Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • Every two seconds, someone somewhere in the world experiences a stroke.

    每兩秒鐘,世界上某個地方的某個人便會經歷中風。

  • And one out of every six people will have one at some point in their lives.

    而且每六個人當中,就會有一個人中風過一次。

  • Strokes deprive brain cells of oxygen and are one of the most common causes of death and a leading cause of preventable disability.

    中風剝奪腦細胞裡的氧氣,而且是最常見的死亡原因之一,也是導致可預防性殘疾發生的主要原因。

  • When someone experiences a stroke, quick medical care is critical , and can often help avoid permanent brain damage.

    當有人中風時,迅速的醫療護理至為重要,通常可以避免永久性的腦部損傷。

  • But what causes strokes in the first place?

    但究竟是什麼導致中風的呢?

  • And what can doctors do to treat them?

    而醫生可以做什麼去治療它?

  • The brain makes up just 2% of your body's mass but consumes more than 20% of the oxygen in your blood.

    大腦僅佔身體質量的百分之二,卻消耗血液中超過百分之二十的氧氣。

  • That oxygen is carried to the brain through a system of arteries.

    氧氣經由動脈系統傳送至大腦。

  • Carotid arteries supply the front of the brain, and vertebral arteries supply the back.

    頸動脈供應大腦前段,脊椎動脈供應大腦後段。

  • These are connected to each other, and divide into smaller and smaller vessels that get billions of neurons the oxygen they need.

    他們相互連結,並分成越來越小的血管,讓數十億的神經元得到所需的氧氣。

  • If the blood flow is interrupted, oxygen delivery stops and brain cells die.

    如果血流受阻,氧氣輸送停止,腦細胞便會死亡。

  • There are two ways this can happen.

    在兩種情形下這會發生。

  • Hemorrhagic strokes are when a perforated vessel allows blood to leak out.

    一種是出血性中風,穿孔的血管讓血液滲出。

  • But the more common type is the ischemic stroke, when a clot blocks a vessel and brings blood flow to a halt.

    不過比較常見的類型是缺血性中風,也就是當血塊阻塞血管而讓血流暫停。

  • Where do these clots come from?

    這些血塊是從哪裡來的呢?

  • On rare occasions, a sudden change in heart rhythm prevents the upper chambers of the heart from contracting normally.

    在很少見的情況下,突然改變的心律節奏妨礙了上心室正常收縮。

  • This slows down blood flow, allowing platelets, clotting factors, and fibrin to stick together.

    這讓血流減緩,使得血小板、凝血因子和纖維蛋白粘在一起。

  • The clot can be carried up towards the arteries and blood vessels supplying the brain until it gets to one it can't squeeze through.

    血塊會被運送到供應大腦的動脈和血管,直到它無法穿過為止。

  • This is called an embolism and it cuts off the oxygen supply to all the cells downstream.

    這就叫做栓塞,它切斷了下游所有細胞的氧氣供應。

  • The brain doesn't have pain receptors, so you can't feel the blockage itself.

    大腦並沒有疼痛感受,所以你並不會感覺到阻塞。

  • But oxygen deprivation slows brain function and can have sudden, noticeable effects.

    不過缺氧會減緩大腦功能並且產生突然、顯著的影響。

  • For example, if the affected area is responsible for speech, an individual's words may be slurred.

    例如,當負責語言的區塊受到影響,一個人的言詞表達會變得模糊。

  • If the stroke affects a part of the brain that controls muscle movement, it can cause weakness, often just on one side of the body.

    如果中風影響到大腦控制肌肉運動的部份,它會導致疲軟無力,通常是身體的一邊。

  • When this happens, the body will immediately try to compensate by diverting blood flow to the affected area, but this isn't a perfect solution.

    當這個情況發生的時候,身體會立刻嘗試將血流轉移至受影響的區塊做補償,但是這並不是一個完美的解決方式。

  • Eventually, the oxygen-deprived cells will start to die, leading to brain damage that may be severe or permanent.

    最終,缺氧的細胞會開始死亡,導致大腦嚴重的或永久性的損傷。

  • That's why it's important to get medical care as fast as possible.

    這就是為什麼即時獲得醫療照護是那麼的重要。

  • The first line of treatment is an intravenous medication called Tissue Plasminogen Activator, which can break up the blood clot and allow blood to flow again in the compromised artery.

    第一線治療是靜脈用藥,稱為組織纖溶酶原激活劑,它可以分解血塊並使得血液再次流入受損動脈。

  • If it's delivered within a few hours, this medication greatly increases the chance of surviving the stroke and avoiding permanent consequences.

    如果在幾個小時之內給藥,這種藥物大大地增加了中風倖存的機會並且避免永久性的後果。

  • If Tissue Plasminogen Activator cannot be given because the patient is on certain medications, has history of major bleeding, or the clot is particularly large, doctors can perform a procedure called an endovascular thrombectomy.

    如果不能夠使用組織纖溶酶原激活劑,因為患者正服用某種特定藥物、有大量出血的紀錄或者血塊過大,醫生可以執行一個稱作血管內血栓摘除的手術。

  • Using a fluorescent dye that illuminates the blood vessels under a strong x-ray, the physician inserts a long, thin, flexible tube called a catheter into an artery in the leg and maneuvers it all the way to the blockage.

    使用螢光染劑在強烈的 X 光下照亮血管,醫師插入一根導管,它是條長、細、可彎曲的軟管進入腿部動脈,並一路小心移動到阻塞的部份。

  • A retriever is passed through this catheter.

    血管異物取出器通過這條導管

  • It expands and anchors into the clot when it's just past it.

    當它通過的時候會膨脹並將阻血塊固定住

  • The catheter then pulls the clot out when it's removed.

    然後在導管拔出時將血塊拉出來

  • These treatments need to be delivered as soon as possible

    必須儘早得到這些治療

  • to preserve brain function,

    以保護大腦的功能

  • which means figuring out fast if someone is having a stroke.

    這表示要即時發現中風

  • So how can you tell?

    那麼你要如何辨別?

  • Here are three quick things to try:

    這裡有三樣可以快速做的試驗:

  • 1. Ask the person to smile.

    1. 請對方微笑

  • A crooked mouth or facial drooping can indicate muscle weakness.

    彎曲的嘴巴或是臉部下垂象徵肌肉疲軟無力

  • 2. Ask them to raise their arms.

    2. 請他們舉起手臂

  • If one drifts downward, that arm weakness is also a sign of a stroke.

    如果其中一隻向下偏移,手臂的疲軟無力也是中風的象徵

  • 3. Ask them to repeat a simple word or phrase.

    3. 請他們重複簡單的字或是短句

  • If their speech sounds slurred or strange,

    如果他們說話方式聽起來含糊奇怪

  • it could mean that the language area of their brain is oxygen-deprived.

    這可能代表他們大腦的語言區塊缺氧

  • This is sometimes called the FAST test, and the T stands for time.

    這時常被稱作 FAST 測試,而 T 則代表時間

  • If you see any of those signs, call emergency services right away.

    如果你注意到任何一個徵兆,馬上撥打緊急服務電話

  • Lives may depend on it.

    生命可能取決於它

  • We are on the non-profit mission to revolutionize education. Click here to learn how you can get involved.

    我們以非營利的目標改革教育。點這裡查看如何參與

Every two seconds, someone somewhere in the world experiences a stroke.

每兩秒鐘,世界上某個地方的某個人便會經歷中風。

字幕與單字
已審核 字幕已審核

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 中風 大腦 血管 動脈 氧氣

【TED-Ed】中風是怎麼回事? (What happens during a stroke? - Vaibhav Goswami)

  • 8594 708
    Jenny 發佈於 2018 年 04 月 30 日
影片單字