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  • Hi I'm John Green, this is Crash Course Literature and it is a truth universally acknowledged

    嗨!我是 John Green,歡迎來到文學速成班,世界文學影片系列中

  • that a video series about world literature must be in want of a Jane Austen episode.

    勢必要有珍·奧斯汀的特集是公認的真理

  • So here it is.

    請看以下

  • Today, we'll be discussing Pride and Prejudice, Austen's Regency-era novel of life, liberty

    今天,我們要來討論「傲慢與偏見」,關於 Austen 攝政時代的生活、自由和女裝帽

  • and bonnets.

    的小說

  • The book was first published in 1813, it's a social satire about a family with five daughters

    這本書最初出版於 1813 年,它是本描述有五個女兒的家庭和有許多經濟焦慮的

  • and quite a lot of economic anxiety.

    社會諷刺作品

  • And the novel's characters and themes have remained relevant for centuries now--which

    小說的角色與主題從幾世紀至今一直息息相關,這也是為何

  • is why there are SO.

    它有這麼多

  • MANY. adaptations of it, from the Keira Knightly movie to an Emmy winning web series co-created

    改編作品,從 Keira Knightly 的電影到我哥哥擔任聯合製作人且贏得艾美獎的

  • by my brother.

    網路劇

  • Today, we'll talk about the social and historical context in which the book was written

    今天我們要討論書中的社交和歷史內容以及

  • , the style that Jane Austen helped invent, and

    Jane Austen 創造的風格,與

  • the dilemmas the major characters face.

    主人公的兩難境地

  • And in the next episode, we'll look more closely at the politics of the book and its

    下一集,我們會深入探討書中的政治和

  • attitudes toward money, class and gender.

    它對金錢、階級與性別的態度

  • But for now: It's bonnets all the way down.

    但現在要一路探討女裝帽

  • INTRO So we don't know that much about Jane Austen's

    我們不太了解 Jane Austen 的人生

  • life because after her death her sister burned most of her letters.

    因為她過世後,她姐姐燒毀她大部分的信件

  • Just a friendly note, by the way, to any future literary executors out there, maybe don't

    順便給未來的文學遺囑執行人一個善意提醒,也許不要

  • burn so much stuff?

    燒毀這麼多東西?

  • Even if you're told to.

    即使有人囑咐你這麼做

  • Wait, unless your MY literary executor.

    等等,除非你是我的文學遺囑執行人

  • Then burn everything.

    那就燒毀一切吧!

  • But, here's what we do know: Jane Austen was born in 1775 to an Anglican clergyman

    以下是我們所知的:Jane Austen 出生於 1775 年,父母是英國教會牧師與其妻子

  • and his wife; Jane was the second youngest of eight children.

    Jane 是八個孩子中,倒數第二個小孩

  • And her father farmed and took in students to makes ends meet.

    她父親靠務農與教書來維持生計

  • Jane was mostly taught at home and sometimes she wasn't taught at all, although she and

    Jane 多在家自學,有時甚至無人授課,雖然

  • her sister did go to a year or two of boarding school.

    她跟她姊姊確實曾念過一兩年的寄宿學校

  • When she was eleven, Jane started writing plays and novels, mostly social satires and

    11 歲時,Jane 開始創作戲劇和小說,多數是社會諷刺作品和

  • parodies ofnovels of sensibility,” a literary genre in which women like, cry and

    模仿「感傷小說」,是種女人常哭泣、嘆息和暈厥的

  • sigh and faint a lot.

    文學體裁

  • Many of these early works were in the style of the epistolary novel, which is a story

    這類的作品早期都以書信體書寫,也就是

  • composed of letters, and we see echoes of that form in Pride and Prejudice.

    用信件組成的故事,我們可在「傲慢與偏見」中看見這體裁的效仿

  • We also see some echoes of Pride and Prejudice in Austen's life.

    我們也從「傲慢與偏見」中看見它對 Austen 人生的效仿之處

  • She never married, but she did receive at least one proposal that she accepted for a

    她一生未婚,但她收到最起碼一次的求婚,而她只接受了

  • few hours.

    幾個小時

  • And after her father's death in 1805, her financial position and the positions of her

    她父親於 1805 年過世後,她和她母親與姐姐的財務狀況

  • mother and her sister became increasingly insecure.

    變得極為不穩定

  • By 1816, four of her books had been published.

    1816年,她出版了 4 本書

  • And she was working on a new novel, called Sanditon, when she died in 1817, at the age

    她死於 1817 年,她當時正在創作一本新小說叫「桑迪頓」,年僅

  • of just 41.

    41 歲

  • Two more of her works, Persuasion and Northanger

    她還有兩本作品「理性與感性」、

  • Abbey, were published after her death.

    「諾桑覺寺」在她死後出版

  • They're all good--but to me at least Pride and Prejudice is the most perfect of them--there's

    它們都是好書,但對我而言「傲慢與偏見」是最完美的,它蘊含一種

  • a precision to it.

    細緻精確性

  • Like Gatsby or Sula, Pride and Prejudice is a novel in which every single word feels genuinely

    就像「蓋茲比」或「秀拉」,「傲慢與偏見」是本能感到一字一句都不可或缺的

  • essential.

    小說

  • So what happens in Pride and Prejudice?

    「傲慢與偏見」的內容是什麼呢?

  • well, let's go to the Thoughtbubble: Mr. and Mrs. Bennet live in rural England

    讓我們看一下思想泡泡:班奈特夫婦和五個女兒生活在

  • with their five daughters: pretty Jane, lively Elizabeth, horrible Mary, airhead Kitty, and

    英國鄉村,美麗的珍、活潑的伊莉莎白、糟糕的瑪莉、無腦的凱蒂和

  • boy obsessed Lydia.

    花癡的莉地亞

  • When Mr. Bennet dies the estate will go to a male cousin, so the daughters have to find

    班奈特先生死後,表哥會繼承財產,因此女兒們必須找到

  • rich husbands.

    金龜婿

  • Or else.

    否則...

  • Or else live in poverty or become governesses, and if you've read Jane Eyre, you know how

    否則就會生活貧困或當家庭教師,如果你有讀過「簡愛」,你就知道它是本

  • great that gig is.

    鉅作

  • Mr. Bingley, an eligible bachelor, arrives on the scene, and he and Jane fall in love.

    一名黃金單身漢賓利先生出場了,他和珍陷入愛河

  • Elizabeth and Mr. Darcy, Mr. Bingley's best friend, definitely don't.

    伊莉莎白和賓利先生的好友達西先生則處不來

  • In fact, Elizabeth sorts of hate him.

    事實上,伊莉莎白有點討厭他

  • Elizabeth gets a proposal of marriage from Mr. Collins, the cousin who's going to inherit

    伊莉莎白收到柯林斯先生的求婚,這個表哥會繼承她們家

  • the estate.

    的財產

  • And marrying him would save her sisters from poverty, but Mr. Collins is awful and Elizabeth

    嫁給他能讓姊妹們免於窮困,但柯林斯先生糟透了,伊莉莎白就

  • declines.

    拒絕了

  • So her best friend, Charlotte, ends up snagging him.

    而她的閨密夏洛特就把他釣走了

  • Meanwhile, Elizabeth starts to fall for Wickham, a soldier in the militia.

    同時,伊莉莎白開始傾心於一名民兵的軍官韋克翰

  • He hates Mr. Darcy, too.

    他也討厭達西先生

  • Suddenly Mr. Bingley moves away and Jane is heartbroken.

    賓利先生突然搬走了,珍就失戀了

  • Elizabeth goes to visit Charlotte and is introduced to Lady Catherine, Mr. Darcy's ultra-snob

    伊莉莎白去拜訪夏洛特,並認識達西先生的勢利眼阿姨

  • aunt.

    凱薩琳夫人

  • She sees Mr. Darcy there and he also proposes marriage but in a very insulting way.

    她也在那邊遇見達西先生,他也求婚了,但方式卻很羞辱人

  • She insults him right back.

    她馬上羞辱回去

  • But some months later, Elizabeth is on a trip with her aunt and uncle.

    但幾個月後,伊莉莎白和叔叔阿姨一起旅行

  • They visit Mr. Darcy's lavish estate and Elizabeth softens toward him.

    他們造訪達西先生的豪宅,伊莉莎白對他軟化很多

  • Then she gets word that Lydia has run off with Wickham.

    然後她收到關於莉地亞跟韋克翰私奔的消息

  • Mr. Darcy saves Lydia's reputation by brokering

    達西先生藉由當婚禮仲介救了莉地亞的

  • a marriage.

    名聲

  • Then it's happy endings all around: Lydia gets married; Jane and Mr. Bingley get

    然後是全面的歡喜大結局:莉地亞結婚了,珍和賓利先生

  • married, Elizabeth and Mr. Darcy get married, Kitty learns to be a little bit less of an

    結婚了,伊莉莎白和達西先生結婚了,凱蒂變得有一點腦袋了

  • airhead and Mary is presumably still horrible.

    瑪莉大概還是很糟糕

  • Thanks, Thought Bubble.

    謝啦!思想泡泡

  • So let's talk life and letters in Regency England.

    我們來聊聊攝政時代的生活與書信

  • By the way, Regency England refers to a period from about 1800-1820 when King George III

    對了,攝政時代是指 1800-1820年代,當時喬治三世

  • became mentally ill and unfit to rule.

    精神狀況不好無法治國

  • In England, this was a time of political uncertainty and a lot of economic volatility.

    在英國有段政治不穩和經濟波動的時期

  • There was a rising middle class, a burgeoning consumer culture, and a move from an agrarian

    中產階級崛起、消費文化蓬勃發展和農業經濟轉為

  • economy to an industrial one.

    工業經濟

  • And that meant less overall poverty, but it also meant a lot of social instability.

    這代表窮人會全面減少,但也會產生社會動盪

  • And It was also a time when people in England were beginning to talk about the rights of

    同時英國人也開始談論

  • women.

    女權

  • Like, Mary Wollstonecraft publishedVindication of the Rights of Womenseven years after

    例如 Mary Wollstonecraft 在 Austen 出生七年後,出版「女權辯護」

  • Austen was born, though it's important to remember that at this place and time women

    更重要的是要記得當時的女人沒什麼權利

  • didn't really have many rights--they couldn't vote, and in Pride and Prejudice, the whole

    她們沒有投票權。而「傲慢與偏見」的情節

  • plot begins because all of Bennet's five children are daughters,

    始於班奈特家族只有五個女兒

  • This means that legally, Bennet's estate has to go to a male cousin.

    這代表依法而言,班奈特家的財產要傳給男性表親

  • But there was a growing belief that hey, maybe women should have rights.

    但人們開始認為也許女人該有繼承權

  • Abroad, the American Revolution and the French Revolution had recently unsettled established

    國外,美國獨立戰爭和法國大革命造成當時既有的

  • social and political orders.

    社會與政治秩序的動盪

  • Everywhere there were increasing discussions about rights and responsibilities, liberties

    世界各地對於權力、義務、自由與責任的討論

  • and duties.

    日漸提升

  • You can even hear this in the famous first sentence of Pride and Prejudice: “It is

    你甚至能在「傲慢與偏見」著名的開場白看到

  • a truth universally acknowledged that a single man in possession of a good fortune must be

    「凡是有錢的單身漢,都需要一位太太

  • in want of a wife.”

    這是公認的真理。」

  • It has an echo of the American Declaration of Independence: “We find these truths to

    這與美國獨立宣言「我們認為以下這些真理是不言而喻的...」

  • be self-evident…”

    相互呼應

  • But the comic deflation in the second half of the sentence is pure Austen.

    但句子另一段的詼諧失落感則出自於 Austen

  • Some people are initially put off by Pride and Prejudice because they view it as a sort

    有些人最初對「傲慢與偏見」不感興趣,因為他們認為那是

  • of literaryfied romance novel.

    羅曼史小說

  • And, it is a book primarily interested in human relationships, especially romantic ones--but

    而這本書確實著重於人際關係,尤其是愛情方面

  • I'd challenge the idea that such novels can't be great.

    但我仍要質疑這種小說無法傑出的想法

  • Nobody ever argues that picaresque novels,

    傳奇小說或成長小說的類型

  • or bildungsromans, are merely genre novels--even though they are also genres.

    從沒被質疑過,儘管它們也是一種類型

  • But the wordromanceis too often and too quickly dismissed.

    但「羅曼史」這個詞時常馬上就被摒棄

  • By the way, Austen has this completely unearned reputation for being genteel and conservative.

    對了,Austen 因其溫雅與保守風格而享有聲譽

  • The reality is that her work is very funny and mean and super smart about human behavior.

    但其實她的作品很有趣、刻薄,且對人類行為有睿智的描述

  • You can hear that in the letters that survive,

    你能從她僅存的信件中看出來

  • like when she writes to her sister, “I do not want people to be very agreeable, as it

    像她寫給她姐姐說「我不想人們表現太和藹可親,因為這能幫我省去

  • saves me the trouble of liking them a great deal.”

    太愛他們的困擾。」

  • But also while this book involves lower-case r romance, it is very aggressively not capital-r

    雖然本書涉及小浪漫,而不是像拜倫、渥茲華和雪萊那種

  • Romantic, in the Byron Wordsworth Shelley sense that feelings are so overwhelming that

    感情激烈到取代理智的

  • they supersede logic.

    侵略性大浪漫

  • I mean, Wordsworth can write a hillside for thirty-seven stanzas, but if you read Austen

    渥茲華可以為山坡寫出 37 個詩節,但你若仔細閱讀 Austen 的作品

  • closely, you'll find that there's a striking absence of physical description.

    你會發現它缺少令人驚豔的具體描述

  • We don't know what the dresses look like.

    我們看不出那件禮服的模樣

  • We don't know what the people look like.

    我們不知道人物的樣貌

  • When there is a physical description, like the description of Mr. Darcy's estate or

    當有具體描述時,例如達西先生的房產或

  • Elizabeth's petticoat, it means that something really important is happening.

    伊莉莎白的襯裙,這代表有重大情節正在發生

  • And even then these descriptions are very brief.

    但就算有,這些描述也很短

  • If we're being honest, there isn't even all that much in here about bonnets.

    老實說,它們對女裝帽的描寫也不多

  • In fact, Austen is suspicious of overwhelming emotion.

    事實上,Austen 對太激烈的情感有戒心

  • Remember how I mentioned the novel of sensibility and Austen's early satires?

    記得我先前提到的感性小說和 Austen 早期的諷刺文學嗎?

  • She's skeptical of feeling too much, of getting so carried away by emotion that it

    她對太過感性持懷疑態度,因為被情緒帶著走會

  • prevents you from thinking clearly.

    讓你無法清楚的思考

  • This is exemplified by Elizabeth and Mr. Darcy's relationship.

    而伊莉莎白和達西先生的關係就是證據

  • They don't fall in love at first sight.

    他們並沒有一見鍾情

  • Actually, it's the opposite.

    反而是相反的

  • At a ball, she overhears him telling his friend that her sister is the only hot girl in the

    舞會上,伊莉莎白聽到他告訴他朋友她姐姐是裡面唯一的美女

  • room and that Elizabeth is merelytolerable.”

    而伊莉莎白勉強可忍受

  • Given that Elizabeth and Darcy are end up together, this is a novel that's suspicious

    有鑑於伊莉莎白和達西最後在一起了,這本小說對浪漫愛情是存疑的

  • of romantic love, especially romantic love based on instant physical attraction

    特別當浪漫愛情建立在身體上的致命吸引力時

  • and when characters do get carried away by their emotions, they're either fooling themselves,

    而當角色被情緒帶著走,他們會像柯林斯先生一樣自欺欺人

  • like Mr. Collins, or doing something really wrong, like Lydia.

    或像莉地亞一樣做蠢事

  • Pride and Prejudice does have a wish-fulfilling ending.

    「傲慢與偏見」確實是完美大結局

  • but it's still a sly, and ironic and clear-eyed exploration

    但它仍用狡詰、諷刺和目光犀利來探討

  • of the individual vs. the collective, happiness vs. security

    個人 vs. 全體、幸福 vs. 安全的比較

  • It's about love, but rather than presuming

    它事關愛情,但不把愛情當唯一

  • that love is only a feeling, Pride and Prejudice explores how thinking and feeling and need

    「傲慢與偏見」探討思想、感情、需求與責任

  • and responsibility intersect to form the experience that we call love.

    交互形成我們對於愛情的體驗

  • One might even say that it's a novel about romantic

    有人甚至說這是本拆解出我們對

  • love that deconstructs our idea about romantic love.

    浪漫愛情看法的愛情小說

  • Austen joked that the scope of her works was narrow, equating her writing with a two-inch

    Austen 開玩笑地說她的作品很狹隘,就跟 2 英寸的象牙一樣窄

  • piece of ivoryon which I work with so fine a brush, as produces little effect after

    「我用象牙做了精美的毛筆,用它我就能事半功倍

  • much labour.”

    寫出作品。」

  • She also critiqued of Pride and Prejudice, writing to a friend, “The work is rather

    她也寫信給朋友批評「傲慢與偏見」說「這作品太

  • too light & bright & sparkling; it wants shade.”

    輕鬆、正向、有趣了,它需要一點陰暗面。」

  • and yeah, OK, the novel is fun.

    沒錯,這本小說很有趣

  • But reading should be fun sometimes.

    但閱讀應該是有趣的

  • I mean, we already read To the Lighthouse.

    畢竟我們都讀過「燈塔行」

  • And in terms of the prose-style itself, Austen was actually pioneering a new style here called

    就散文風格而言,Austen 其實是一種叫自由間接引語的

  • free indirect discourse.

    新風格的先驅

  • It means that even though the narration is in the third person, the narrative voice takes

    意思是雖然旁白是第三人稱,敘事聲音也會呈現

  • on the thoughts and feelings of characters.

    角色的想法與感受

  • Like after unexpectedly meeting Darcy at

    例如意外地在達西的房子中

  • his estate, the third-person narration captures Elizabeth's embarrassment:

    遇見他,第三人稱旁白描繪了伊莉莎白的窘迫

  • Her coming there was the most unfortunate, the most ill-judged thing in the world!

    「她到這裡參觀真是世上最不幸也最不明智的事,」

  • How strange must it appear to him!

    他一定覺得很奇怪!

  • In what a disgraceful light might it not strike so vain a man!

    他這麼驕傲自負會多瞧不起我們啊!

  • It might seem as if she had purposely thrown herself in his way again!”

    好像她刻意送上門跟他重逢似的!」

  • This narrative approach reflects emotion without stating it--showing instead of telling, as

    這種旁白沒有明講卻表現出情緒,與其描寫不如直接表現

  • the saying goes--and makes us feel not as if we can sympathize with Elizabeth, but instead

    俗話說的好,這讓我們不能同情伊莉莎白,而是

  • as if we ARE Elizabeth,

    我們就是伊莉莎白

  • and to me is one of the most profound and important things a novel can do: Great books

    對我而言這是一本小說能給我最深刻最重要的事:

  • offer you a way out of yourself, and into other peoples' lives.

    偉大的書讓你能跳脫自己,進入他人的人生

  • Next time we'll look more closely at some of the themes, but for now, let's briefly

    下次我們會再深入探討主題,但現在讓我們簡略地

  • explore the dilemma facing Elizabeth Bennet and her sisters.

    探討伊莉莎白和她的姐妹們面臨的兩難

  • Because her parents have been bad with money, she knows she has to marry well or face poverty.

    因為她父母經濟狀況不好,她知道她要嘛嫁人要嘛當窮人

  • So when Mr. Collins proposes, that's a fantastic solution.

    因此當柯林斯先生求婚時,這是個解決之道

  • Except for one thing: She doesn't respect him.

    除了一件事:她不尊敬他

  • Mr. Collins is pompous and foolish and the very things that make Elizabeth terrific

    柯林斯先生自大又愚蠢,而伊莉莎白活潑的思想和

  • her lively mind and her fresh witmake him nervous.

    鮮活的智慧正好讓他焦慮

  • She tells him, “ You could not make me happy, and I am convinced that I am the last woman

    她告訴他「你無法讓我幸福,而我確定我是世上

  • in the world who would make you so.”

    最不可能讓你幸福的女人。」

  • But the idea that happiness should be privileged over security is pretty radical.

    但幸福優先於安全感的想法是很極端的

  • Elizabeth is deciding that her personal individual

    伊莉莎白決定她個人的幸福

  • happiness should outweigh the economic problems of her family.

    比家族的經濟問題還重要

  • She is taking a huge risk when she rejects him.

    她拒絕他時,冒了很大的風險

  • As Mr. Collins tells her, she's poor so

    當柯林斯先生告訴她,她很窮

  • she probably won't get another proposal.

    所以她大概不會有別的求婚了

  • He might not have made her happy, but he would have made her and her unmarried sisters financially

    他也許不能讓她幸福,但他能保障她和她的未婚姐妹們經濟上的

  • secure.

    安全

  • And then, Elizabeth takes the same risk or a greater one when she rejects Mr. Darcy's

    接著,伊莉莎白在拒絕達西先生令人難堪的求婚上冒了一樣

  • insulting first proposal.

    甚至更大的風險

  • She can't make herself marry a man she doesn't like.

    她無法嫁給一個她不愛的男人

  • This was the same dilemma Austen herself faced and her rejection of a suitor made things

    這是 Austen 本身也面臨的兩難,而她對求婚者的拒絕也讓

  • hard for herself and for her family.

    她自己和家族更艱難

  • But she did it anyway.

    無論如何她還是做了

  • Now, thanks to the fairy tale ending, Elizabeth doesn't experience, like, catastrophic consequences

    感謝童話般的結局,伊莉莎白沒有因為幸福優先

  • as a result of her privileging happiness.

    而經歷災難性的結局

  • But as 19th century English readers would

    但 19 世紀的英國讀者很清楚

  • have been very well aware, she could have.

    她可能會有災難結局

  • And so, the novel helped them, and also helps us, explore when we should put our own needs

    因此小說幫助你我探討我們何時應以自我需求為首

  • first, and when the happiness and security of others is more important.

    何時他人的幸福與安全是更重要的

  • Is doing what is best for you always the right

    為自己做最好的決定

  • thing to do?

    是正確的事嗎?

  • Or are there moments when you must sacrifice your happiness for the good of your family

    或你有需要為了家族利益或社會地位而必須犧牲自己的

  • or your social order?

    幸福的時刻?

  • or even yourself? next time we'll discuss whether the politics

    甚至為了自己?下回我們再討論書中的政治

  • of the book are radical or conservative.

    是否太激進或保守

  • And we'll answer a vexing question: Why does Lydia buy such an ugly bonnet?

    然後我們再解答個惱人問題:為何莉地亞要買這麼醜的女裝帽?

  • Thanks for watching.

    謝謝收看

  • Hope it was tolerable.

    希望勉強可忍受

  • I'll see you next time.

    我們下回再見

Hi I'm John Green, this is Crash Course Literature and it is a truth universally acknowledged

嗨!我是 John Green,歡迎來到文學速成班,世界文學影片系列中

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 CrashCourse 伊莉莎白 達西 傲慢 先生 小說

文學速成班:傲慢與偏見 part 1 (Pride and Prejudice Part 1: Crash Course Literature #411)

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    黃齡萱 發佈於 2018 年 12 月 15 日
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