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  • Coffee is better than tea.

    咖啡比茶好

  • That's an opinion.

    這是個看法

  • It's not an argument in academic terms,

    在學術領域中,它不是個論點

  • although you might want

    雖然你可能想要

  • to argue with the opinion.

    爭論這個看法

  • Now this is an academic argument:

    現在,這是個學術論點

  • Statement one: Caffeine stimulates

    陳述一:咖啡因能刺激

  • the brain and nervous system.

    大腦與神經系統

  • Statement two:

    陳述二:

  • Coffee contains more caffeine than tea.

    咖啡比茶含有更多咖啡因

  • And statement three is the conclusion:

    陳述三是結論:

  • Therefore coffee is

    因此咖啡

  • more stimulating than tea.

    比茶能更有效刺激人體

  • An argument is a collection

    一個論點就是集合

  • of statements which,

    所有陳述

  • when you consider them together,

    當你將它們放在一起考量

  • allows you to make

    可以讓你做出

  • another statement or a conclusion.

    其他陳述或一個結論

  • Making and evaluating arguments is one of the key functions of critical thinking.

    建立並評估論點是批判性思維的其中一個關鍵功能

  • We'll come back to this.

    我們等等再回來這裡

  • You've probably heard

    你之前可能聽過

  • this term 'critical thinking' before.

    「批判性思維」這個詞

  • But what exactly does it mean?

    但確切來說這是甚麼意思呢?

  • It's what you do

    那就是

  • when you evaluate information

    當你在評估資訊

  • and make decisions.

    與做決策時做的事

  • And it's crucial if

    這是很重要的

  • you want to become

    如果你想要變成

  • an independent thinker:

    一位獨立思考的人

  • if you want to think for yourself.

    如果你想要有自己的觀點

  • And if you want to get good grades.

    如果你想要有好一點的成績

  • You can defend your opinions

    你可以為你自己的觀點答辯

  • and evaluate theories,

    以及評估理論

  • finding their weaknesses and strengths.

    找出他們的弱點與優勢

  • So, it sounds like a good thing, doesn't it?

    所以,這聽起來是個好東西,不是嗎?

  • But how do you do it?

    但你要怎麼做?

  • Back to our argument.

    回到我們的論點

  • If you're a critical thinker and

    如果你是個批判性思維者

  • someone tells you coffee

    有人告訴你咖啡

  • is more stimulating than

    比起茶更能刺激人體

  • tea, what do you do?

    你會怎麼做?

  • First, examine their argument.

    首先,檢查他們的論點

  • Is there a logical connection between the statements?

    所有陳述在邏輯上是連貫的嗎?

  • I think so.

    我想是

  • Then you'd examine their sources.

    然後檢查他們的來源

  • Ask questions like these:

    問一些這樣的問題:

  • whose work is it?

    誰做的研究?

  • When was it written?

    什麼時候寫的?

  • How was the research funded?

    這個研究如何獲得資助?

  • What methods were used to find the evidence?

    用什麼研究方法找到證據?

  • Is it objective

    客觀嗎?

  • what's fact and what's opinion?

    論據如何以及評價如何?

  • What has been left out?

    有甚麼東西被弄錯嗎?

  • What other perspectives or

    還有其他看法

  • points of view could there be?

    或觀點嗎?

  • Ask questions to analyse these sources,

    問一些問題來分析這些來源

  • compare them with other sources,

    與其他來源做比較

  • and synthesise your findings.

    並綜合你的發現

  • And it's important to try

    很重要的一點是

  • to put your own biases to one side.

    試著把自己的成見放一邊

  • We all have them:

    我們都有成見:

  • "I have to say I prefer coffee,

    「我必須說我比較喜歡咖啡,

  • so I'll look for evidence

    所以我會找一些證據

  • that supports my view."

    來支持我的觀點的。」

  • And look out for any assumptions.

    還有找出任何假設

  • "Well, coffee's good for you, isn't it?"

    「咖啡對你有好處,不是嗎?」

  • And critical thinking can be applied to more than just reading,

    批判性思維不只能用在閱讀上

  • you can write critically too.

    也能有批判性寫作

  • Phrases like these are

    像這樣的句子

  • a great way to introduce sources and evidence:

    是個引入來源及證據的好辦法:

  • 'It can be argued that…'

    「有個論點指出…」

  • 'There is evidence to suggest that…'

    「有證據指出…」

  • 'This supports the conclusion that…'

    「這可以支持以下結論…」

  • So, go out,

    所以,動身吧!

  • find out more about

    找出更多有關

  • this huge topic

    這個大題目的資訊

  • and try it out for yourself.

    然後自己試試看批判性思維

  • Critical thinking is like a muscle:

    批判性思維就像肌肉一般

  • it gets stronger the more you work at it.

    你越常使用就會越強壯

  • Of course, you'll need

    當然,你會需要

  • a fully alert and stimulated mind

    一個完全警覺與被刺激的腦袋

  • in order to get down to work.

    來開始工作

  • Which leaves one question:

    所以留下一個問題:

  • which is better:

    哪個比較好

  • coffee or tea?

    咖啡還是茶?

Coffee is better than tea.

咖啡比茶好

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A2 初級 中文 英國腔 批判性 論點 思維 咖啡 證據 刺激

【BBC 英語】如何擁有「批判性思維」?Study Skills – How to think critically

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    Samuel 發佈於 2018 年 04 月 15 日
影片單字