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  • Paying close attention to something:

    專心注意某件事,

  • Not that easy, is it?

    並不簡單,對吧?

  • It's because our attention is pulled in so many different directions at a time,

    這是因為我們的注意力 同時會被很多不同的東西干擾。

  • and it's in fact pretty impressive if you can stay focused.

    而且如果你還能保持專注, 真的會令人感到佩服。

  • Many people think that attention is all about what we are focusing on,

    許多人認為注意力與 我們所專注的東西有關,

  • but it's also about what information our brain is trying to filter out.

    而實際上與我們的大腦 過濾出甚麼有關。

  • There are two ways you direct your attention.

    有兩種方式主導了你的注意力。

  • First, there's overt attention.

    首先是外顯注意力。

  • In overt attention, you move your eyes towards something

    在外顯注意力中, 你的眼睛會隨著物品移動,

  • in order to pay attention to it.

    好讓你可以專注於這個物品。

  • Then there's covert attention.

    然後就是內隱注意力。

  • In covert attention, you pay attention to something,

    在內隱注意力中,

  • but without moving your eyes.

    你無需移動你的眼睛, 就能注意到某樣東西。

  • Think of driving for a second.

    想像一下你在開車的時候,

  • Your overt attention, your direction of the eyes,

    你的外顯注意力, 也就是你眼睛的方向

  • are in front,

    都在前方。

  • but that's your covert attention

    但你的內隱注意力

  • which is constantly scanning the surrounding area,

    會不斷地掃視周圍環境,

  • where you don't actually look at them.

    而實際上你並不會 刻意去看周圍環境。

  • I'm a computational neuroscientist,

    我是一名計算神經科學家,

  • and I work on cognitive brain-machine interfaces,

    致力於研究認知腦機介面,

  • or bringing together the brain and the computer.

    或者也可以說人腦和電腦結合。

  • I love brain patterns.

    我很喜歡看大腦圖型,

  • Brain patterns are important for us

    大腦圖型對於我們來說很重要,

  • because based on them we can build models for the computers,

    因為有了它們, 我們可以在電腦內建立模型,

  • and based on these models

    然後基於這些模型,

  • computers can recognize how well our brain functions.

    電腦可以識別出 我們的大腦運作的好不好。

  • And if it doesn't function well,

    如果大腦不能很好地運作,

  • then these computers themselves can be used as assistive devices

    這些電腦就可以成為

  • for therapies.

    治療的輔助裝置。

  • But that also means something,

    但這也意味著

  • because choosing the wrong patterns

    如果選擇了錯誤的圖型,

  • will give us the wrong models

    我們就會建立出錯誤的模式,

  • and therefore the wrong therapies.

    結果會導致錯誤的治療方法。

  • Right?

    對吧?

  • In case of attention,

    關於注意力,

  • the fact that we can

    事實上我們不僅可以

  • shift our attention not only by our eyes

    透過眼睛來轉移注意力,

  • but also by thinking --

    還可以透過思考......

  • that makes covert attention an interesting model for computers.

    讓內隱注意力 變成電腦裡一個有趣的模式。

  • So I wanted to know what are the brainwave patterns

    因此我會想知道, 當你在外顯或內隱觀察時,

  • when you look overtly or when you look covertly.

    腦波圖型會有什麽變化。

  • I set up an experiment for that.

    我為此建立了一個實驗。

  • In this experiment there are two flickering squares,

    實驗中會有兩個正在閃爍的方塊,

  • one of them flickering at a slower rate than the other one.

    其中一個方塊 閃爍的速度比另一個慢。

  • Depending on which of these flickers you are paying attention to,

    看你是專注在哪一個方塊,

  • certain parts of your brain will start resonating in the same rate

    你大腦的某個區域 就會同時產生反應,

  • as that flickering rate.

    反應的頻率就跟閃爍頻率一樣。

  • So by analyzing your brain signals,

    所以透過分析你的大腦信號,

  • we can track where exactly you are watching

    我們就可以追蹤到 你正在看哪裡

  • or you are paying attention to.

    或者你正在專注哪個地方。

  • So to see what happens in your brain when you pay overt attention,

    所以為了想要看看你在運用 外顯注意力時大腦裡發生的情況,

  • I asked people to look directly in one of the squares

    我會要求實驗者, 直接看著其中一個方塊

  • and pay attention to it.

    並專注地看。

  • In this case, not surprisingly, we saw that these flickering squares

    在實驗中,毫無意外地, 我們看到了這些閃爍的信號

  • appeared in their brain signals

    出現在大腦中,

  • which was coming from the back of their head,

    這些信號是從頭部後方發出來的,

  • which is responsible for the processing of your visual information.

    而這個地方就是負責處理 視覺信息的地方。

  • But I was really interested

    但我真正有興趣的是:

  • to see what happens in your brain when you pay covert attention.

    當你在運用內隱注意力時 大腦裡會發生的情況。

  • So this time I asked people to look in the middle of the screen

    所以這一次,我要求實驗者 看著螢幕的正中間,

  • and without moving their eyes,

    而且不能移動眼睛。

  • to pay attention to either of these squares.

    這樣就能夠注意到 其中一個方塊。

  • When we did that,

    當我們這樣實驗時,

  • we saw that both of these flickering rates appeared in their brain signals,

    我們觀察到兩個閃爍方塊的頻率 都出現在他們的大腦信號,

  • but interestingly,

    但有趣的是,

  • only one of them, which was paid attention to,

    被投以關注的其中一個方塊

  • had stronger signals,

    信號更加強烈,

  • so there was something in the brain

    因此大腦裡有某樣東西

  • which was handling this information

    正在負責處理這類的信息。

  • so that thing in the brain was basically the activation of the frontal area.

    而這個東西基本上就在 大腦的前額活動區。

  • The front part of your brain is responsible

    大腦的前半部負責

  • for higher cognitive functions as a human.

    人類較高層次的認知功能。

  • The frontal part, it seems that it works as a filter

    大腦前額區的運作方式 就像過濾器,

  • trying to let information come in only from the right flicker

    它會嘗試著把你所專注的方塊信號

  • that you are paying attention to

    發進大腦裡,

  • and trying to inhibit the information coming from the ignored one.

    同時也會把忽略的信號給屏蔽掉。

  • The filtering ability of the brain is indeed a key for attention,

    大腦的過濾能力 就是注意力產生的關鍵,

  • which is missing in some people,

    這種能力在某些人身上是缺乏的,

  • for example in people with ADHD.

    比如說,有注意力不足過動症的人

  • So a person with ADHD cannot inhibit these distractors,

    因而有注意力不足過動症的人 無法抑制住這些干擾信號,

  • and that's why they can't focus for a long time on a single task.

    這就是他們不能 長時間專注於某一任務的原因。

  • But what if this person

    但如果這個人

  • could play a specific computer game

    可以玩一種特定的電腦遊戲,

  • with his brain connected to the computer,

    讓他的大腦與電腦連接,

  • and then train his own brain

    然後訓練他自己的大腦

  • to inhibit these distractors?

    去抑制這些干擾信號呢?

  • Well, ADHD is just one example.

    是的,注意力不足過動症 只是其中一個例子。

  • We can use these cognitive brain-machine interfaces

    我們可以把這些認知腦機介面

  • for many other cognitive fields.

    運用到其它的認知領域中。

  • It was just a few years ago

    就在幾年前,

  • that my grandfather had a stroke, and he lost complete ability to speak.

    我祖父中風了, 他完全喪失了說話的能力。

  • He could understand everybody, but there was no way to respond,

    他能聽見任何人的聲音, 但無法作出回應,

  • even not writing because he was illiterate.

    也寫不出來,因為他不識字。

  • So he passed away in silence.

    最後他安靜地離開了人世。

  • I remember thinking at that time:

    我記得,當時我正在想:

  • What if we could have a computer

    假如我們有一台電腦

  • which could speak for him?

    可以替他講話會是怎樣呢?

  • Now, after years that I am in this field,

    幾年後,我投入這個領域

  • I can see that this might be possible.

    我能預見,這是有可能的。

  • Imagine if we can find brainwave patterns

    想像一下,如果我們可以 在想像圖片或文字時

  • when people think about images or even letters,

    找出腦波圖型,

  • like the letter A generates a different brainwave pattern

    像是字母 A 形成的腦波圖型

  • than the letter B, and so on.

    與字母 B 的不一樣,諸如此類的。

  • Could a computer one day communicate for people who can't speak?

    那麼,電腦會不會有一天, 就能為那些無法說話的人發聲?

  • What if a computer

    如果電腦

  • can help us understand the thoughts of a person in a coma?

    能幫助我們了解處於昏迷狀態中的 人的想法又會是怎樣呢?

  • We are not there yet,

    我們還沒有實現那樣的願景,

  • but pay close attention.

    但我們會極度關注。

  • We will be there soon.

    我們很快就能將其實現。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

Paying close attention to something:

專心注意某件事,

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED 注意力 大腦 方塊 信號 專注

【TED】梅赫迪-奧迪哈尼-賽義德拉爾。當你注意的時候,你的大腦會發生什麼?(當你集中注意力時,你的大腦會發生什麼?| Mehdi Ordikhani-Seyedlar)。) (【TED】Mehdi Ordikhani-Seyedlar: What happens in your brain when you pay attention? (What happens in your brain when you pay attention? | Mehdi Ordikhani-Seyedlar))

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    吳宜軒 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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