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  • The first thing I want to do is say thank you to all of you.

    譯者: Luyao Chen 審譯者: Adrienne Lin

  • The second thing I want to do is introduce my co-author

    首先,我想要感謝你們所有的人。

  • and dear friend and co-teacher.

    第二,我要介紹我的合著者,

  • Ken and I have been working together

    我親愛的朋友和合作老師,

  • for almost 40 years.

    --Ken 他和我在一起工作

  • That's Ken Sharpe over there.

    已經有將近40年了。

  • (Applause)

    Ken Sharpe 就在那裡。

  • So there is among many people --

    (掌聲)

  • certainly me and most of the people I talk to --

    所以,在許多人中-

  • a kind of collective dissatisfaction

    包括我,和我接觸的大部份人中-

  • with the way things are working,

    有一種集體的不滿--

  • with the way our institutions run.

    對於事情運作的方式不滿,

  • Our kids' teachers seem to be failing them.

    對於機構周轉的方式不滿。

  • Our doctors don't know who the hell we are,

    我們孩子的老師似乎在辜負他們;

  • and they don't have enough time for us.

    我們的醫生不知道我們究竟如何,

  • We certainly can't trust the bankers,

    也沒有足夠的時間給我們。

  • and we certainly can't trust the brokers.

    我們當然也不能信任銀行家,

  • They almost brought the entire financial system down.

    更不能相信股票經紀人,

  • And even as we do our own work,

    是他們幾乎弄垮了整個財務系統。

  • all too often,

    甚至當我們只是做自己的工作,

  • we find ourselves having to choose

    經常會

  • between doing what we think is the right thing

    會發現自己不得不選擇

  • and doing the expected thing,

    要做我們認為是對的事,

  • or the required thing,

    還是做被期待的事,

  • or the profitable thing.

    或是做被要求的事,

  • So everywhere we look,

    還是做有利益的事。

  • pretty much across the board,

    所以環顧周圍,

  • we worry that the people we depend on

    基本上的情況都是,

  • don't really have our interests at heart.

    我們擔心我們所依靠的人

  • Or if they do have our interests at heart,

    並不真的在乎我們的權益;

  • we worry that they don't know us well enough

    或即使他們在乎,

  • to figure out what they need to do

    我們擔心他們不足夠瞭解我們

  • in order to allow us

    來弄清他們該做什麽

  • to secure those interests.

    才能讓我們

  • They don't understand us.

    獲取我們的權益。

  • They don't have the time to get to know us.

    他們不理解我們。

  • There are two kinds of responses

    他們也沒有時間來認識我們。

  • that we make

    對這種普遍的不滿足感,

  • to this sort of general dissatisfaction.

    我們做出

  • If things aren't going right,

    兩種不同的回應。

  • the first response is:

    如果事情不順,

  • let's make more rules,

    第一種回應是:

  • let's set up a set

    讓我們制定更多的規則,

  • of detailed procedures

    讓我們設定一系列

  • to make sure that people will do the right thing.

    更細的程序

  • Give teachers scripts

    來確保人們做對的事。

  • to follow in the classroom,

    給老師在教室裡

  • so even if they don't know what they're doing

    要遵守的教學守則,

  • and don't care about the welfare of our kids,

    那麼即使他們不知道他們在做什麽,

  • as long as they follow the scripts,

    也不在乎我們孩子的福利,

  • our kids will get educated.

    只要他們遵守這些守則,

  • Give judges a list of mandatory sentences

    孩子們就能得到教育。

  • to impose for crimes,

    給法官一列對罪行實施的

  • so that you don't need to rely

    強制判決令清單,

  • on judges using their judgment.

    所以你不再需要依賴

  • Instead, all they have to do

    法官們自己的判斷。

  • is look up on the list

    相反,他們所需做的一切

  • what kind of sentence goes with what kind of crime.

    只是查考清單-

  • Impose limits

    什麽判決對應什麽罪行。

  • on what credit card companies can charge in interest

    對信用卡公司,

  • and on what they can charge in fees.

    在他們能收取什麽為利息。

  • More and more rules

    能收取什麽費用上-施加限制。

  • to protect us

    有越來越多的條例

  • against an indifferent, uncaring

    來保護我們

  • set of institutions we have to deal with.

    對付那些我們得應對的

  • Or -- or maybe and --

    漠不關心的機構。

  • in addition to rules,

    或者,或許-

  • let's see if we can come up

    除了規章條例

  • with some really clever incentives

    看看我們還能不能想出

  • so that, even if the people we deal with

    一些聰明的激勵機制。

  • don't particularly want to serve our interests,

    那樣即使如果我們接觸的人

  • it is in their interest

    并不特別想滿足我們的利益,

  • to serve our interest --

    爲了他們自己的利益

  • the magic incentives

    他們也會來滿足我們需要--

  • that will get people to do the right thing

    奇妙的激勵措施

  • even out of pure selfishness.

    竟能讓人們即使出於單單私心

  • So we offer teachers bonuses

    也會做對的事。

  • if the kids they teach

    所以我們給老師提供獎金

  • score passing grades on these big test scores

    一旦他們所教的學生

  • that are used to evaluate

    能通過那些重要考試

  • the quality of school systems.

    用來衡量學校系統質量的

  • Rules and incentives --

    標準考試。

  • "sticks" and "carrots."

    規矩和獎勵 --

  • We passed a bunch of rules

    軟硬兼施

  • to regulate the financial industry

    我們通過了一串規條

  • in response to the recent collapse.

    針對最近的崩盤和蕭條

  • There's the Dodd-Frank Act,

    來規範金融業。

  • there's the new Consumer Financial Protection Agency

    有 Dodd-Frank 法案 (美國華爾街改革和個人消費者保護法案)

  • that is temporarily being headed through the backdoor

    有新的暫時由Elizabeth Warren 為首

  • by Elizabeth Warren.

    通過後門的

  • Maybe these rules

    消費者金融保護局。

  • will actually improve

    也許這些條例

  • the way these financial services companies behave.

    真能改善

  • We'll see.

    金融服務公司表現的方式

  • In addition, we are struggling

    我們還需拭目以待。

  • to find some way to create incentives

    另一方面, 我們努力

  • for people in the financial services industry

    尋找創建激勵機制的方法

  • that will have them more interested

    給金融服務業界的人

  • in serving the long-term interests

    能讓他們甚至只是出於所在的公司

  • even of their own companies,

    能對實現長遠的利益

  • rather than securing short-term profits.

    更感興趣,

  • So if we find just the right incentives,

    而不只是爲了取得一時的利益

  • they'll do the right thing -- as I said -- selfishly,

    那樣如果我們能找到那個對的激勵,

  • and if we come up with the right rules and regulations,

    他們也會“自私地”,如我所講,做對的事。

  • they won't drive us all over a cliff.

    所以如果我們能制定對的規章條例,

  • And Ken [Sharpe] and I certainly know

    他們就不會置我們與莫大的風險。

  • that you need to reign in the bankers.

    然而Ken [Sharpe]和我知道

  • If there is a lesson to be learned from the financial collapse

    你們需要支配掌握銀行家!

  • it is that.

    如果從這次金融大衰退中我們能學的什麽

  • But what we believe,

    就是這個。

  • and what we argue in the book,

    但是我們相信

  • is that there is no set of rules,

    我們在書中也爭辯,

  • no matter how detailed,

    沒有那麼一系列條例,

  • no matter how specific,

    無論多細節,

  • no matter how carefully monitored

    無論多具體,

  • and enforced,

    無論監管、

  • there is no set of rules

    實施多有力,

  • that will get us what we need.

    沒有哪一列條例

  • Why? Because bankers are smart people.

    能讓我們得到我們真正所需的。

  • And, like water,

    爲什麽?因為銀行家很聰明

  • they will find cracks

    像水一樣,

  • in any set of rules.

    他們任何條例中

  • You design a set of rules that will make sure

    都會找到漏洞鑽。

  • that the particular reason

    你設訂一系列法案來確保

  • why the financial system "almost-collapse"

    那個使整個金融系統

  • can't happen again.

    幾乎崩潰的特定原因

  • It is naive beyond description

    不再發生;

  • to think that having blocked

    但若認為你阻擋了

  • this source of financial collapse,

    這個使經濟蕭條的源頭

  • you have blocked all possible sources of financial collapse.

    就阻擋了所有崩毀金融的源頭,

  • So it's just a question of waiting for the next one

    那未免太天真了。

  • and then marveling at how we could have been so stupid

    所以這只是等待下一次危機

  • as not to protect ourselves against that.

    然後驚異與我們爲什麽這麼愚蠢

  • What we desperately need,

    竟然沒有針對其保護好自己。

  • beyond, or along with, better rules

    我們真正急需想要的,

  • and reasonably smart incentives,

    超過、或伴隨,更好的條例

  • is we need virtue.

    和有效的激勵

  • We need character.

    是我們需要-品德

  • We need people who want to do the right thing.

    我們需要人格

  • And in particular,

    我們需要想要做對的事的人

  • the virtue that we need most of all

    特別地,

  • is the virtue that Aristotle called

    我們最需要的品德

  • "practical wisdom."

    是亞里斯多德所稱的

  • Practical wisdom

    實用智慧。

  • is the moral will

    實用智慧-

  • to do the right thing

    是做正確的事

  • and the moral skill

    的道德意志;

  • to figure out what the right thing is.

    是知道什麽是正確的

  • So Aristotle was very interested in watching

    道德技巧。

  • how the craftsmen around him worked.

    所以亞里斯多德對於觀察

  • And he was impressed

    他周圍的工匠如何工作很感興趣。

  • at how they would improvise

    他對於他們

  • novel solutions to novel problems --

    如何即興針對

  • problems that they hadn't anticipated.

    他們也沒意料的新問題想出

  • So one example is he sees these stonemasons

    新奇的解決法案印象深刻。

  • working on the Isle of Lesbos,

    一個例子是他看到一些石匠

  • and they need to measure out

    在萊斯博斯島做工

  • round columns.

    他們需要測量

  • Well if you think about it,

    那裡的圓柱

  • it's really hard to measure out round columns using a ruler.

    如果你想想的話

  • So what do they do?

    用直尺量圓柱真的很難

  • They fashion a novel solution to the problem.

    所以他們怎麼辦呢?

  • They created a ruler that bends,

    他們發明了一種新奇的手段

  • what we would call these days a tape measure --

    他們製作了一種可以彎曲的尺

  • a flexible rule,

    今日被叫做-捲尺

  • a rule that bends.

    一把靈活的尺

  • And Aristotle said,

    可彎曲的尺。

  • "Hah, they appreciated that sometimes

    亞里斯多德就說

  • to design rounded columns,

    哈,他們領會到有時

  • you need to bend the rule."

    要造園的柱子

  • And Aristotle said

    你需要通融(放鬆規定)。

  • often in dealing with other people,

    亞里斯多德又說

  • we need to bend the rules.

    和別人相處

  • Dealing with other people

    我們也需要時常通融

  • demands a kind of flexibility

    與人相處,

  • that no set of rules can encompass.

    要求一種靈活

  • Wise people know when and how

    那是沒有任何規章條例可以包括的。

  • to bend the rules.

    智慧的人知道什麽時候,怎麼樣

  • Wise people know how to improvise.

    調整規矩;

  • The way my co-author , Ken, and I talk about it,

    智慧的人知道如何即興發揮。

  • they are kind of like jazz musicians.

    我的合著者Ken和我說起這個,

  • The rules are like the notes on the page,

    他們就像爵士音樂家;

  • and that gets you started,

    規矩就像紙上的音符,

  • but then you dance around the notes on the page,

    你從音符開始,

  • coming up with just the right combination

    但是接著你便從中發揮,讓音符自由飛舞,

  • for this particular moment

    從中來的是對那特定時刻的

  • with this particular set of fellow players.

    伴隨那特定共演者的

  • So for Aristotle,

    最佳組合。

  • the kind

    所以對於亞里斯多德,

  • of rule-bending,

    這種

  • rule exception-finding and improvisation

    調整規矩、

  • that you see in skilled craftsmen

    通融規定-你從熟練工匠中

  • is exactly what you need

    能看到的發現和即興發揮

  • to be a skilled moral craftsman.

    正是你們要成為一個道德上的工匠

  • And in interactions with people,

    所需要的。

  • almost all the time,

    和人相處,

  • it is this kind of flexibility that is required.

    幾乎任何時候,

  • A wise person knows when to bend the rules.

    這種程度的靈活是需要的。

  • A wise person knows when to improvise.

    智慧的人知道何時調整規矩

  • And most important,

    智慧的人知道何時即興發揮

  • a wise person does this improvising and rule-bending

    最重要的是,

  • in the service of the right aims.

    智慧的人做這種即興發揮和規章調整

  • If you are a rule-bender and an improviser

    是為著正義的目的。

  • mostly to serve yourself,

    如果你是一個通融者,即興表演家

  • what you get is ruthless manipulation of other people.

    只是爲了自己,

  • So it matters that you do this wise practice

    你能得到的就是對他人無情的控制。

  • in the service of others

    所以重要的是你做這種智行

  • and not in the service of yourself.

    是爲了他人

  • And so the will to do the right thing

    而不是為自己。

  • is just as important as the moral skill

    所以想要做正義事的願望

  • of improvisation

    與即興發揮

  • and exception-finding.

    特例發現

  • Together they comprise practical wisdom,

    的道德技巧一樣重要。

  • which Aristotle thought

    他們一起就組成了

  • was the master virtue.

    被亞里斯多德認為是

  • So I'll give you an example

    品德之首的實用智慧。

  • of wise practice in action.

    讓我再舉一個

  • It's the case of Michael.

    這種智慧實踐的例子。

  • Michael's a young guy.

    這是Michael的故事

  • He had a pretty low-wage job.

    Michael是一個年輕人。

  • He was supporting his wife and a child,

    他有一份低薪的工作,

  • and the child was going to parochial school.

    他得養活他妻子和一個孩子

  • Then he lost his job.

    孩子將要上教區學校。

  • He panicked

    然而他丟了他的工作

  • about being able to support his family.

    他極度驚慌擔憂

  • One night, he drank a little too much,

    能不能繼續養家糊口。

  • and he robbed a cab driver --

    一天,他喝的有點多,

  • stole 50 dollars.

    搶劫了一個出租司機-

  • He robbed him at gunpoint.

    偷了50美金。

  • It was a toy gun.

    他用持槍搶劫。

  • He got caught. He got tried.

    用的是把玩具槍。

  • He got convicted.

    他被抓,被控告,

  • The Pennsylvania sentencing guidelines

    被定罪。

  • required a minimum sentence for a crime like this

    賓夕法尼亞的判決條例

  • of two years, 24 months.

    要求對于這類罪行的處罰

  • The judge on the case, Judge Lois Forer

    最低為兩年,24個月。

  • thought that this made no sense.

    這個案例的法官,法官Lois Forer

  • He had never committed a crime before.

    認為那沒有意義也講不通。

  • He was a responsible husband and father.

    Michael沒有任何犯罪記錄。

  • He had been faced with desperate circumstances.

    他是一個負責的丈夫和父親。

  • All this would do is wreck a family.

    他面對著絕望的處境。

  • And so she improvised a sentence -- 11 months,

    那個判決所能做的就是毀了這個家

  • and not only that,

    所以她應對發揮了一個判決-11個月。

  • but release every day to go to work.

    不僅那樣,

  • Spend your night in jail, spend your day holding down a job.

    每天予以釋放讓他去工作。

  • He did. He served out his sentence.

    晚上坐監,白天工作。

  • He made restitution

    Michael這麼做了。他服完了他的判決。

  • and found himself a new job.

    他做出了賠償。

  • And the family was united.

    他找到了新工作

  • And it seemed on the road

    家庭復原。

  • to some sort of a decent life --

    一切似乎在通往