Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • So I want to start by offering you a free

    首先我要提供你們一個免費的

  • no-tech life hack,

    不涉科技的生活小撇步

  • and all it requires of you is this:

    你只要

  • that you change your posture for two minutes.

    改變你的姿勢二分鐘

  • But before I give it away, I want to ask you to right now

    在我說明前,我要先請大家

  • do a little audit of your body and what you're doing with your body.

    先檢視一下你的姿態

  • So how many of you are sort of making yourselves smaller?

    你們之中有多少人身體是約略縮小的?

  • Maybe you're hunching, crossing your legs,

    或許你現在翹著腳駝著背?

  • maybe wrapping your ankles.

    或者雙手抱膝

  • Sometimes we hold onto our arms like this.

    有時我們會這樣抱著手臂

  • Sometimes we spread out. (Laughter)

    有時我們會打開雙手 (笑聲)

  • I see you. (Laughter)

    我看到囉(笑聲)

  • So I want you to pay attention to what you're doing right now.

    現在請大家專心在自己身上

  • We're going to come back to that in a few minutes,

    我們等一下在回到這件事上

  • and I'm hoping that if you learn to tweak this a little bit,

    希望你們可以稍微改變一下

  • it could significantly change the way your life unfolds.

    這會讓你的生活變得很不一樣

  • So, we're really fascinated with body language,

    所以,我們深為身體語言著迷

  • and we're particularly interested

    特別是

  • in other people's body language.

    別人的身體語言

  • You know, we're interested in, like, you know — (Laughter) —

    你知道,當我們為 (笑聲)

  • an awkward interaction, or a smile,

    尷尬的互動,或微笑

  • or a contemptuous glance, or maybe a very awkward wink,

    或輕蔑的一瞥,或不自然的眨眼

  • or maybe even something like a handshake.

    甚至是握手這樣的一件事

  • Narrator: Here they are arriving at Number 10, and look at this

    (影片旁白):這是第十個,看看這個

  • lucky policeman gets to shake hands with the President

    幸運的警員可以和美國總統握手

  • of the United States. Oh, and here comes

    噢,還有

  • the Prime Minister of the — ? No. (Laughter) (Applause)

    來自....的首相? 不 (笑聲) (掌聲)

  • (Laughter) (Applause)

    (笑聲) (掌聲)

  • Amy Cuddy: So a handshake, or the lack of a handshake,

    所以一個握手,或不握手

  • can have us talking for weeks and weeks and weeks.

    我們都可以聊上好幾個禮拜

  • Even the BBC and The New York Times.

    即使 BBC 和紐約時報也不例外

  • So obviously when we think about nonverbal behavior,

    我們說到非語言行為或身體語言時

  • or body language -- but we call it nonverbals as social scientists --

    我們社會科學學者將之歸類為非口語語言

  • it's language, so we think about communication.

    它就是一種語言,所以我們會想到溝通

  • When we think about communication, we think about interactions.

    當我們想到溝通,我們就想到互動

  • So what is your body language communicating to me?

    所以你現在的身體語言正在告訴我甚麼?

  • What's mine communicating to you?

    我的身體又是在傳達甚麼給你們?

  • And there's a lot of reason to believe that this is a valid

    有很多理由讓我們相信這是有效的切入點

  • way to look at this. So social scientists have spent a lot

    社會科學家花了很多時間

  • of time looking at the effects of our body language,

    研究我們的身體語言

  • or other people's body language, on judgments.

    或其他人的身體語言在判斷方面的效應

  • And we make sweeping judgments and inferences from body language.

    而我們根據他人的身體語言,推論並做出快速又決絕的判斷

  • And those judgments can predict really meaningful life outcomes

    這些判斷可以幫我們預測生命裡很有意義的事件

  • like who we hire or promote, who we ask out on a date.

    像是要雇用誰,邀請誰出去約會

  • For example, Nalini Ambady, a researcher at Tufts University,

    舉例而言,Tufts 大學的研究員,Nalini Ambady

  • shows that when people watch 30-second soundless clips

    讓我們看到 當人們觀賞一段 30 秒

  • of real physician-patient interactions,

    正牌醫師和病人互動的無聲影片

  • their judgments of the physician's niceness

    他們對該醫師是否和善的觀感

  • predict whether or not that physician will be sued.

    可用來預測該醫師日後是否會被病人告上法庭

  • So it doesn't have to do so much with whether or not

    跟這個醫師稱職與否沒有太大關係

  • that physician was incompetent, but do we like that person

    重點是我們喜不喜歡他

  • and how they interacted?

    和他們互動的情形?

  • Even more dramatic, Alex Todorov at Princeton has shown

    更戲劇化的是,普林斯頓的 Alex Todorov 的研究告訴我們

  • us that judgments of political candidates' faces

    我們在一秒內對政治人物臉部的喜好判斷

  • in just one second predict 70 percent of U.S. Senate

    對美國參議院和美國州長的

  • and gubernatorial race outcomes,

    選舉結果有 70% 的預測力

  • and even, let's go digital,

    甚至,在電腦上的互動

  • emoticons used well in online negotiations

    在線上協商時,妥善運用表情符號

  • can lead to you claim more value from that negotiation.

    可以讓你在協商中獲的較多價值

  • If you use them poorly, bad idea. Right?

    假如你運用不得當,不妙!對吧?

  • So when we think of nonverbals, we think of how we judge

    當我們想到非口語語言,我們就想到判斷別人

  • others, how they judge us and what the outcomes are.

    別人如何判斷我們以及結果

  • We tend to forget, though, the other audience

    我們往往忘記,還有其他人也受到我們非口語語言影響

  • that's influenced by our nonverbals, and that's ourselves.

    那就是我們自己

  • We are also influenced by our nonverbals, our thoughts

    我們也同時受自己的非口語語言、想法

  • and our feelings and our physiology.

    感覺和生理影響

  • So what nonverbals am I talking about?

    所以我說的究竟是甚麼樣的非口語語言?

  • I'm a social psychologist. I study prejudice,

    我是一位社會心理學家,我研究偏見

  • and I teach at a competitive business school,

    我在一所競爭激烈的商學院教書

  • so it was inevitable that I would become interested in power dynamics.

    因此無可避免地對權力間互動關係著迷

  • I became especially interested in nonverbal expressions

    特別是在非口語語言表達方面

  • of power and dominance.

    的權力和支配

  • And what are nonverbal expressions of power and dominance?

    展示權力和支配的非口語語言又為何呢?

  • Well, this is what they are.

    嗯,讓我細細道來

  • So in the animal kingdom, they are about expanding.

    在動物世界裡,權力和支配的非口語語言講究擴展

  • So you make yourself big, you stretch out,

    所以你盡可能得把自己變大,你伸展身體

  • you take up space, you're basically opening up.

    占滿空間,基本上就是開展身體

  • It's about opening up. And this is true

    就是關於展開身體

  • across the animal kingdom. It's not just limited to primates.

    整個動物世界都是如此,不僅限於靈長類。

  • And humans do the same thing. (Laughter)

    人類也幹同樣的事(笑聲)

  • So they do this both when they have power sort of chronically,

    不論是習於權力的人

  • and also when they're feeling powerful in the moment.

    或普通人偶而碰上可以大聲講話的時後,都是如此

  • And this one is especially interesting because it really shows us

    特別有趣的原因是

  • how universal and old these expressions of power are.

    它讓我們明白古今世界權力的展現從來是如此地一致

  • This expression, which is known as pride,

    自尊的表現

  • Jessica Tracy has studied. She shows that

    Jessica Tracy 研究顯示

  • people who are born with sight

    視力正常的人

  • and people who are congenitally blind do this

    和先天視障的人

  • when they win at a physical competition.

    在贏得比賽時都做同樣的事

  • So when they cross the finish line and they've won,

    當他們跨過終點線贏得比賽之際

  • it doesn't matter if they've never seen anyone do it.

    無論他們是否曾看過這種行為

  • They do this.

    他們都展現這個姿勢

  • So the arms up in the V, the chin is slightly lifted.

    雙臂呈V字型朝上,下巴微揚

  • What do we do when we feel powerless? We do exactly

    那我們感到無助的時候呢? 我們做完全相反的事

  • the opposite. We close up. We wrap ourselves up.

    我們縮起身體。我們把自己捲曲起來

  • We make ourselves small. We don't want to bump into the person next to us.

    讓自己變得小一點,最好別碰到身旁的人

  • So again, both animals and humans do the same thing.

    我再重複一次,人類和動物都一樣

  • And this is what happens when you put together high

    這是在權力不對等時發生的狀況

  • and low power. So what we tend to do

    在不對等權力狀態下,我們傾向

  • when it comes to power is that we complement the other's nonverbals.

    和對方互補

  • So if someone is being really powerful with us,

    若有人對我們展現權力

  • we tend to make ourselves smaller. We don't mirror them.

    我們傾向把自己縮小些,我們不模仿他們

  • We do the opposite of them.

    我們背道而馳

  • So I'm watching this behavior in the classroom,

    當我在課堂上觀察這麼現象時

  • and what do I notice? I notice that MBA students

    你猜我發現甚麼? 我發現 MBA 的學生

  • really exhibit the full range of power nonverbals.

    把權力的非口語語言部分表達的淋漓盡致

  • So you have people who are like caricatures of alphas,

    你會看到有些人就像動物群裡支配的雄性的變形

  • really coming into the room, they get right into the middle of the room

    上課前大搖大擺走進教室,一屁股坐在教室正中

  • before class even starts, like they really want to occupy space.

    好像他們真的要占據整個空間似的

  • When they sit down, they're sort of spread out.

    當他們坐下的時候,身體會展開

  • They raise their hands like this.

    舉手時會像這樣把手高舉起來

  • You have other people who are virtually collapsing

    有些人基本上是攤成一堆

  • when they come in. As soon they come in, you see it.

    他們一走進來你就會發現

  • You see it on their faces and their bodies, and they sit

    從他們的臉上表情和身體姿勢都看得出來

  • in their chair and they make themselves tiny,

    他們坐在椅子上,把自己縮的小小的

  • and they go like this when they raise their hand.

    然後舉手的時候是這種畏畏縮縮的樣子

  • I notice a couple of things about this.

    我觀察到兩點:

  • One, you're not going to be surprised.

    第一,不出所料

  • It seems to be related to gender.

    這跟性別有關

  • So women are much more likely to do this kind of thing than men.

    女人比男人更會顯得畏縮

  • Women feel chronically less powerful than men,

    長期以來女人都不覺得像男人那麼強勢

  • so this is not surprising. But the other thing I noticed is that

    所以這並不太讓人意外。但第二件我觀察到的

  • it also seemed to be related to the extent to which

    這種表現似乎跟學生的參與程度

  • the students were participating, and how well they were participating.

    與參與表現相關

  • And this is really important in the MBA classroom,

    在 MBA 的課堂上來說這真的非常重要

  • because participation counts for half the grade.

    因為參與的表現占成績的一半

  • So business schools have been struggling with this gender grade gap.

    所以商學院一直以來都為男女生在參與上的差別傷腦筋

  • You get these equally qualified women and men coming in

    入學的時候男女生不分軒輊

  • and then you get these differences in grades,

    可是成績出來卻反映性別差異

  • and it seems to be partly attributable to participation.

    而看起來一部分原因和參與有關

  • So I started to wonder, you know, okay,

    所以我開始思考,好吧

  • so you have these people coming in like this, and they're

    所以這群人一開始來是這副樣子,看起來積極參與

  • participating. Is it possible that we could get people to fake it

    那是不是可能讓大家先假裝成那樣

  • and would it lead them to participate more?

    進而影響他們,能更積極參與?

  • So my main collaborator Dana Carney, who's at Berkeley,

    我在 Berkeley 的主要合作研究夥伴,Dana Carney

  • and I really wanted to know, can you fake it till you make it?

    和我都很想知道,是不是能先假裝,到最後則成真

  • Like, can you do this just for a little while and actually

    譬如說,先小小假裝一陣子,然後在實際行為上經驗到

  • experience a behavioral outcome that makes you seem more powerful?

    你看來很有權力的樣子的結果

  • So we know that our nonverbals govern how other people

    我們都知道非口語語言影響

  • think and feel about us. There's a lot of evidence.

    他人對我們的看法。已經有很多研究證明這件事

  • But our question really was, do our nonverbals

    而我們要問的問題是,非口語語言

  • govern how we think and feel about ourselves?

    是否影響我們對自己的看法與感覺?

  • There's some evidence that they do.

    確實有證據支持這個說法

  • So, for example, we smile when we feel happy,

    舉例來說,我們開心的時候會微笑

  • but also, when we're forced to smile

    但同樣地,當我們被迫在口中咬住一隻筆

  • by holding a pen in our teeth like this, it makes us feel happy.

    呈現微笑的表情時,我們也會感到開心

  • So it goes both ways. When it comes to power,

    代表這是互為因果,互相影響的。說到權力

  • it also goes both ways. So when you feel powerful,

    亦是如此。所以當我們感到很有權力時

  • you're more likely to do this, but it's also possible that

    你比較會這樣做,但你也可能

  • when you pretend to be powerful, you are more likely

    假裝自己很有權力,

  • to actually feel powerful.

    然後真的覺得自己力量強大

  • So the second question really was, you know,

    那第二個問題就是

  • so we know that our minds change our bodies,

    我們知道心理狀態會影響身體

  • but is it also true that our bodies change our minds?

    那身體是否能影響心理呢?

  • And when I say minds, in the case of the powerful,

    這裡所說的心理充滿力量

  • what am I talking about?

    指的是甚麼?

  • So I'm talking about thoughts and feelings

    我指的是想法和感覺

  • and the sort of physiological things that make up our thoughts and feelings,

    和構成我們想法和感受的生理因素

  • and in my case, that's hormones. I look at hormones.

    我這裡是指荷爾蒙。所以我針對荷爾蒙來看

  • So what do the minds of the powerful versus the powerless

    充滿力量或充滿無力感

  • look like?

    在荷爾蒙層面上有什麼差別?

  • So powerful people tend to be, not surprisingly,

    不出乎意料,感覺自己有力的人往往

  • more assertive and more confident, more optimistic.

    比較果斷,自信,且樂觀

  • They actually feel that they're going to win even at games of chance.

    他們確切認為機會永遠站在他們這邊

  • They also tend to be able to think more abstractly.

    他們也較擅長抽象思考

  • So there are a lot of differences. They take more risks.

    還有許多差異。這種人比較敢承受風險

  • There are a lot of differences between powerful and powerless people.

    強勢的人與充滿無力感的人真的差別很大

  • Physiologically, there also are differences on two

    在生理上有二個重要的荷爾蒙對此有影響

  • key hormones: testosterone, which is the dominance hormone,

    一是睪固酮:也就是支配性荷爾蒙

  • and cortisol, which is the stress hormone.

    一是腎上腺皮質醇:也就是壓力荷爾蒙

  • So what we find is that

    我們發現到

  • high-power alpha males in primate hierarchies

    靈長類裡的強勢男性

  • have high testosterone and low cortisol,

    有大量的睪固酮和低量的腎上腺皮質醇

  • and powerful and effective leaders also have

    強勢,高效能的領袖人物

  • high testosterone and low cortisol.

    也有大量睪固酮與低量的腎上腺皮質醇

  • So what does that mean? When you think about power,

    這表示甚麼? 當你想到權力

  • people tended to think only about testosterone,

    人們往往只想到睪固酮

  • because that was about dominance.

    因為它代表支配統治

  • But really, power is also about how you react to stress.

    但力量其實也和如何處理壓力有關

  • So do you want the high-power leader that's dominant,

    所以你會想見一個有支配地位強勢領袖

  • high on testosterone, but really stress reactive?

    有著很多睪固酮但同時又對壓力反應過度嗎?

  • Probably not, right? You want the person

    大概不會吧,不是嗎?你會希望那個人

  • who's powerful and assertive and dominant,

    是充滿力量,肯定果斷,非常強勢

  • but not very stress reactive, the person who's laid back.

    但也不會對壓力反應過度,不能輕鬆以對

  • So we know that in primate hierarchies, if an alpha

    靈長動物的社群階級裡,如果一個強勢雄性

  • needs to take over, if an individual needs to take over

    想要奪權,如果一個雄性突然想要爭取

  • an alpha role sort of suddenly,

    首領這個角色

  • within a few days, that individual's testosterone has gone up

    幾天內,他體內的睪固酮一定急速增加

  • significantly and his cortisol has dropped significantly.

    而其腎上腺皮質醇劇烈地減少

  • So we have this evidence, both that the body can shape

    身體影響心理,由此可證

  • the mind, at least at the facial level,

    至少就表面而言是如此

  • and also that role changes can shape the mind.

    同時角色的轉換也會影響心理

  • So what happens, okay, you take a role change,

    所以,如果你改變角色

  • what happens if you do that at a really minimal level,

    如果你做一個微小改變會怎樣

  • like this tiny manipulation, this tiny intervention?

    像這樣的操作,這樣一個小小的干預?

  • "For two minutes," you say, "I want you to stand like this,

    "持續二分鐘"你說,"我要你們這樣站著,

  • and it's going to make you feel more powerful."

    它會讓你感到更充滿力量"

  • So this is what we did. We decided to bring people

    接著我們就決定做這個實驗。

  • into the lab and run a little experiment, and these people

    我們將人們帶進實驗室做個小實驗

  • adopted, for two minutes, either high-power poses

    這些人將擺出有權勢的姿態

  • or low-power poses, and I'm just going to show you

    或無力的姿態兩分鐘,現在我們一起看

  • five of the poses, although they took on only two.

    這五種姿勢,雖然他們只做了其中二種

  • So here's one.

    這是其一

  • A couple more.

    再兩個姿勢

  • This one has been dubbed the "Wonder Woman"

    這個姿勢是媒體一般稱為

  • by the media.

    "神力女超人" 的姿態

  • Here are a couple more.

    還有這兩個

  • So you can be standing or you can be sitting.

    或站或坐

  • And here are the low-power poses.

    這些是無助的姿勢

  • So you're folding up, you're making yourself small.

    你雙手交叉,試著讓自己變小一點

  • This one is very low-power.

    這張顯現非常無助的樣子

  • When you're touching your neck,

    當你摸脖子

  • you're really protecting yourself.

    你其實在保護自己

  • So this is what happens. They come in,

    實際的狀況是,他們一進來

  • they spit into a vial,

    先朝試管裡吐口口水

  • we for two minutes say, "You need to do this or this."

    我們告訴他,擺這個姿勢,兩分鐘

  • They don't look at pictures of the poses. We don't want to prime them

    他們不會看到姿勢的照片,因為我們不想要暗示,影響他們

  • with a concept of power. We want them to be feeling power,

    我們要他們自己感覺力量

  • right? So two minutes they do this.

    不是嗎? 所以他們擺了二分鐘姿勢

  • We then ask them, "How powerful do you feel?" on a series of items,

    然後,我們拿一堆東西,問他們: "現在你覺得自己多有力量?"

  • and then we give them an opportunity to gamble,

    受試者接著會有一個博奕的機會

  • and then we take another saliva sample.

    接著再取一次唾液樣本

  • That's it. That's the whole experiment.

    就是這樣。這就是整個實驗

  • So this is what we find. Risk tolerance, which is the gambling,

    我們發現到風險承擔能力,用賭博來衡量

  • what we find is that when you're in the high-power

    擺出有權勢姿勢的人

  • pose condition, 86 percent of you will gamble.

    有 86% 會選擇賭博

  • When you're in the low-power pose condition,

    擺低權勢姿態的人呢

  • only 60 percent, and that's a pretty whopping significant difference.

    只有 60% 會賭,這兩者間差異真的很大

  • Here's what we find on testosterone.

    我們發現

  • From their baseline when they come in, high-power people

    這些人進來的那一刻起,擺高權勢姿態的人

  • experience about a 20-percent increase,

    睪固酮會上升 20%

  • and low-power people experience about a 10-percent decrease.

    擺低權勢姿態的人則是下降 10%

  • So again, two minutes, and you get these changes.

    所以,再說一次,只有兩分鐘,就有這種差異

  • Here's what you get on cortisol. High-power people

    擺有權勢姿態的人

  • experience about a 25-percent decrease, and

    腎上腺皮質醇下降 25%,

  • the low-power people experience about a 15-percent increase.

    擺低權勢姿態的人腎上腺皮質醇則上升 15%

  • So two minutes lead to these hormonal changes

    只要二分鐘可以讓這些荷爾蒙產生這種改變

  • that configure your brain to basically be either

    使你的腦袋成為

  • assertive, confident and comfortable,

    果斷、自信和自在

  • or really stress-reactive, and, you know, feeling

    或高度緊張以及感到

  • sort of shut down. And we've all had the feeling, right?

    退縮。我們都曾有過這些體驗不是嗎?

  • So it seems that our nonverbals do govern

    看來非口語的語言確實掌控

  • how we think and feel about ourselves,

    我們對自己的想法感受

  • so it's not just others, but it's also ourselves.

    不只是影響別人,更影響我們自己

  • Also, our bodies change our minds.

    同時,我們的身體可以改變心理