Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • This technology

    譯者: Nim Chen 審譯者: Ching-Yi Wu

  • made a very important impact on us.

    這項技術

  • It changed the way our history developed.

    對我們產生了巨大的影響

  • But it's a technology so pervasive,

    它改變了我們人類歷史發展的方向

  • so invisible,

    但是它是如此的普遍

  • that we, for a long time,

    如此的難以察覺

  • forgot to take it into account

    以至於長久以來

  • when we talked about

    當我們在討論人類歷史時

  • human evolution.

    總是忘記將它納入考量

  • But we see the results of this technology, still.

    .

  • So let's make a little test.

    但是我們仍然看到了這個技術的影響

  • So everyone of you turns to their neighbor please.

    現在,我們來做個小小測試

  • Turn and face your neighbors.

    請每個人面向自己身邊的人

  • Please, also on the balcony.

    面向自己座位旁的人

  • Smile. Smile. Open the mouths.

    看台上的人也請這麼作

  • Smile, friendly.

    笑,打開嘴巴

  • (Laughter)

    友善的微笑

  • Do you --

    .

  • Do you see any Canine teeth?

    你是否

  • (Laughter)

    你是否看到對方的犬齒?

  • Count Dracula teeth

    .

  • in the mouths of your neighbors?

    數數在你身旁的人嘴裡

  • Of course not.

    有幾顆像吸血鬼的尖牙?

  • Because our dental anatomy

    當然沒有半個

  • is actually made,

    因為我們牙齒型態

  • not for tearing down raw meat from bones

    的安排與設計

  • or chewing fibrous leaves for hours.

    並非用來嘶咬骨頭上的生肉

  • It is made for a diet

    或花許多時間咀嚼充滿纖維的葉子

  • which is soft, mushy,

    而是設計來咀嚼

  • which is reduced in fibers,

    柔軟、糊狀

  • which is very easily chewable

    纖維量少

  • and digestible.

    易咀嚼及

  • Sounds like fast food, doesn't it.

    消化的食物

  • (Laughter)

    聽起來很像速食,不是嗎?

  • It's for cooked food.

    .

  • We carry in our face the proof

    我們的牙齒是設計給烹煮過的食物

  • that cooking,

    我們的臉,就是

  • food transformation,

    烹煮

  • made us what we are.

    這個改變食物型態的技術

  • So I would suggest that we change how we classify ourselves.

    型塑了現代人外型的證據

  • We talk about ourselves as omnivores.

    因此我建議我們改變我們原先的自我分類

  • I would say, we should call ourselves coctivors --

    我們總說人類是雜食性動物

  • (Laughter)

    我倒覺得,我們該稱自己是熟食性動物(coctivors)

  • from coquere, to cook.

    .

  • We are the animals

    衍伸自拉丁文的coqure (烹煮)

  • who eat cooked food.

    我們是

  • No, no, no, no. Better --

    吃熟食的動物

  • to live of cooked food.

    不不不,更好

  • So cooking is a very important technology.

    靠熟食生存

  • It's technology.

    所以烹煮無疑是很重要的技術

  • I don't know how you feel,

    這個技術

  • but I like to cook for entertainment.

    我不知道你們心裡怎麼想

  • And you need some design

    但我喜歡烹飪款待別人

  • to be successful.

    而且你需要一些巧思

  • So, cooking is a very important technology,

    才能成功

  • because it allowed us to acquire

    所以烹煮其實是一個很重要的技術

  • what brought you all here:

    因為它讓我們有機會演化、發展出

  • the big brain,

    這個讓我們共聚一堂的器官:

  • this wonderful cerebral cortex we have.

    大腦

  • Because brains are expensive.

    我們有棒極了的大腦皮質

  • Those have to pay tuition fees know.

    因為演化出大腦是如此昂貴

  • (Laughter)

    所以我們現在得付學費

  • But it's also, metabolically speaking, expensive.

    .

  • You now, our brain is two to three percent of the body mass,

    而就代謝而言,大腦是耗能的

  • but actually it uses 25 percent of the total energy we use.

    現代人的大腦大約僅佔身體總體重的2-3%

  • It's very expensive.

    但它卻消耗了25%我們所攝取的能量

  • Where does the energy come from. Of course, from food.

    所以它非常耗能

  • If we eat raw food,

    而這些能量要從哪裡來呢? 當然是從食物

  • we cannot release really the energy.

    如果我們吃生的食物

  • So this ingenuity of our ancestors,

    我們便無法好好的運用其所含的能量

  • to invent this most marvelous technology.

    而我們聰明的祖先

  • Invisible -- everyone of us does it every day, so to speak.

    發明了這個非凡的技術

  • Cooking made it possible

    儘管每個人天天使用卻仍難以察覺

  • that mutations,

    烹煮這項技術

  • natural selections, our environment,

    使得基因突變、

  • could develop us.

    天擇以及環境

  • So if we think about

    有機會影響我們的演化與發展

  • this unleashing human potential,

    試想看看

  • which was possible by cooking and food,

    這項被解放的人類潛能

  • why do we talk so badly about food?

    便是因為烹煮與食物才有機會發展

  • Why is it always do and don'ts

    為什麼我們如此關注食物

  • and it's good for you, it's not good for you?

    為什麼總要考慮吃或不吃

  • I think the good news for me

    或是哪些食物對你有益、哪些有害?

  • would be if we could go back

    我想對我來說好消息是

  • and talk about the unleashing,

    如果我們回頭想想

  • the continuation of the unleashing of human potential.

    這項被釋放的潛能

  • Now, cooking allowed also

    以及它延續至今的各種影響

  • that we became a migrant species.

    烹煮這項技術

  • We walked out of Africa two times.

    曾使我們成為遷徙性的物種

  • We populated all the ecologies.

    人類曾經兩次走出非洲

  • If you can cook, nothing can happen to you,

    我們幾乎占據了大多數的生態環境

  • because whatever you find,

    只要會烹煮,生存幾乎沒什麼困難

  • you will try to transform it.

    因為不論你找到什麼

  • It keeps also your brain working.

    你都能夠透過烹煮來使之可食

  • Now the very easy and simple technology

    因此讓你的腦袋能繼續運作

  • which was developed

    而這項簡單的技術

  • actually runs after this formula.

    在被發明後

  • Take something which looks like food, transform it,

    便遵循這樣的模式

  • and it gives you a good, very easy, accessible energy.

    取得某些看起來像食物的東西,然後改變它們

  • This technology affected two organs,

    它們便能夠提供優質又方便的能量來源

  • the brain and the gut, which it actually affected.

    這項技術影響了兩個器官

  • The brain could grow, but the gut actually shrunk.

    腦以及消化道,尤其是消化道

  • Okay, it's not obvious to be honest.

    人類的腦變大了,但消化道卻變小了

  • (Laughter)

    好吧,我承認看起來不是那麼明顯

  • But it shrunk to 60 percent

    .

  • of primate gut

    但相對於其他靈長類動物

  • of my body mass.

    人類消化道佔總體重的

  • So because of having cooked food,

    比例減少了60%

  • it's easier to digest.

    因為烹煮過的食物

  • Now having a large brain, as you know,

    更容易消化

  • is a big advantage,

    而擁有較大的腦,就我們所知

  • because you can actually influence your environment.

    是非常有利的

  • You can influence your own technologies you have invented.

    因為它使人類有能力去改變生存環境

  • You can continue to innovate and invent.

    改進既有的技術

  • Now the big brain did this also with cooking.

    並且持續的創新與發明

  • But how did it actually run this show?

    大腦也改進、創新烹煮方法

  • How did it actually interfere?

    這實際上是如何進行的呢?

  • What kind of criteria did it use?

    大腦如何影響烹煮技術的發展?

  • And this is actually taste reward and energy.

    而它所用的又是怎樣的準則呢?

  • You know we have up to five tastes,

    實際上就是味覺、回饋與能量

  • three of them sustain us.

    人類具有五種味覺

  • Sweet -- energy.

    其中三個維持我們生存

  • Umami -- this is a meaty taste.

    甜味與能量的攝取有關

  • You need proteins for muscles, recovery.

    甘味則是來自肉類

  • Salty,

    蛋白質則是合成肌肉及復原體力所需

  • because you need salt, otherwise your electric body will not work.

    鹹味

  • And two tastes which protect you --

    人類需要鹽類,否則帶電的身體無法正常運作

  • bitter and sour,

    另外還有兩種味覺是用來保護人類

  • which are against

    苦味及酸味

  • poisonous and rotten material.

    幫助我們分辨

  • But of course, they are hard-wired

    有毒及腐壞的食物

  • but we use them still in a sophisticated way.

    即使人類的味覺是天生的

  • Think about bittersweet chocolate;

    但使用味覺的方式卻是人為的複雜精巧

  • or think about the acidity

    想想苦甜巧克力

  • of yogurt -- wonderful --

    想想優格的酸味

  • mixed with strawberry fruits.

    多麼美妙

  • So we can make mixtures of all this kind of thing

    混和著莓果的味道

  • because we know

    我們可將各種食材隨意組合

  • that, in cooking, we can transform it

    因為我們知道

  • to the form.

    透過烹煮,食物得以轉化成

  • Reward: this is a more complex

    更好吃、更營養的狀態

  • and especially integrative

    回饋:這一點更複雜

  • form of our brain

    尤其是大腦在整合訊息

  • with various different elements --

    的狀態

  • the external states, our internal states,

    跟各種因素:

  • how do we feel, and so on are put together.

    外部環境、內在狀態

  • And something which maybe you don't like

    我們的感受及其他因素等等,加總的影響

  • but you are so hungry that you really will be satisfied to eat.

    有些食物可能我們並不喜歡

  • So satisfaction was a very important part.

    但卻是餓到會心滿意足地吃下

  • And as I say, energy was necessary.

    所以滿足感是很重要的因素

  • Now how did the gut actually

    如同我所說的,能量則是必要的

  • participate in this development?

    而消化道是怎樣

  • And the gut is a silent voice --

    參與烹煮技術發展?

  • it's going more for feelings.

    消化道無聲地發言

  • I use the euphemism digestive comfort --

    仰賴知覺來傳遞訊息

  • actually -- it's a digestive discomfort,

    也就是消化時的舒適感

  • which the gut is concerned with.

    但實際上,消化不適的感覺

  • If you get a stomach ache, if you get a little bit bloated,

    才是身體所關注的訊號

  • was not the right food, was not the right cooking manipulation

    比如說如果你胃痛或是胃脹氣

  • or maybe other things went wrong.

    你就知道哪些食物不該吃、不該那樣料理

  • So my story is a tale of two brains,

    或者你吃的食物哪些地方不對勁

  • because it might surprise you,

    所以我的故事是由兩個腦組成的

  • our gut has a full-fledged brain.

    而這大概會讓你覺得驚訝

  • All the managers in the room say,

    我們的消化道也有個獨立成熟的大腦

  • "You don't tell me something new, because we know, gut feeling.

    有些人也許會說:

  • This is what we are using."

    「這又不是什麼新鮮事,因為我們知道腸胃感,就是直覺(gut feeling)

  • (Laughter)

    這個詞我們天天都在用啊!」

  • And actually you use it and it's actually useful.

    .

  • Because our gut is connected to our emotional limbic system,

    我們的確都有使用消化道腦,它也的確是有用的

  • they do speak with each other

    消化道與掌管情緒的邊緣系統互相連結

  • and make decisions.

    彼此互相溝通與傳遞訊息

  • But what it means

    並作出決定

  • to have a brain there

    我所指的

  • is that, not only the big brain

    消化道中的腦

  • has to talk with the food,

    說明不只是大腦

  • the food has to talk with the brain,

    會跟食物溝通

  • because we have to learn actually

    食物也必須要傳遞訊息給大腦

  • how to talk to the brains.

    因此,我們必須要

  • Now if there's a gut brain,

    學著跟大腦溝通

  • we should also learn to talk with this brain.

    此外

  • Now 150 years ago,

    我們也應該學著跟消化道腦溝通

  • anatomists described very, very carefully --

    大約一百五十年前

  • here is a model of a wall of a gut.

    解剖學家便對消化道有了精準的描述

  • I took the three elements --

    這是消化道管壁結構的示意圖

  • stomach, small intestine and colon.

    我列出了消化道的三個器官

  • And within this structure,

    胃、小腸、結腸

  • you see these two pinkish layers,

    細看他們的結構

  • which are actually the muscle.

    你可以看到兩層粉紅色的結構

  • And between this muscle, they found nervous tissues,

    這兩層是肌肉

  • a lot of nervous tissues,

    而在肌肉中間,便存在著神經組織

  • which penetrate actually the muscle --

    許許多多的神經組織

  • penetrate the submucosa,

    這些神經穿過了肌肉

  • where you have all the elements for the immune system.

    也穿過了黏膜下層

  • The gut is actually the largest immune system,

    黏膜下層與免疫系統有關

  • defending your body.

    消化道其實是人體最大的免疫系統

  • It penetrates the mucosa.

    防衛你的身體

  • This is the layer which actually touches the food you are swallowing

    這些神經組織也穿透黏膜層

  • and you digest,

    而此層直接與你所吃

  • which is actually the lumen.

    以及所消化的食物接觸

  • Now if you think about the gut,

    也就是內腔

  • the gut is -- if you could stretch it --

    想像一下你的消化道

  • 40 meters long,

    如果你拉開你的消化道

  • the length of a tennis court.

    它會有四十公尺長

  • If we could unroll it,

    大約是網球場的長度

  • get out all the folds and so on,

    如果將它延展開

  • it would have 400 sq. meters of surface.

    將其中的皺摺都展開

  • And now this brain takes care over this,

    它的表面積大約有四百平方公尺

  • to move it with the muscles and to do defend the surface

    而這隱藏在消化道的腦

  • and, of course, digest our food we cook.

    負責控制消化道肌肉的運作、保護消化道表面

  • So if we give you a specification,

    當然,也消化烹煮過的食物

  • this brain, which is autonomous,

    容我詳細說明消化道腦

  • have 500 million nerve cells,

    消化道腦具有自主性

  • 100 million neurons --

    有五億個神經細胞

  • so around the size of a cat brain,

    一億個神經元

  • so there sleeps a little cat --

    大約跟貓的腦一樣大

  • thinks for itself,

    這裡可說是睡著一隻小貓呢!

  • optimizes whatever it digests.

    消化道會自己思考

  • It has 20 different neuron types.

    並將消化所得的能量妥善運用

  • It's got the same diversity you find actually in a pig brain,

    它有二十種不同的神經元

  • where you have 100 billion neurons.

    大約跟豬的腦一樣多樣化

  • It has autonomous organized microcircuits,

    但人類的消化道有一千億個神經元

  • has these programs which run.

    而消化道有著自主的小型神經迴路

  • It senses the food; it knows exactly what to do.

    依照某些方式運行

  • It senses it by chemical means

    消化道可感受各種食物,並知道應該怎麼處理它們

  • and very importantly by mechanical means,

    藉著化學方式,還有

  • because it has to move the food --

    更重要的,力學的方式來感受食物

  • it has to mix all the various elements

    因為消化道必須要移動食團

  • which we need for digestion.

    並且混合其它消化所需的

  • This control of muscle is very, very important,

    各種元素

  • because, you know, there can be reflexes.

    所以消化道肌肉的控制是非常非常重要的

  • If you don't like a food, especially if you're a child, you gag.

    如你所知,

  • It's this brain which makes this reflex.

    如果不喜歡某種食物,特別是你年幼時,你會作嘔

  • And then finally,

    就是消化道腦負責這樣的反射動作

  • it controls also the secretion of this molecular machinery,

    最後

  • which actually digests the food we cook.

    消化道腦也控制著某些分子的分泌

  • Now how do the two brains work with each other?

    這些分子是用來消化食物的

  • I took here a model from robotics --

    而腦與消化道中的腦彼此如何合作

  • it's called the Subsumption Architecture.

    在這用一個機械科學的模型來解釋

  • What it means is that we have a layered control system.

    稱為「包容式體系結構」

  • The lower layer, our gut brain,

    指的是我們有著層級式的控制系統

  • has its own goals -- digestion defense --

    較低層級的消化道腦

  • and we have the higher brain

    有著自己的職責:消化及防禦

  • with the goal of integration

    另外還有較高層級的腦

  • and generating behaviors.

    負責整合身體的各種訊息

  • Now both look -- and this is the blue arrows --

    並引發行為

  • both look to the same food, which is in the lumen

    看看藍色的箭頭

  • and in the area of your intestine.

    大腦與消化道腦都能感覺腸腔中的食物

  • The big brain integrates signals,

    也都感測著腸道中相同的區域