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  • We're 25, 26 years after

    譯者: Jing Yao 審譯者: Bill Hsiung

  • the advent of the Macintosh,

    25、26 年前

  • which was an astoundingly seminal event

    麥金塔電腦系統問世,

  • in the history

    而麥金塔系統的出現,

  • of human-machine interface

    整體來說,

  • and in computation in general.

    對人機界面和計算機的發展史

  • It fundamentally changed the way

    影響非常重大。

  • that people thought about computation,

    它從根本上改變了人們

  • thought about computers,

    對於計算機

  • how they used them and who and how many people were able to use them.

    和對於電腦的看法,

  • It was such a radical change, in fact,

    人們是如何使用,以及是誰,還有多少人能夠使用它們。

  • that the early Macintosh development team

    這是個非常極端的改變,事實上,

  • in '82, '83, '84

    早期麥金塔研發團隊

  • had to write an entirely new operating system from the ground up.

    在 1982 到 1984 年這三年間,

  • Now, this is an interesting little message,

    必須從頭開始設計全新的操作系統。

  • and it's a lesson that has since, I think,

    現在,這是個很有趣的訊息,

  • been forgotten or lost or something,

    我想,也是個已經被遺忘

  • and that is, namely, that the OS is the interface.

    或失去之類的的課題。

  • The interface is the OS.

    也就是,換句話說,操作系統即是界面。

  • It's like the land and the king (i.e. Arthur) they're inseparable, they are one.

    界面就是操作系統。

  • And to write a new operating system was not a capricious matter.

    這就像是《亞瑟王》中的領土與國王,他們密不可分,是一體的。

  • It wasn't just a matter of tuning up some graphics routines.

    而寫一個新的操作系統並不是個奇怪的想法。

  • There were no graphics routines. There were no mouse drivers.

    這並不只是調整改善某些圖像程序而已。

  • So it was a necessity.

    當年並沒有圖像程序,也沒有滑鼠驅動程式。

  • But in the quarter-century since then,

    所以寫個新的操作系統是必要的。

  • we've seen all of the fundamental

    但在那之後的 25 年,

  • supporting technologies go berserk.

    我們看到了所有的

  • So memory capacity and disk capacity

    基本輔助科技傾巢而出。

  • have been multiplied by something between 10,000 and a million.

    記憶體容量還有硬碟容量

  • Same thing for processor speeds.

    倍增十萬到百萬倍,

  • Networks, we didn't have networks at all

    處理器的狀況也一樣。

  • at the time of the Macintosh's introduction,

    網際網路,在麥金塔剛問世時,

  • and that has become the single most salient aspect

    我們根本就談不上有網際網路。

  • of how we live with computers.

    而網際網路是我們電腦生活中

  • And, of course, graphics: Today

    最突出、最特別的東西。

  • 84 dollars and 97 cents at Best Buy

    當然,今天的顯示卡,

  • buys you more graphics power

    在 Best Buy 用 84.97 美元

  • than you could have gotten for a million bucks from SGI only a decade ago.

    就可以讓你買到功能更強大的顯示卡,

  • So we've got that incredible ramp-up.

    這遠比十年前你用百萬美元在 SGI 買到的顯示卡還要好。

  • Then, on the side, we've got the Web

    所以這是很不可思議的成長。

  • and, increasingly, the cloud,

    接著,另一方面,我們有了網路,

  • which is fantastic,

    再來有了雲端計算系統,

  • but also -- in the regard in which an interface is fundamental --

    這真的很棒,

  • kind of a distraction.

    但也指出在這之中,界面是很重要的,

  • So we've forgotten to invent new interfaces.

    這有點讓我們分心了。

  • Certainly we've seen in recent years a lot of change in that regard,

    我們忘了要研發出新的界面。

  • and people are starting to wake up about that.

    當然在過去幾年中,我們在相關系統看到了許多改變。

  • So what happens next? Where do we go from there?

    而人們也開始覺醒。

  • The problem, as we see it,

    那接下來呢?我們要往那個方向進展?

  • has to do with a single, simple word: "space,"

    問題是,當我們看待這件事時,

  • or a single, simple phrase:

    如何看這個單一,簡單的字,「空間」

  • "real world geometry."

    或一個簡單的詞

  • Computers and the programming languages

    「真實世界中的幾何」

  • that we talk to them in, that we teach them in,

    當我們使用程式語言來與電腦

  • are hideously insensate when it comes to space.

    溝通,並嘗試教導電腦

  • They don't understand real world space.

    關於空間的概念時,電腦變得很愚鈍,讓人無法忍受。

  • It's a funny thing because the rest of us occupy it quite frequently and quite well.

    它們不理解真實世界的空間。

  • They also don't understand time, but that's a matter for a separate talk.

    這真的很有趣,因為我們人類對空間概念的使用相當頻繁而且順手。

  • So what happens if you start to

    它們也不懂時間,但這又是另一個話題了。

  • explain space to them?

    那當你開始向這些電腦

  • One thing you might get is something like the Luminous Room.

    解釋空間時又會發生什麼事呢?

  • The Luminous Room is a system

    你可能得到的是像這個「光室」的東西。

  • in which it's considered that

    光室是個

  • input and output spaces are co-located.

    輸入和輸出的空間

  • That's a strangely simple,

    重疊的系統。

  • and yet unexplored idea, right?

    這是個極其簡單,

  • When you use a mouse, your hand is down here on the mouse pad.

    卻還未有人研究的概念,對吧?

  • It's not even on the same plane as what you're talking about:

    當你使用滑鼠時,你的手就在滑鼠上。

  • The pixels are up on the display.

    你的手甚至與你所討論的東西不在同個平面上。

  • So here was a room in which all the walls, floors, ceilings,

    那些像素是呈現在顯示器上。

  • pets, potted plants, whatever was in there,

    這裡有個房間,裡面有所有的牆面,地板還有天花板,

  • were capable, not only of display but of sensing as well.

    寵物,盆栽植物,還有其他有的沒的,

  • And that means input and output are in the same space

    都能夠,不僅僅是用來顯示而已,同時也用來感測。

  • enabling stuff like this.

    這意味著輸出和輸入可發生在同一空間,

  • That's a digital storage in a physical container.

    讓這樣的事發生。

  • The contract is the same

    這是在物理空間中的數位儲存體。

  • as with real word objects in real world containers.

    反之亦然。

  • Has to come back out, whatever you put in.

    就跟真實世界中的真實物體一樣。

  • This little design experiment

    無論你輸入什麼,都可以拿出來。

  • that was a small office here knew a few other tricks as well.

    這是個小小的設計實驗,

  • If you presented it with a chess board,

    這是個小型辦公室,還能做些其他有趣的事。

  • it tried to figure out what you might mean by that.

    如果你用西洋棋呈現的話,

  • And if there was nothing for them to do,

    它會試著模擬出你可能的想法。

  • the chess pieces eventually got bored

    如果他們沒有事可做,

  • and hopped away.

    那這些西洋棋最後會覺得無聊

  • The academics who were overseeing this work

    然後跳走。

  • thought that that was too frivolous,

    在督導這項計畫的學術單位

  • so we built deadly serious applications

    認為這很愚蠢,

  • like this optics prototyping workbench

    所以我們做了相當正經的應用,

  • in which a toothpaste cap on a cardboard box

    像是這個光學原型工作台,

  • becomes a laser.

    我們把牙膏蓋放在厚紙板盒上,

  • The beam splitters and lenses are represented by physical objects,

    做成一個雷射台。

  • and the system projects down the laser beam path.

    分光器還有鏡片是以實物來呈現,

  • So you've got an interface that has no interface.

    這個系統投影出雷射光的路線。

  • You operate the world as you operate the real world,

    所以你有了沒有界面的界面。

  • which is to say, with your hands.

    你操作這個虛擬世界就像是你在操作真實的世界,

  • Similarly, a digital wind tunnel with digital wind

    也就是,用你自己的雙手。

  • flowing from right to left --

    相同地,有著數位風的數位風洞,

  • not that remarkable in a sense; we didn't invent the mathematics.

    由右至左吹過來。

  • But if you displayed that on a CRT or flat panel display,

    從某個層面看沒那麼了不起;我們並沒有發明這其中的數學原理。

  • it would be meaningless to hold up an arbitrary object,

    但如果你在 CRT 或平面面板上呈現,

  • a real world object in that.

    隨意拿起一個物體,一個真實世界中的物體,

  • Here, the real world merges with the simulation.

    就沒什麼意義了。

  • And finally, to pull out all the stops,

    在這裡,真實的世界和虛擬的世界融合在一起。

  • this is a system called Urp, for urban planners,

    最後,我們把剛提到的放在一起,

  • in which we give architects and urban planners back

    這個系統叫做 Urp,專門為都市設計者所研發的,

  • the models that we confiscated

    在這個系統中,

  • when we insisted that they use CAD systems.

    我們提供建築師以及都市設計者模組,

  • And we make the machine meet them half way.

    我們要求他們使用 CAD 系統。

  • It projects down digital shadows, as you see here.

    我們做出這機器以滿足他們的需求。

  • And if you introduce tools like this inverse clock,

    它可以投射出數位化陰影,就像你在這看到的。

  • then you can control the sun's position in the sky.

    如果你啟用像這個反向時鐘的工具,

  • That's 8 a.m. shadows.

    那你就可以控制天空中太陽的位置。

  • They get a little shorter at 9 a.m.

    這是早上八點的陰影。

  • There you are, swinging the sun around.

    到了九點會有點短。

  • Short shadows at noon and so forth.

    就像這樣,任意移動太陽。

  • And we built up a series of tools like this.

    中午影子更短,諸如此類的。

  • There are inter-shadowing studies

    我們還設計了一系列像這樣的工具。

  • that children can operate,

    還有一個連孩子都可以操作的

  • even though they don't know anything about urban planning:

    互動陰影學習工具,

  • To move a building, you simply reach out your hand and you move the building.

    即便他們不懂都市設計,

  • A material wand makes the building

    想要移動一座建築物的話,只要伸出你的手,你就可以移動它。

  • into a sort of Frank Gehry thing that reflects light in all directions.

    一根棒子就可以將一棟建築物

  • Are you blinding passers by and motorists on the freeways?

    變成像是法蘭克•蓋瑞的作品,並反射出各個方向的光線。

  • A zoning tool connects distant structures, a building and a roadway.

    這會不會讓路人還有高速公路上的汽車乘客覺得太刺眼了呢?

  • Are you going to get sued by the zoning commission? And so forth.

    區域劃分工具可以連接地理位置上不相鄰的物體,將建築物還有道路連接起來。

  • Now, if these ideas seem familiar

    可以看看你會不會被區域委員會控告等等之類的。

  • or perhaps even a little dated,

    現在,如果這些想法有點耳熟

  • that's great; they should seem familiar.

    或甚至有點過時,

  • This work is 15 years old.

    這很好,因為你應該要對他們感到熟悉。

  • This stuff was undertaken at MIT and the Media Lab

    這項計畫已進行十五年了。

  • under the incredible direction of Professor Hiroshi Ishii,

    所以在石井裕教授英明的帶領下,

  • director of the Tangible Media Group.

    麻省理工學院還有媒體實驗室一直都有這類的研究,

  • But it was that work that was seen

    石井裕教授是 Tangible Media Group 的領導者。

  • by Alex McDowell,

    亞歷克斯•麥克道爾發現了

  • one of the world's legendary production designers.

    這個計劃,

  • But Alex was preparing a little, sort of obscure, indie, arthouse film

    他是許多傳奇性產品的設計者。

  • called "Minority Report" for Steven Spielberg,

    當時亞歷克斯正在為史蒂芬•史匹柏準備一部有點不好懂卻又獨樹一格的

  • and invited us to come out from MIT

    科技藝術電影。

  • and design the interfaces

    他邀請我們走出麻省理工學院

  • that would appear in that film.

    並設計可在影片中

  • And the great thing about it was

    出現的界面。

  • that Alex was so dedicated to the idea of verisimilitude,

    最棒的事是

  • the idea that the putative 2054

    亞歷克斯十分熱中於擬真這個想法,

  • that we were painting in the film be believable,

    預設我們在片中所構想的 2054 年

  • that he allowed us to take on that design work

    是有可能成真的,

  • as if it were an R&D effort.

    亞歷克斯允許我們接手這項設計任務,

  • And the result is sort of

    就好像這是個研發工作般。

  • gratifyingly perpetual.

    結果還蠻令人

  • People still reference those sequences in "Minority Report"

    相當滿意呢。

  • when they talk about new UI design.

    當人們談到新的使用者界面設計,

  • So this led full circle, in a strange way,

    仍然會參考在中的片段。

  • to build these ideas into what we believe

    這形成了一個完整的循環,用一種特殊的方式,

  • is the necessary future of human machine interface:

    建構出今天的這些新理念,

  • the Spatial Operating Environment, we call it.

    我們相信這將是必然發生的未來人機界面,

  • So here we have a bunch of stuff, some images.

    我們稱它為空間操作環境。

  • And, using a hand,

    我們這裡有一些影像。

  • we can actually exercise six degrees of freedom,

    接著,用一隻手,

  • six degrees of navigational control.

    我們真的可以操作六個自由度,

  • And it's fun to fly through Mr. Beckett's eye.

    六度的導航控制。

  • And you can come back out

    飛過貝克先生的眼睛還蠻好玩的。

  • through the scary orangutan.

    你還可以從可怕的紅毛猩猩前面

  • And that's all well and good.

    退出來。

  • Let's do something a little more difficult.

    這些都進行得非常順利。

  • Here, we have a whole bunch of disparate images.

    我們再來做些有點難度的!

  • We can fly around them.

    這裡,我們有一大堆不同的影像。

  • So navigation is a fundamental issue.

    我們可以飛過他們。

  • You have to be able to navigate in 3D.

    所以導航是個相當基本的條件。

  • Much of what we want computers to help us with in the first place

    你必須要能在三度空間中導航。

  • is inherently spatial.

    大部分我們一開始所希望電腦幫我們處理的是

  • And the part that isn't spatial can often be spatialized

    內在空間。

  • to allow our wetware to make greater sense of it.

    不是空間的部分時常可以轉為空間化,

  • Now we can distribute this stuff in many different ways.

    讓我們人腦可以利用它做出更有意義的事。

  • So we can throw it out like that. Let's reset it.

    現在我們可以用很多方法來分散這個東西。

  • We can organize it this way.

    我們可以像這樣丟出去。 我們重新設置一下。

  • And, of course, it's not just about navigation,

    我們可以這樣組合。

  • but about manipulation as well.

    還有,當然,這不僅僅只是導航,

  • So if we don't like stuff,

    還有牽扯到操控。

  • or we're intensely curious about

    所以如果我們不喜歡這個東西,

  • Ernst Haeckel's scientific falsifications,

    或是我們對恩斯特•海克爾的科學仿真

  • we can pull them out like that.

    感到極度好奇,

  • And then if it's time for analysis, we can pull back a little bit

    我們可以像這樣把他們拉出來。

  • and ask for a different distribution.

    如果要做分析,我們可以退出一些,

  • Let's just come down a bit

    然後用個不一樣的展示方式。

  • and fly around.

    我們下來一點點,

  • So that's a different way to look at stuff.

    然後飛一圈。

  • If you're of a more analytical nature

    這又是另一個不一樣的方式來看這些東西。

  • then you might want, actually, to look at this

    如果你有科學分析的特質,

  • as a color histogram.

    那你可能會想,事實上,

  • So now we've got the stuff color-sorted,

    把這個看成彩色的柱狀圖。

  • angle maps onto color.

    所以我們把這些東西依據色彩來分類,

  • And now, if we want to select stuff,

    把地圖彩色化。

  • 3D, space,

    現在,如果我們想要選擇像

  • the idea that we're tracking hands in real space

    3D,空間這類的東西,

  • becomes really important because we can reach in,

    我們在真實空間中移動手的軌跡

  • not in 2D, not in fake 2D, but in actual 3D.

    就變得相當重要,因為我們可以控制的

  • Here are some selection planes.

    並不是平面,也不是虛擬的平面,而是真實的三度空間。

  • And we'll perform this Boolean operation

    這裡有一些供選擇的陳列版。

  • because we really love yellow and tapirs on green grass.

    我們將進行這個布林運算

  • So, from there to the world of real work.

    因為我們真的很喜歡黃色和在青草地上的貘。

  • Here's a logistics system,

    所以,從那裏到真實存在的世界。

  • a small piece of one that we're currently building.

    這裡有個後勤系統,

  • There're a lot of elements.

    這是我們現在正建立的東西的一小部分。

  • And one thing that's very important is to combine traditional tabular data

    有很多要素在裡面。

  • with three-dimensional and geospatial information.

    其中有一個很重要的就是把傳統的表格數據

  • So here's a familiar place.

    和三度空間還有地理空間資訊結合在一起。

  • And we'll bring this back here for a second.

    這裡有個很熟悉的地方。

  • Maybe select a little bit of that.

    我們把這個拉回來這裡一下。

  • And bring out this graph.

    也許選一些那個。

  • And we should, now,

    然後帶出這張圖表。

  • be able to fly in here

    現在,我們應該

  • and have a closer look.

    可以在這裡飛,

  • These are logistics elements

    還可以再看近一點。

  • that are scattered across the United States.

    這些是散布在整個美國

  • One thing that three-dimensional interactions

    的物流要素。

  • and the general idea of imbuing

    三度空間互動以及

  • computation with space affords you

    完全的進入空間計算的基本概念

  • is a final destruction of that unfortunate

    所提供給你的是

  • one-to-one pairing between human beings and computers.

    徹底淘汰了不合時的

  • That's the old way, that's the old mantra:

    人類與電腦一對一操作界面。

  • one machine, one human, one mouse, one screen.

    這是老舊的方式,老舊的思維,對吧!

  • Well, that doesn't really cut it anymore.

    一台機器,一個人類,一個滑鼠,一個螢幕。

  • In the real world, we have people who collaborate;

    現在,不能光靠這些了。

  • we have people who have to work together,

    所以在真實的世界中,我們有著跟我們合作的人,

  • and we have many different displays.

    也有著和我們一起工作的人。

  • And we might want to look at these various images.

    我們還有許多不同的展示方式。

  • We might want to ask for some help.

    大家可能會想要看看這些不一樣的圖像。

  • The author of this new pointing device

    我們可能會需要一些幫助。

  • is sitting over there,

    這一套新的指向裝置的發明者

  • so I can pull this from there to there.

    就坐在那裡,

  • These are unrelated machines, right?

    所以我可以把這個從那拉到那裏。

  • So the computation is space soluble and network soluble.

    這些是沒有關聯的機器,對吧!

  • So I'm going to leave that over there

    所以這個計算是不受空間和網路限制的。

  • because I have a question for Paul.

    我先把那些留在那裡,

  • Paul is the designer of this wand, and maybe its easiest

    因為我有個問題要給保羅。

  • for him to come over here and tell me in person what's going on.

    保羅是這魔杖的設計者,

  • So let me get some of these out of the way.

    也許由他過來這裡親自告訴我到底發生什麼事是最簡單的了。

  • Let's pull this apart:

    讓我先把這些東西移開。

  • I'll go ahead and explode it.

    讓我先把這個拆開,