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  • Do you guys want some free money?

    你們想要不勞而獲,拿這些錢嗎?

  • Excuse me, would you like some free money? Free money?

    不好意思,請問你想要無條件地得到錢嗎?

  • No, thank you.

    不用,謝謝

  • No?

    真的不要嗎?

  • Free money?

    那您呢?

  • Free money!

    噢,居然在發錢耶!

  • It's free!

    太棒了!

  • I'll take some for my friend too.

    我順便幫我朋友拿一些

  • You can take some for your friend.

    你可以幫他拿一些

  • Okay, thank you.

    好,謝謝

  • Would you like some free money sir? Okay, wow, we've got a lot of takers here.

    先生您呢?好喔,這裡有好多貪小便宜的人

  • Handing out free money sounds like a pretty radical idea.

    無條件的發放金錢似乎是個很極端的構想

  • But it's actually an economic concept gaining a lot of traction around the world.

    但事實上,卻是個在世界各國逐漸受到許多關注的經濟概念

  • We're talking about universal basic income.

    指的就是全民基本收入

  • Universal basic income is pretty much what the name suggests:

    全民基本收入,顧名思義,

  • an income for everyone in the form of a cash transfer. No strings attached.

    就是無條件地以現金轉帳給所有人民一份收入

  • Finland is among a handful of countries experimenting with universal basic income

    芬蘭是其中一個正在進行全民基本收入的幾個國家

  • as a way to address unemployment in the country.

    以解決國內的失業問題

  • Meet our fictional character Leena.

    一起來看看我們假想的人物 Leena

  • She works in a salmon factory in Finland.

    她在芬蘭的一座鮭魚煙燻廠工作

  • Then an economic downturn hits. People can't afford to buy as much salmon, and Leena loses her job.

    可是接著經濟不景氣。人們再也買不起那麼多燻鮭魚,Leena 接著就失業了

  • Under the universal basic income scheme, Leena would get around $650 a month from the government.

    在全民基本收入的計劃下,Leena 每個月會從政府得到大約 650 美元

  • She can use that $650 to cover living expenses while she looks for a new job.

    她可以在找工作的時候用這些錢來補貼生活開銷

  • But even once she gets a new job, she would continue to receive the cash.

    即使她後來找到了工作,還是可以繼續領這項補貼

  • A key feature of the universal basic income is that you can spend the money however you like.

    全民基本收入一項特點是,你可以自由選擇如何花費這筆錢

  • So in the Finland example, you could take that $650 and spend it on about a third of month's rent here in Helsinki.

    所以假設在芬蘭,你可以用這 650 美元支付在首都一個月房租的 1/3

  • Or you could spend it on 100 cans of smoked herring and 26 bottles of red mulled wine mix.

    或是你可以買 100 罐燻鯡魚,和 26 瓶濃縮熱紅酒

  • We'll take 26 of these, please.

    我們要 26 瓶,謝謝

  • The idea of handing out cash to every citizen isn't new.

    發錢給所有市民的這個想法其實不是現在才有的

  • Philosopher Thomas Paine proposed the idea of payments to every person all the way back in 1797.

    哲學家托馬斯・潘恩早在 1797 年時,就已經提倡給全民給付的概念

  • Martin Luther King Junior fought for a guaranteed income in the 1960s.

    1960 年代,馬丁・路德・金恩也為了基本收入的保障進行奮鬥

  • And even free-market champion Milton Friedman endorsed the negative income tax,

    就連擁護自由市場機制的經濟學大師米爾頓・傅利曼也支持負所得稅

  • similar to basic income, as a way to reduce welfare costs and bureaucracy.

    和基本工資類似的概念,能夠降低社會福利支出和官僚體系的弊病

  • But lately tech titans in Silicon Valley, like Elon Musk and Mark Zuckerberg,

    但是近年來,矽谷的科技巨頭,例如伊隆・馬斯克和馬克・祖克柏,

  • are some of the biggest advocates of the idea.

    都積極提倡全民基本收入

  • They argue a universal basic income could provide a cushion to an estimated millions of people

    他們認為全民基本收入能讓預計數百萬人

  • who could lose their jobs if they're replaced by automation or by robots.

    被自動化機器取代而失業後,仍有經濟著落

  • Hello!

    你好!

  • It's clear robots are already changing the future of work.

    很明顯的,機器人已經開始改變未來的工作型態

  • Some in Silicon Valley say universal basic income could give workers

    矽谷內有些人主張,全民基本收入能給予勞工

  • an opportunity to retrain for today's workforce.

    再進修的機會,以符合市場需求

  • Other advocates say a basic income would alleviate poverty

    其他倡議者表示,基本收入能夠紓解貧窮問題

  • and help address growing income inequality across the developed world.

    並且減緩已開發國家持續加劇的所得不平等現象

  • It could give people freedom to start their own business, or flexibility to pursue creative interests.

    它能讓人們得以獲得時間創業,或自由地培養興趣

  • The idea has support across the political spectrum,

    這在整個政治光譜上也獲得一片支持

  • from libertarians who say it would simplify the existing social welfare state,

    經濟自由主義者認為這能簡化當前福利國家的模式

  • to socialists who want to redistribute wealth toward the lower and middle class.

    社會主義者也希望能將所得重分配至中下階級

  • Finland isn't the only country experimenting with universal basic income.

    芬蘭不是唯一一個正在進行全民基本收入的國家

  • Other trials are underway in the Netherlands, Kenya, Canada and the United States.

    荷蘭、肯亞、加拿大、美國也有在實驗

  • But not everyone is crazy about the idea.

    但不是所有人都支持這個方案

  • Critics say universal basic income could actually disincentivize people like Leena

    反對者認會,全民基本收入會讓像 Leena 這樣的失業者

  • from getting another job if they know they're getting paid not to work.

    不再有誘因找工作,因為不用工作就有收入

  • And of course there's the big fat question of how to pay for universal basic income.

    當然,更大的問題是,要怎麼籌措支付全民基本收入的資金

  • If every person here in Finland got that $650, it would cost the government more than $3.5 billion per month.

    如果每個芬蘭國民都能拿到這 650 美元,該國政府每月要支出 35 億美元

  • That number would be in the trillions of dollars per year in the United States,

    在美國,同樣的情形下,政府每年要斥資數兆美元

  • where the population is much bigger.

    因為美國人口遠遠大於芬蘭人口

  • And labor economists argue basic income would need to be a lot more than $650 to have a meaningful impact.

    勞動經濟學家也表示,基本收入要超過 650 美元才有實質意義

  • Research from the OECD shows that if the existing system of social and unemployment benefits

    OECD 的研究顯示,如果取消或削弱現有的社福和失業給付制度

  • was eliminated or reduced to pay for a basic income, poverty could actually increase.

    以支付基本收入,貧窮問題可能會更嚴重

  • Other critics say there's no reason that people who are already well-off

    其他反對者也認為政府支付更多金錢給已經非常有錢的人

  • should be getting more cash from the government.

    實在沒有道理

  • So it's not looking like free money is going to become the norm for everyone anytime soon.

    所以看來無條件給付金錢給所有人在短期內仍無法被普遍接受

  • Hey everyone it's Elizabeth. Thanks so much for watching!

    嗨,大家好,我是 Elizabeth。謝謝大家觀賞這部影片

  • You can check out more of our videos over here.

    你可以在這邊看更多我們拍的影片

  • We're also taking your suggestions for future CNBC Explains,

    我們也積極地採納你們對以後 CNBC Explains 該拍什麼的建議

  • so leave any of your ideas in the comments section.

    所以有任何想法都可以在下面留言

  • And while you're at it, subscribe to our channel.

    在這同時,也請訂閱我們的頻道

  • Bye for now!

    我們下次見!

Do you guys want some free money?

你們想要不勞而獲,拿這些錢嗎?

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 全民 收入 芬蘭 失業 給付 美元

【CNBC】什麼是全民基本收入? (What is universal basic income? | CNBC Explains)

  • 164 5
    Rachel Kung   發佈於 2018 年 02 月 09 日
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