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  • Most people think

    大部份人認為,

  • that new technology or advanced technology can never start in Africa.

    新科技或先進科技 永遠不可能在非洲開始。

  • Instead, they think that the best way to help the continent advance

    反之,他們認為要讓 這塊大陸進步的最佳方式,

  • is by providing aid or services

    是提供非洲無法為自己

  • that the continent can't provide for itself.

    提供的援助或服務。

  • So while we see advanced technology like robotics

    所以當我們看到先進科技, 像是機器人學

  • and artificial intelligence

    及人工智慧,

  • growing exponentially in the developed world,

    在已開發國家中成指數成長,

  • those same people are worried

    同樣那些人也在擔心

  • that a technologically backward Africa is falling behind.

    科技落後的非洲被遠拋在後。

  • That attitude couldn't be more wrong.

    那樣的態度真是錯到極致。

  • I'm a robotics entrepreneur who's spent a lot of time here in Africa.

    我是位機器人創業家, 我很多時間都花在非洲這裡。

  • And in 2014 we created Zipline,

    在 2014 年,我們創立了 Zipline,

  • which is a company that uses electric autonomous aircraft

    它是一間公司,用電力自動飛機

  • to deliver medicine to hospitals and health centers on demand.

    按需求把藥品送到醫院和健康中心。

  • Last year, we launched the world's first automated delivery system

    去年,我們推出了世界 第一個自動化遞送系統,

  • operating at national scale.

    以全國性的規模在運作。

  • And guess what?

    猜猜怎樣?

  • We did not do that in the US,

    我們沒有在美國那樣做,

  • we didn't do it in Japan,

    我們沒有在日本那樣做,

  • and we didn't do it in Europe.

    我們沒有在歐洲那樣做。

  • It was actually President Paul Kagame

    其實是保羅卡加梅總統

  • and the Rwandan Ministry of Health

    和盧安達健康部長

  • that made a big bet on the potential of this technology

    下了很大的賭注 在這項科技的潛力上,

  • and signed a commercial contract

    簽訂了商業合約,

  • to deliver a majority of the country's blood on demand.

    按需求來為該國做 大部份的血液遞送。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Yeah, they deserve the applause.

    是的,掌聲是他們應得的。

  • So why is blood important?

    為什麼血液很重要?

  • Rwanda collects between 60- and 80,000 units of blood a year.

    盧安達每年收集的血液有 60,000~80,000 單位。

  • So this is a product that when you need it,

    這種產品是當你需要它時,

  • you really, really need it.

    你就是真的非常需要它。

  • But blood is also challenging,

    但血液也很有挑戰性,

  • because it has a very short shelf life,

    因為它的保存期限很短,

  • there are lots of different storage requirements,

    貯藏上又有很多不同的要求,

  • and it's really hard to predict the demand

    且在病人真正需要之前,

  • for all of these different blood groups

    非常難預測各種

  • before a patient actually needs something.

    不同血液的需求。

  • But the cool thing is that using this technology,

    但很酷的是使用這項科技,

  • Rwanda has been able to keep more blood centralized

    盧安達就能讓更多血液集中起來,

  • and then provide it when a patient needs something

    然後在病人有需時提供給

  • to any hospital or health center in an average of just 20 or 30 minutes.

    任何醫院或健康中心, 平均只要花 20 或 30 分鐘。

  • Do you guys want to see how it works?

    你們想要看它怎麼運作的嗎?

  • (Audience) Yes.

    (觀眾)要。

  • All right. Nobody believes me, so ... better to show.

    好,沒人相信我。 所以,還是讓大家看看吧。

  • This is our distribution center,

    這是我們的分配中心,

  • which is about 20 kilometers outside of Kigali.

    它位在吉佳利外大約 20 公里處。

  • This actually used to be a cornfield nine months ago,

    九個月前它還是片玉米田,

  • and with the Rwandan government,

    我們配合盧安達政府,

  • we leveled it and built this center in a couple weeks.

    用兩個星期剷平它,建立了這個中心。

  • So when a patient is having an emergency,

    當病人有緊急狀況時,

  • a doctor or a nurse at that hospital can send us a WhatsApp,

    該醫院的醫生或護士會用 WhatsApp 發訊息給我們,

  • telling us what they need.

    告訴我們他們需要什麼。

  • And then our team will immediately spring into action.

    我們的團隊就會馬上動起來。

  • We pull the blood from our stock,

    我們從庫存取出血液,

  • which is delivered from the National Center for Blood Transfusion;

    它們是國家輸血中心送過來的;

  • we scan the blood into our system

    我們把血液掃瞄到我們的系統中,

  • so the Ministry of Health knows where the blood is going;

    這樣健康部就會知道血液的去向;

  • and then we'll basically pack it into a Zip,

    接著我們會把它們打包放入 Zip,

  • which is what we call these little autonomous airplanes

    Zip 是我們對小型自動飛機的稱呼,

  • that run on batteries.

    它們的動力是電池。

  • And then once that Zip is ready to go,

    當 Zip 準備好出發時,

  • we accelerate it from zero to 100 kilometers an hour

    我們在大約半秒內就把它 從每小時 0 公里

  • in about half of a second.

    加速到 100 公里。

  • (Audience) Whoa!

    (觀眾)哇!

  • And from the moment it leaves the end of the launcher,

    從它離開發射器的那一刻,

  • it's completely autonomous.

    它就是全自動的了。

  • (Video: Air traffic controller directs traffic)

    (影片:空中交通管制員指揮交通)

  • This is our air traffic controller calling it in

    這位是我們的空中交通管制員通報

  • to Kigali International Airport.

    吉佳利國際機場。

  • And when the Zip arrives at the hospital,

    當這台 Zip 到達醫院,

  • it descends to about 30 feet and drops the package.

    它會下降約 30 英呎,丟下包裏。

  • We use a really simple paper parachute -- simple things are best --

    我們用非常簡單的紙降落傘 ──簡單的是最好的──

  • that allows the package to come to the ground gently and reliably

    包裏就能每次都和緩地、可靠地

  • in the same place every time.

    在同一處落地。

  • So it's just like ride sharing;

    這就像是共乘;

  • the doctors get a text message one minute before we arrive, saying,

    在我們到達的前一分鐘, 醫生會收到訊息,寫著:

  • "Walk outside and receive your delivery."

    「走出去接收你的快遞。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And then --

    接著──

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • and then the doctors have what they need to save a patient's life.

    接著醫生就有拯救病人性命 所需要的東西了。

  • This is actually watching a delivery happen from our distribution center;

    這其實就是從我們的分配中心 監看著某次快遞的進行;

  • this vehicle is about 50 kilometers away.

    這架飛機大約在 50 公里外。

  • We're able to watch the vehicle as it makes a delivery at a hospital

    我們能夠看著飛機在醫院完成投遞

  • in real time.

    的即時影像。

  • You may have noticed there are pings

    你們可能有注意到,

  • that are coming off of that vehicle on the screen.

    螢幕上的飛機發送訊號(pings),

  • Those pings are actually data packets

    其實是資料封包的訊號,

  • that we're getting over the cell phone networks.

    我們用手機網路取得的那種。

  • So these planes have SIM cards just like your cell phone does,

    這些飛機有 SIM 卡, 和你們的手機一樣,

  • and they're communicating over the cell network

    它們透過手機網路來溝通,

  • to tell us where they are and how they're doing at all times.

    隨時告訴我們它們的所在以及狀況。

  • Believe it or not, we actually buy family plans --

    信不信,我們辦了家庭優惠方案── (註:手機一人多門號的方案)

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • for this fleet of vehicles,

    為這支機隊辦的,

  • because that's how we get the best rates.

    因為這樣費率會最理想。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • It's actually not a joke.

    這並不是個笑話。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So today, we're delivering about 20 percent

    在吉佳利以外,現今大約有 20%

  • of the national blood supply of Rwanda

    盧安達國家血液供應遞送

  • outside of Kigali.

    由我們做的。

  • We serve about 12 hospitals,

    我們服務約 12 間醫院,

  • and we're adding hospitals to that network at an accelerating rate.

    且以越來越快的速度 將更多的醫院加到我們的網絡。

  • All of those hospitals only receive blood in this way,

    所有那些醫院都只用 這種方式來接收血液,

  • and most of those hospitals actually place multiple orders every day.

    且大部份這些醫院 每天都會下多張訂單。

  • So the reason --

    之所以──

  • in all of health care logistics,

    在所有的健康照護物流中,

  • you're always trading off waste against access.

    你總是在浪費和取得之間做權衡。

  • So if you want to solve waste, you keep everything centralized.

    如果你想解決浪費問題, 你就得讓所有東西集中。

  • As a result, when patients are having emergencies,

    結果就是,當病人有緊急情況時,

  • sometimes they don't have the medical product they need.

    有時他們沒有 他們所需要的醫療產品。

  • If you want to solve access, you stock a lot of medicine at the last mile,

    如果你想解決取得問題,

  • at hospitals or health centers,

    就在最後一哩路的健康中心 或醫院囤積很多藥品,

  • and then patients have the medicine they need.

    那麼病人就有他們需要的藥品。

  • But you end up throwing a lot of medicine out,

    但你最後會得要丟棄很多藥品,

  • which is very expensive.

    非常浪費。

  • What's so amazing is that the Rwandan government has been able

    很了不起的是

  • to break this cycle permanently.

    盧安達政府能夠永久打破這個循環。

  • Because doctors can get what they need instantly,

    因為醫生可以馬上取得 他們需要的東西,

  • they actually stock less blood at the hospitals.

    他們在醫院貯藏的血液就少了。

  • So although use of blood products has increased substantially

    所以,雖然我們服務的所有醫院

  • at all the hospitals we serve,

    對於血液產品的用量都持續增加,

  • in the last nine months, zero units of blood have expired

    過去九個月,在這些醫院中

  • at any of these hospitals.

    沒有任何一單位的血液過期。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • That's an amazing result.

    那是非常了不起的結果。

  • That's actually not been achieved by any other health care system

    地球上的任何其他健康照護系統

  • on the planet,

    都還無法做到,

  • and it happened here.

    但在這裡卻成真了。

  • But obviously, when we're talking about delivering medical products instantly,

    但顯然地,當我們談到 立即遞送醫療產品,

  • the most important thing is patients.

    最重要的就是病人了。

  • Let me give you an example.

    讓我給各位一個例子。

  • A couple months ago, a 24-year-old mother came into one of the hospitals

    一位 24 歲的母親幾個月前 到我們所服務的

  • that we serve,

    其中一家醫院,

  • and she gave birth via C-section.

    她剖腹產生下了孩子。

  • But that led to complications, and she started to bleed.

    但造成了併發症,她開始流血。

  • Luckily, the doctors had some blood of her blood type on hand

    幸運的是,醫生手上就有 和她同血型的血液,

  • that had been delivered via Zipline's routine service,

    那是之前透過 Zipline 例行遞送所送來的,

  • and so they transfused her with a couple units of blood.

    所以他們為她輸了幾單位的血。

  • But she bled out of those units in about 10 minutes.

    但約十分鐘,她的出血量 就高出輸血量了。

  • In this case, that mother's life is in grave danger --

    在這個案例中, 那位母親的性命岌岌可危──

  • in any hospital in the world.

    在世界上任何醫院 都會是一樣的情況。

  • But luckily, the doctors who were taking care of her

    但幸運的是,照顧她的醫生

  • immediately called our distribution center,

    馬上打給我們的分配中心,

  • they placed an emergency order,

    下了一張緊急訂單,

  • and our team actually did emergency delivery after emergency delivery

    我們的團隊做了一次又一次

  • after emergency delivery.

    又再一次的緊急遞送。

  • They ended up sending seven units of red blood cells,

    他們最後共遞送了 7 單位的紅血球細胞、

  • four units of plasma

    4 單位的血漿、

  • and two units of platelets.

    2 單位的血小板。

  • That's more blood than you have in your entire body.

    這已經比你整個身體中 所有血液還多了。

  • All of it was transfused into her,

    所有的血都輸給了她,

  • the doctors were able to stabilize her,

    醫生得以把她穩定下來,

  • and she is healthy today.

    現在她很健康。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Since we launched, we've done about 400 emergency deliveries like that,

    從我們開張之後,我們已經做了 約 400 次像那樣的緊急遞送,

  • and there's a story like that one behind most of those emergencies.

    幾乎每個緊急事件, 背後都有一個像那樣的故事。

  • Here are just a couple of the moms

    這裡是幾位母親,

  • who have received transfusions in this way

    在過去幾個月,

  • in the last couple months.

    她們都用這種方式接受輸血。

  • We're always reminded: when we can help a doctor save a mom's life,

    我們總會想起:當我們能協助 一名醫生拯救一名母親的性命,

  • it's not just her life that you're saving.

    拯救的並不只是她的性命。

  • That's also a baby boy or a baby girl

    也救了那位男寶寶或女寶寶,

  • who has a mother while they're growing up.

    他們在成長的過程將會有母親陪伴。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • But I want to be clear:

    但我想要說清楚:

  • postpartum hemorrhaging -- it's not a Rwanda problem,

    產後出血── 那不是只有盧安達才會有的問題,

  • it's not a developing-world problem --

    那不是開發中世界才會有的問題──

  • this is a global problem.

    它是個全球性問題。

  • Maternal health is a challenge everywhere.

    無論何處,母親健康都是個挑戰。

  • The main difference is that Rwanda was the first country

    差別在於,盧安達是第一個

  • to use radical technology to do something about it.

    用極端科技來採取行動的國家。

  • And that's the reason this attitude of Africa being disrupted

    所以,認為非洲被顛覆、

  • or advanced technology not working here

    先進科技在這裡行不通的態度,

  • or needing aid

    或是認為非洲需要援助的態度,

  • is so totally wrong.

    是大錯特錯。

  • Africa can be the disrupter.

    非洲可以扮演顛覆者。

  • These small, agile, developing economies can out-innovate large, rich ones.

    這些開發中、機靈的小型經濟體, 可在創新上勝過富有的大型經濟體。

  • And they can totally leapfrog over the absence of legacy infrastructure

    它們完全可以跳過沒有 前人留下基礎建設的狀況,

  • to go straight to newer and better systems.

    直接使用更新更好的系統。

  • In 2000,

    在 2000 年,

  • if you had said that high-quality cellular networks were about to roll out

    如果你說高品質手機網路將要襲捲

  • across all of Africa,

    整個非洲,

  • people would have told you that you were crazy.

    別人會告訴你,你瘋了。

  • And yet, no one anticipated

    然而,沒有人預期到

  • how fast those networks were going to connect and empower people.

    那些網路能那麼快 連結人們、賦予人們能力。

  • Today, 44 percent of the GDP of Kenya flows through M-Pesa,

    現今,肯亞的 GDP 有 44% 都透過 M-Pesa,

  • their mobile payment platform.

    他們的行動支付平台。

  • And not only that,

    不只如此,

  • but our autonomous fleet of vehicles relies on that cellular network.

    我們的自動機隊 也要靠手機網路運作。

  • Over the next few years as we start serving private health care facilities,

    接下來的幾年,我們會開始 服務私人健康照護機構,

  • we'll also use that mobile payment platform

    我們也會使用那行動支付平台,

  • to collect fees for deliveries.

    來收取遞送運費。

  • So innovation leads to more innovation leads to more innovation.

    創新造成更多創新, 再造成更多創新。

  • And meanwhile,

    同時,

  • most people who live in developed economies

    住在已開發經濟體中的大部份人

  • think that drone delivery is technologically impossible,

    認為無人機遞送 在技術上是不可行的,

  • let alone happening at national scale in East Africa.

    更不可能會發生在東非, 且規模還廣至全國。

  • And I do mean East Africa, not just Rwanda.

    我確實是指東非,不只盧安達。

  • On Thursday, just a couple days ago,

    星期四,幾天之前,

  • the Tanzanian Ministry of Health announced

    坦桑尼亞的健康部宣佈

  • that they are going to use this same technology

    他們將會用同樣的科技,

  • to provide instant delivery of a wide range of medical products

    針對多種醫療產品做立即的遞送,

  • to 10 million of the hardest to reach people in the country.

    對象是全國最難接觸到的一千萬人。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • It's actually going to be the largest autonomous system anywhere in the world.

    這將會是世界上最大型的自動系統。

  • To give you a sense of what this looks like,

    讓各位概略了解一下這個系統,

  • this is one of the first distribution centers.

    這是最早的分配中心之一。

  • You can see a 75-kilometer service radius around the distribution center,

    這是 75 公里的服務半徑, 以分配中心為圓心,

  • and that allows us to serve hundreds of health facilities and hospitals,

    這讓我們能夠從單一個 分配中心來提供服務

  • all of which are rural,

    給數百間位在郊區的

  • from that single distribution center.

    健康機構和醫院。

  • But to serve over 20 percent of the population of Tanzania,

    但若要服務坦尚尼亞 20% 以上的人口,

  • we're going to need multiple distribution centers.

    我們會需要多間分配中心。

  • We'll actually need four.

    其實我們需要四間。

  • And from these distribution centers,

    從這些分配中心,

  • we expect to be doing several hundred lifesaving deliveries every day,

    我們預期每天會進行 數百趟救命的遞送,

  • and this system will ultimately serve over 1,000 health facilities

    這個系統最終將能服務 該國超過 1,000 間

  • and hospitals in the country.

    健康機構以及醫院。

  • So yeah, East Africa is moving really fast.

    所以,是的,東非進展地非常快。

  • One thing that people, I think, often miss

    我認為,人們常會忽略一件事,

  • is that these kinds of leaps generate compounding gains.

    就是這種躍進會產生複合的收益。

  • For example, Rwanda, by investing in this infrastructure for health care,

    比如,盧安達投資了 這項健康照護的基礎建設,

  • now has an aerial logistics network that they can use

    現在該國就有個物流網可以使用,

  • to catalyze other parts of their economy,

    來催化該國經濟的其他部份,

  • like agriculture or e-commerce.

    比如農業或電子商務。

  • Even more importantly,

    更重要的是,

  • 100 percent of the teams we hire at these distribution centers are local.

    我們在這些分配中心 所僱用的團隊通通都是當地人。

  • So here's our Rwandan team,

    這是我們的盧安達團隊,

  • which is a group of extraordinary engineers and operators.

    由一群不凡的工程師和操作員組成。

  • They run the world's only automated delivery system

    他們在經營世界上 唯一的自動化遞送系統,

  • operating at national scale.

    且以國家規模在營運。

  • They have been able to master something

    他們所能精通的東西,

  • that the largest technology companies in the world

    是世界上最大的科技公司

  • have not yet been able to figure out.

    都還沒辦法想出來的。

  • So they are total heroes.

    所以他們絕對是英雄。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • They're total heroe