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  • Have you ever wondered

    你是否曾經想過

  • who has the authority to make laws

    誰有權力制訂法律

  • or punish people who break them?

    或懲罰那些違法的人呢?

  • When we think of power in the United States,

    當提到美國的政治權力

  • we usually think of the President,

    我們大都想到美國總統

  • but he does not act alone.

    但他不是唯一的執行者

  • In fact, he is only one piece of the power puzzle

    事實上,他只是權力拼圖中的 一小塊而已

  • and for very good reason.

    而這背後是有原因的

  • When the American Revolution ended in 1783,

    當美國獨立革命於 1783 年結束時

  • the United States government was in a state of change.

    當時的政府致力於改變

  • The founding fathers knew

    開國元勳很清楚

  • that they did not want to establish another country

    他們不想建立另一個

  • that was ruled by a king,

    由國王統治的國家

  • so the discussions were centered on

    因此討論都聚焦於

  • having a strong and fair national government

    建立一個強大、公正的政府

  • that protected individual freedoms

    不但要保障個人自由

  • and did not abuse its power.

    也要避免權力的濫用

  • When the new constitution was adopted in 1787,

    當新憲法於 1787 年實施時

  • the structure of the infant government of the United States

    還在嬰兒期的美國政府架構

  • called for three separate branches,

    已包含三個不同的部門

  • each with their own powers,

    各有屬於自己的權力

  • and a system of checks and balances.

    以及分權制衡的系統

  • This would ensure that no one branch

    以確保沒有一個部門的權力

  • would ever become too powerful

    會變得太大

  • because the other branches would always be able

    因為每個部門總是能夠

  • to check the power of the other two.

    制衡其他兩個部門的權力

  • These branches work together to run the country

    這三個部門合作以維持國家運作

  • and set guidelines for us all to live by.

    並制定人民應遵循的規則

  • The legislative branch is described in Article 1 of the U.S. Constitution.

    立法權記載於美國憲法第一條

  • Many people feel that the founding fathers

    許多人認為開國元勳

  • put this branch in the document first

    將立法權放在憲法的第一條

  • because they thought it was the most important.

    是因為他們認為立法權最重要

  • The legislative branch is comprised of

    美國的立法權是由

  • 100 U.S. Senators

    100 位參議員

  • and 435 members in the U.S. House of Representatives.

    以及 435 位眾議員組成

  • This is better known as the U.S. Congress.

    統稱美國國會

  • Making laws is the primary function of the legislative branch,

    制訂法律是立法部門的主要功能

  • but it is also responsible for

    但它也負責

  • approving federal judges and justices,

    任免聯邦法院法官、

  • passing the national budget,

    通過國家預算、

  • and declaring war.

    以及宣戰

  • Each state gets two Senators

    每州能選出兩位參議員

  • and some number of Representatives,

    並根據各州人口數

  • depending on how many people live in that state.

    選出數名眾議員

  • The executive branch is described in Article 2 of the Constitution.

    行政權記載於美國憲法第二條

  • The leaders of this branch of government

    行政權的領導者

  • are the President and Vice President,

    是總統及副總統

  • who are responsible for enforcing the laws

    負責執行

  • that Congress sets forth.

    由國會制訂的法律

  • The President works closely with a group of advisors,

    總統和一群顧問合作

  • known as the Cabinet.

    也就是內閣

  • These appointed helpers assist the President

    內閣協助總統

  • in making important decisions within their area of expertise,

    在各自的專業領域做出重大決策

  • such as defense,

    例如國防、

  • the treasury,

    財政、

  • and homeland security.

    和國土安全

  • The executive branch also appoints government officials,

    行政部門也任命部會首長、

  • commands the armed forces,

    統帥三軍、

  • and meets with leaders of other nations.

    並和其他國家的元首會面

  • All that combined is a lot of work for a lot of people.

    這麼多工作需要很多人才能完成

  • In fact, the executive branch employs

    事實上,行政部門總共雇用了

  • over 4 million people to get everything done.

    超過 400 萬名員工

  • The third brand of the U.S. government is the judicial branch

    第三個部門是司法權

  • and is detailed in Article 3.

    記載於憲法第三條

  • This branch is comprised of all the courts in the land,

    司法部門由國內所有法院組成

  • from the federal district courts

    從地方法院,到最高法院

  • to the U.S. Supreme Court.

    都包含其中

  • These courts interpret our nation's laws

    法院負責詮釋國家的法律

  • and punish those who break them.

    並處罰違法者

  • The highest court, the Supreme Court,

    層級最高的,也就是最高法院

  • settles disputes among states,

    負責調解各州間的紛爭、

  • hears appeals from state and federal courts,

    審理地方法院和聯邦法院的上訴、

  • and determines if federal laws are constitutional.

    並判斷聯邦法律是否符合憲法

  • There are nine justices on the Supreme Court,

    最高法院由 9 名大法官組成

  • and, unlike any other job in our government,

    和政府機關中其他職位不同

  • Supreme Court justices are appointed for life,

    大法官為終身職

  • or for as long as they want to stay.

    他們想當多久就當多久

  • Our democracy depends on an informed citizenry,

    美國民主奠基於有素養的公民

  • so it is our duty to know how it works

    因此我們有義務了解政府的運作

  • and what authority each branch of government has

    以及政府各部門

  • over its citizens.

    擁有的權力

  • Besides voting,

    除了投票

  • chances are that some time in your life

    或許人生中

  • you'll be called upon to participate in your government,

    你會被要求參與政府的公共事務

  • whether it is to serve on a jury,

    不論是擔任陪審團、

  • testify in court,

    出庭作證、

  • or petition your Congress person

    或向所屬選區的議員請願

  • to pass or defeat an idea for a law.

    以通過或駁回某個法案

  • By knowning the branches,

    藉由了解各部門

  • who runs them,

    了解誰負責管理

  • and how they work together,

    以及它們如何互相合作

  • you can be involved,

    你可以增加參與、

  • informed,

    提升素養、

  • and intelligent.

    進而更有智慧

Have you ever wondered

你是否曾經想過

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 部門 憲法 權力 法院 政府

【TED-Ed】美國政府的三權分立 (How is power divided in the United States government? - Belinda Stutzman)

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    Anbe2623 發佈於 2013 年 12 月 19 日
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