源開始工作

  • it's a field of marine piles

    這張圖

  • interconnected with this woven fuzzy rope.

    是幾根海底樁

  • What is fuzzy rope, you ask?

    用毛茸茸的繩索串連起來

  • It's just that; it's this very inexpensive thing,

    如果你要問:什麼是毛茸茸的繩索?

  • available practically at your hardware store, and it's very cheap.

    它就只是個很便宜的

  • So we imagine that we would actually

    在五金店就買得到的東西

  • potentially even host a bake sale

    所以,我們搞不好

  • to start our new project.

    弄個糕餅義賣活動

  • (Laughter)

    就可以湊足經費啟動我們的新計畫

  • So in the studio, rather than drawing,

    (笑聲)

  • we began to learn how to knit.

    所以在工作室裡,我們不是在繪圖

  • The concept was to really knit this rope together

    而是開始學習如何編織

  • and develop this new soft infrastructure

    我們的概念真的就是把這些繩子編織在一起

  • for the oysters to grow on.

    發展出這個新的軟性基礎設施

  • You can see in the diagram how it grows over time

    讓牡蠣可以在上面生長

  • from an infrastructural space

    你可以在圖上看到它如何隨著時間成長

  • into a new public urban space.

    從基礎設施慢慢發展成

  • And that grows over time dynamically

    一個新的都市公共空間

  • with the threat of climate change.

    隨著時間,它的生長會

  • It also creates this incredibly interesting, I think,

    與氣候變遷的威脅作動態的回應

  • new amphibious public space,

    它還可以創造一個非常有趣的

  • where you can imagine working,

    新的兩棲公共空間

  • you can imagine recreating in a new way.

    在那裡你可以對工作

  • In the end, what we realized we were making

    和休閒活動以嶄新的方式作些想像

  • was a new blue-green watery park

    到最後,我們發現我們其實是

  • for the next watery century --

    為下一個水很多的世紀

  • an amphibious park, if you will.

    做了個新的藍綠水岸公園

  • So get your Tevas on.

    一個兩棲公園

  • So you can imagine scuba diving here.

    所以穿上你的水陸越野涼鞋

  • This is an image of high school students,

    想像你在這裡潛水

  • scuba divers that we worked with on our team.

    這張圖是一群與我們團隊一起工作的

  • So you can imagine a sort of new manner of living

    高中學生,他們會水肺潛水

  • with a new relationship with the water,

    所以,你可以想像一個

  • and also a hybridizing of recreational and science programs

    與水生活的新關係

  • in terms of monitoring.

    也可以把環境監測變成

  • Another new vocabulary word for the brave new world:

    休閒和科學的混合體

  • this is the word "flupsy" --

    我們為這個勇敢的新世界

  • it's short for "floating upwelling system."

    創造了另一個新名詞:flupsy

  • And this glorious, readily available device

    它的是“漂浮湧升系統”的簡稱

  • is basically a floating raft

    這個亮眼的、隨時可用的設施

  • with an oyster nursery below.

    基本上就是一個漂浮平台

  • So the water is churned through this raft.

    下頭有個牡蠣孕育場

  • You can see the eight chambers on the side

    水會被送過這個平台的下方

  • host little baby oysters and essentially force-feed them.

    你可以看到側邊的八個小隔間

  • So rather than having 10 oysters,

    養育著小牡蠣,將水中的養分灌進他們嘴裡

  • you have 10,000 oysters.

    所以,10個牡蠣

  • And then those spat are then seeded.

    不久就會變成10000個牡蠣

  • Here's the Gowanus future

    他們成熟後產卵孵出的幼蟲又會在這裡著床

  • with the oyster rafts on the shorelines --

    這就是我們想像Gowanus運河的未來

  • the flupsification of the Gowanus.

    海岸線都是牡蠣平台

  • New word.

    將整個Gowanus運河 “漂浮湧升化”

  • And also showing oyster gardening for the community

    這是我們發明的新名詞

  • along its edges.

    社區也可以在這邊緣

  • And finally, how much fun it would be

    作牡蠣的養殖

  • to watch the flupsy parade

    想想看

  • and cheer on the oyster spats

    辦漂浮湧升遊行

  • as they go down to the reef.

    為游泳著床的牡蠣幼蟲歡呼

  • I get asked two questions about this project.

    將是多麼好玩的一件事

  • One is: why isn't it happening now?

    這個計畫我常被問兩個問題

  • And the second one is: when can we eat the oysters?

    第一,為什麼到現在什麼都還看不出來?

  • And the answer is: not yet, they're working.

    第二,我們什麼時候才能吃到牡蠣?

  • But we imagine, with our calculations,

    答案是,還沒有,他們正在努力,但這得花些時間。

  • that by 2050,

    不過根據我們的估算,

  • you might be able to sink your teeth into a Gowanus oyster.

    大概到了2050年,

  • To conclude, this is just one cross-section

    你們就可以大啖Gowanus的牡蠣

  • of one piece of city,

    總而言之,這只是一個城市

  • but my dream is, my hope is,

    的一個小小的橫斷面

  • that when you all go back to your own cities

    但我的夢想,我的希望是

  • that we can start to work together and collaborate

    當你們回到自己的城市

  • on remaking and reforming

    我們可以開始攜手合作

  • a new urban landscape

    重新改造

  • towards a more sustainable, a more livable

    一個新的都市景觀

  • and a more delicious future.

    讓它的未來更永續、更宜居