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  • I'm an ecologist,

    譯者: Crystal Tu 審譯者: Marie Wu

  • mostly a coral reef ecologist.

    我是生態學家,

  • I started out in Chesapeake Bay

    大多是做珊瑚礁生態研究。

  • and went diving in the winter

    一開始我是從柴斯比克灣開始,

  • and became a tropical ecologist overnight.

    在寒冷的冬天潛入海水,

  • And it was really a lot of fun

    但一夜之間我成了熱帶生態學家,

  • for about 10 years.

    這是一件很棒的事,

  • I mean, somebody pays you

    大概持續了十年左右。

  • to go around and travel

    我是說,有人付錢請你

  • and look at some of the most

    四處遊歷,

  • beautiful places on the planet.

    尋找一些這世界上

  • And that was what I did.

    最美麗的地方,

  • And I ended up in Jamaica,

    而那就是我的工作。

  • in the West Indies,

    最後我來到西印度群島的

  • where the coral reefs were really

    牙買加,

  • among the most extraordinary, structurally,

    那裡的珊瑚礁

  • that I ever saw in my life.

    是我所見過最特別、

  • And this picture here,

    也是最完整的一個。

  • it's really interesting, it shows two things:

    這張照片很有趣,

  • First of all, it's in black and white

    它隱含了兩個涵意。

  • because the water was so clear

    首先,這是黑白的,

  • and you could see so far,

    因為海水非常清澈,

  • and film was so slow

    所以你可以看到很遠,

  • in the 1960s and early 70s,

    而且在1960和70年代初期,

  • you took pictures in black and white.

    照片還不普及,

  • The other thing it shows you

    所以只能拍黑白照片。

  • is that, although there's this beautiful

    另外一個涵意是,

  • forest of coral,

    雖然整個珊瑚森林

  • there are no fish in that picture.

    非常美麗,

  • Those reefs at Discovery Bay, Jamaica

    在照片裡卻連隻魚都沒有。

  • were the most studied coral reefs

    這些在牙買加發現灣的珊瑚礁,

  • in the world for 20 years.

    是世界上近二十年來,被研究得

  • We were the best and the brightest.

    最透徹的珊瑚礁,

  • People came to study our reefs from Australia,

    我們有最好、最棒的珊瑚礁。

  • which is sort of funny

    還有人遠從澳洲來研究這些珊瑚礁,

  • because now we go to theirs.

    想想有點好笑,

  • And the view of scientists

    因為我們現在還得去他們那裡觀摩。

  • about how coral reefs work, how they ought to be,

    科學家對於

  • was based on these reefs

    珊瑚礁如何運作、演變的概念,

  • without any fish.

    全都來自於這些

  • Then, in 1980,

    沒有魚的珊瑚礁。

  • there was a hurricane, Hurricane Allen.

    1980年時,

  • I put half the lab

    颶風艾倫來襲,

  • up in my house.

    我把半間實驗室

  • The wind blew very strong.

    建在家裡。

  • The waves were 25

    風非常強,

  • to 50 feet high.

    而浪有25到

  • And the reefs disappeared, and new islands formed,

    50英呎(8~16公尺)高,

  • and we thought, "Well, we're real smart.

    然後珊瑚礁消失,形成新島嶼。

  • We know that hurricanes

    我們想,「好吧,還好我們很聰明,

  • have always happened in the past."

    知道颶風

  • And we published a paper in Science,

    從以前就常常來襲。」

  • the first time that anybody ever

    所以我們在《科學》期刊上發表了一篇論文,

  • described the destruction

    這是第一次有人報導

  • on a coral reef by a major hurricane.

    大型颶風對珊瑚礁

  • And we predicted what would happen,

    所造成的破壞,

  • and we got it all wrong.

    我們也預測了之後會發生什麼事。

  • And the reason was

    結果我們都錯了。

  • because of overfishing,

    真正的原因是因為

  • and the fact that a last common grazer,

    過度捕撈,

  • a sea urchin, died.

    連最後的掠食者

  • And within a few months

    海膽也消失了。

  • after that sea urchin dying, the seaweed started to grow.

    而在幾個月之內,

  • And that is the same reef;

    海膽逐漸死亡,海藻便開始生長。

  • that's the same reef 15 years ago;

    這是十五年前,

  • that's the same reef today.

    同一個珊瑚礁的照片,

  • The coral reefs of the north coast of Jamaica

    然後這是現在的珊瑚礁。

  • have a few percent live coral cover

    牙買加北岸的珊瑚礁

  • and a lot of seaweed and slime.

    只剩極少的珊瑚存活,

  • And that's more or less the story

    其他大多是海藻或爛泥。

  • of the coral reefs of the Caribbean,

    這或多或少就是

  • and increasingly, tragically,

    加勒比海珊瑚礁的遭遇,

  • the coral reefs worldwide.

    也是世界上其他更多、

  • Now, that's my little, depressing story.

    更可悲的珊瑚礁的遭遇。

  • All of us in our 60s and 70s

    這是我個人哀傷的親身經歷,

  • have comparable depressing stories.

    而在60和70年代,很多人

  • There are tens of thousands

    都有類似的遭遇,

  • of those stories out there,

    世界上還有成千上萬個

  • and it's really hard to conjure up

    這樣的故事。

  • much of a sense of well-being,

    很難想像

  • because it just keeps getting worse.

    一切會逐漸好轉過來,

  • And the reason it keeps getting worse

    因為情況一直在惡化,

  • is that after a natural catastrophe,

    而會持續惡化的原因是,

  • like a hurricane,

    在經過颶風

  • it used to be that there was

    這樣的自然災害後,

  • some kind of successional sequence of recovery,

    本來應該會透過

  • but what's going on now is that

    消長演替而自然好轉的珊瑚礁,

  • overfishing and pollution and climate change

    現在則因為

  • are all interacting

    漁業過度捕撈、污染還有氣候變遷等

  • in a way that prevents that.

    互相影響,

  • And so I'm going to sort of go through

    而使自然消長無法進行。

  • and talk about those three

    所以我接下來會

  • kinds of things.

    一一解釋

  • We hear a lot about

    這三件事情。

  • the collapse of cod.

    (過度捕撈)大家都聽過很多

  • It's difficult to imagine that

    關於鱈魚捕撈業瓦解的事情,

  • two, or some historians would say three world wars

    很難想像有二次,

  • were fought during the colonial era

    或者有些歷史學家說三次世界大戰,

  • for the control of cod.

    都是為了要控制鱈魚,

  • Cod fed most of the people of Western Europe.

    而在殖民時期爆發。

  • It fed the slaves

    鱈魚養活了西歐大部分的人口,

  • brought to the Antilles,

    也養活了

  • the song "Jamaica Farewell" --

    從安地列斯群島來的奴隸。

  • "Ackee rice salt fish are nice" --

    "再會牙買加"這首歌中有一句:

  • is an emblem of the importance

    "阿開木果、米飯、鹹魚亦可口"

  • of salt cod from northeastern Canada.

    便象徵著

  • It all collapsed in the 80s and the 90s:

    加拿大東北鹽漬鱈魚的重要性。

  • 35,000 people lost their jobs.

    但在80和90年代整個鱈魚漁業瓦解,

  • And that was the beginning

    三萬五千人失業,

  • of a kind of serial depletion

    而這只是一連串

  • from bigger and tastier species

    資源耗竭的開端,

  • to smaller and not-so-tasty species,

    原本你有好吃的大魚,

  • from species that were near to home

    後來只能吃不那麼可口的小魚;

  • to species that were all around the world,

    原本只捕撈鄰近的漁種,

  • and what have you.

    後來開始捕撈世界各地的其他漁種,

  • It's a little hard to understand that,

    這都是我們自己造成的。

  • because you can go to a Costco in the United States

    這或許不大容易理解,

  • and buy cheap fish.

    因為在美國,你可以在好市多

  • You ought to read the label to find out where it came from,

    買到便宜的魚,

  • but it's still cheap,

    你得從標籤上才能知道這魚是從哪來的,

  • and everybody thinks it's okay.

    但那還是很便宜,

  • It's hard to communicate this,

    所以大家覺得這沒什麼。

  • and one way that I think is really interesting

    我覺得很難對大眾講清楚這個道理,

  • is to talk about sport fish,

    但我覺得可以舉休閒釣魚這個有趣的例子,

  • because people like to go out and catch fish.

    來讓大家瞭解這個道理,

  • It's one of those things.

    因為大家都喜歡到戶外抓魚,

  • This picture here shows the trophy fish,

    這便是其中之一。

  • the biggest fish caught

    這張照片是大獎魚,

  • by people who pay a lot of money

    也就是參賽者裡所釣到最大隻的魚,

  • to get on a boat,

    這些參賽者會花大把銀子

  • go to a place off of Key West in Florida,

    去搭船,

  • drink a lot of beer,

    到佛羅里達州的西嶼某處,

  • throw a lot of hooks and lines into the water,

    拼命灌啤酒、

  • come back with the biggest and the best fish,

    下很多魚鉤,

  • and the champion trophy fish

    然後帶著最大最好的魚回來,

  • are put on this board, where people take a picture,

    而最大的冠軍魚,

  • and this guy is obviously

    會被放到這板子上給人拍照,

  • really excited about that fish.

    而這傢伙顯然

  • Well, that's what it's like now,

    非常興奮。

  • but this is what it was like in the 1950s

    也許現在是這樣,

  • from the same boat in the same place

    但這是1950年時

  • on the same board on the same dock.

    從同一條船上,

  • The trophy fish

    在同一個地點同一個碼頭的同一塊板子上拍的

  • were so big

    大獎魚,

  • that you couldn't put any of those small fish up on it.

    那條魚超大,

  • And the average size trophy fish

    大到其他的小魚都放不下,

  • weighed 250 to 300 pounds, goliath grouper,

    那時大獎魚的平均重量

  • and if you wanted to go out and kill something,

    是250到300磅,像巨人哥利亞一樣。

  • you could pretty much count on

    你如果想到外面去捕點魚,

  • being able to catch one of those fish.

    便很有可能會

  • And they tasted really good.

    釣到一條像這樣的魚,

  • And people paid less in 1950 dollars

    而且真的很好吃。

  • to catch that

    在1950年代要釣到這樣的魚,

  • than what people pay now

    比現在便宜多了,

  • to catch those little, tiny fish.

    而現在只能抓到

  • And that's everywhere.

    那些小小的魚,

  • It's not just the fish, though,

    到處都只能看到這些小魚。

  • that are disappearing.

    消失的

  • Industrial fishing uses big stuff,

    不只是魚而已。

  • big machinery.

    商業捕撈用的是大傢伙、

  • We use nets that are 20 miles long.

    大機具,

  • We use longlines

    他們用的漁網有20哩(32公里)長,

  • that have one million or two million hooks.

    他們也使用上面有

  • And we trawl,

    一兩百萬個魚鉤的延繩釣線,

  • which means to take something

    還有底拖網,

  • the size of a tractor trailer truck

    也就是把一個

  • that weighs thousands and thousands of pounds,

    大得像連結車、

  • put it on a big chain,

    重達幾千磅的東西

  • and drag it across the sea floor

    裝上鐵鍊,

  • to stir up the bottom and catch the fish.

    然後拖過海底,

  • Think of it as

    把底部亂攪一通來捕魚。

  • being kind of the bulldozing of a city

    這就像是

  • or of a forest,

    摧毀一整個城市

  • because it clears it away.

    或森林一樣,

  • And the habitat destruction

    一掃而空,

  • is unbelievable.

    造成難以想像

  • This is a photograph,

    的棲地破壞。

  • a typical photograph,

    這是

  • of what the continental shelves

    世界上典型

  • of the world look like.

    大陸棚區

  • You can see the rows in the bottom,

    的照片,

  • the way you can see the rows

    你可以看到海底有一條條的痕跡,

  • in a field that has just been plowed

    那一條條的痕跡就像是

  • to plant corn.

    剛犁好田的土地,

  • What that was, was a forest of sponges and coral,

    要來種玉米。

  • which is a critical habitat

    而這從前是海綿和珊瑚的叢林,

  • for the development of fish.

    是魚類生長發育的

  • What it is now is mud,

    重要棲地,

  • and the area of the ocean floor

    現在變成一堆泥土。

  • that has been transformed from forest

    整個海底被破壞,

  • to level mud, to parking lot,

    從森林變成

  • is equivalent to the entire area

    泥地,再變成停車場,

  • of all the forests

    整個被破壞的面積相當於

  • that have ever been cut down

    人類歷史上

  • on all of the earth

    曾在地球上

  • in the history of humanity.

    砍伐過的

  • We've managed to do that

    所有森林的總面積。

  • in the last 100 to 150 years.

    而這已經持續了

  • We tend to think of oil spills

    一百到一百五十年。

  • and mercury

    (污染)我們常會先想到漏油

  • and we hear a lot about plastic these days.

    或水銀,

  • And all of that stuff is really disgusting,

    還有最近常聽到的塑膠產品,

  • but what's really insidious

    這些東西都很討人厭,

  • is the biological pollution that happens

    但最棘手的是

  • because of the magnitude of the shifts

    生物污染,

  • that it causes

    會使整個生態體系,

  • to entire ecosystems.

    產生大規模

  • And I'm going to just talk very briefly

    的轉變。

  • about two kinds of biological pollution:

    我在這裡只簡單講

  • one is introduced species

    兩種生物污染,

  • and the other is what comes from nutrients.

    一個是外來種,

  • So this is the infamous

    另外一個則因養分滋養而大量繁殖。

  • Caulerpa taxifolia,

    這是惡名昭彰的

  • the so-called killer algae.

    Caulerpa taxifolia(羽毛藻),

  • A book was written about it.

    又叫殺手藻,

  • It's a bit of an embarrassment.

    有一本書專門在講這種藻類。

  • It was accidentally released

    尷尬的是,

  • from the aquarium in Monaco,

    這是不小心從

  • it was bred to be cold tolerant

    摩納哥的水族館裡跑出來的。

  • to have in peoples aquaria.

    這是人類培養的耐冷藻類,

  • It's very pretty,

    可以養在水族箱裡,

  • and it has rapidly started

    很漂亮,

  • to overgrow

    一下子就大量繁殖起來,

  • the once very rich

    覆蓋了

  • biodiversity of the

    曾經有

  • northwestern Mediterranean.

    豐富多樣性物種的

  • I don't know how many of you remember the movie

    地中海西北海岸。

  • "The Little Shop of Horrors,"

    我不知道有多少人還記得

  • but this is the plant of "The Little Shop of Horrors."

    《異形奇花》這部電影,

  • But, instead of devouring the people in the shop,

    這藻類就是裡面那朵花,

  • what it's doing is overgrowing

    但它不會吃掉店裡的人,

  • and smothering

    它反而是拼命繁殖,

  • virtually all of the bottom-dwelling life

    然後把所有

  • of the entire northwestern

    地中海西北岸

  • Mediterranean Sea.

    的底棲生物

  • We don't know anything that eats it,

    都給悶死。

  • we're trying to do all sorts of genetics

    我們不知道有什麼生物會吃它們,

  • and figure out something that could be done,

    也試著用遺傳工程

  • but, as it stands, it's the monster from hell,

    或是其他任何方法來解決,

  • about which nobody knows what to do.

    但是它們還在,像是從地獄來的怪物,

  • Now another form of pollution

    沒人知道該拿它們怎麼辦。

  • that's biological pollution

    另外一種污染則是

  • is what happens from excess nutrients.

    因為養分過多所造成的

  • The green revolution,

    生物污染。

  • all of this artificial nitrogen fertilizer, we use too much of it.

    農業改革後,

  • It's subsidized, which is one of the reasons we used too much of it.

    人類大量使用化學氮肥,

  • It runs down the rivers,

    政府還會補助,這也是為什麼農民總是用太多肥料的原因。

  • and it feeds the plankton,

    剩下的肥料則被河流帶走,

  • the little microscopic plant cells

    滋養浮游植物,

  • in the coastal water.

    就是生長在近岸海域裡的

  • But since we ate all the oysters

    微小植物。

  • and we ate all the fish that would eat the plankton,

    但我們已經把牡蠣