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  • The starving orphan seeking a second helping of gruel.

    挨餓的孤兒懇求一點點燕麥粥的施捨

  • The spinster wasting away in her tattered wedding dress.

    未婚女子穿著破爛的婚紗日漸消瘦

  • The stone-hearted miser plagued by the ghost of Christmas past.

    鐵石心腸的守財奴被古時候的聖誕鬼魂捉弄

  • More than a century after his death,

    在狄更斯死後一個多世紀

  • these remain recognizable figures from the work of Charles Dickens.

    這些故事保留著辨識性高的特色

  • So striking is his body of work that it gave rise to its own adjective.

    他的作品主體撼動人心,獨具特色

  • But what are the features of Dickens's writing that make it so special?

    但是什麼特色讓狄更斯的作品獨樹一幟呢?

  • Dickens’s fiction brims with anticipation through brooding settings, plot twists, and mysteries.

    狄更斯編寫的小說有著憂鬱的故事、曲折的情節和神秘元素,使得情節令人充滿期待

  • These features of his work kept his audience wanting more.

    這些作品特色讓他的觀眾不斷想知道接下來的故事發展

  • When first published, his stories were serialized,

    第一冊出版時,他的故事已經有續集了

  • meaning they were released a few chapters at a time in affordable literary journals

    他們等到有足夠的出版費時就會釋出一些故事章節

  • and only later reprinted as books.

    而且之後只有書本會再版

  • This prompted fevered speculation over the cliffhangers and revelations he devised.

    這股快速的熱潮超過了狄更斯所預想的結果

  • Serialization not only made fiction available to a wider audience and kept them reading,

    連載不只將小說推廣給更廣泛的觀眾,讓他們持續閱讀

  • but increased the hype around the author himself.

    而且也激勵了作者身邊的人

  • Dickens became particularly popular for his wit,

    狄更斯因為他創造出詭譎角色和諷刺的故事情節

  • which he poured into quirky characters and satiric scenarios.

    這種機智的構想而變得特別廣受歡迎

  • His characters exhibit the sheer absurdity of human behavior,

    他的角色會反映出人類社會中那些荒謬悖理

  • and their names often personify traits or social positions,

    而角色的名字則常透露出個人特質或是社會地位

  • like the downtrodden Bob Cratchit,

    像是《小氣財神》中被欺壓的 Bob Cratchit

  • the groveling Uriah Heap,

    諂媚的 Uriah Heap

  • and the cheery Septimus Crisparkle.

    及快樂的 Septimus Crisparkle

  • Dickens set these colorful characters against intricate social backdrops, which mimic the society he lived in.

    狄更斯設定的豐富角色對抗復雜艱難的社會背景,跟他身處的社會很相像

  • For instance, he often considered the changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution.

    舉例來說,他總是認為工業革命為社會帶來了負面的變化

  • During this period, the lower classes experienced sordid working and living conditions.

    在工業革命期間,較低階層的人們活在骯髒惡劣的工作和生活環境中

  • Dickens himself experienced this hardship as a child

    狄更斯孩童時就體會到困苦的生存環境

  • when he was forced to work in a boot blacking factory after his father was sent to debtors' prison.

    在他的父親負債入監後,他被迫到鞋油工廠工作

  • This influenced his depiction of the Marshalsea prison in Little Dorrit,

    這影響了他在小說《小杜麗》中馬夏爾西監獄的故事描寫

  • where the titular character cares for her convict father.

    故事中,擁有社會名望的人物角色關懷被關在監獄的父親

  • Prisons, orphanages, or slums may seem grim settings for a story,

    將囚犯、孤兒或是貧民窟寫在故事裡或許很殘忍

  • but they allowed Dickens to shed light on

    但狄更斯透過這些元素來呈現出

  • how his society's most invisible people lived.

    在社會中最被忽視的一群人生活中所擁有的希望

  • In Nicholas Nickleby,

    在尼古拉斯·尼克貝(片名:《少爺返鄉》)中

  • Nicholas takes a job with the schoolmaster Wackford Squeers.

    Nicholas 從 Wackford Squeers 校長接下了工作

  • He soon realizes that Squeers is running a scam

    他很快地發現 Squeers 校長在營造一場騙局

  • where he takes unwanted children from their parents for a fee

    他利用被父母拋棄的孤兒來賺錢

  • and subjects them to violence and deprivation.

    然後讓他們遭受暴力虐待並剝奪他們的工作

  • Oliver Twist also deals with the plight of children in the care of the state,

    《孤雛淚》也是一部關於國內兒童問題的作品

  • illustrating the brutal conditions of the workhouse

    描述不合理的工作環境

  • in which Oliver pleads with Mr. Bumble for food.

    Oliver 向 Bumble 先生乞求食物

  • When he flees to London, he becomes ensnared in a criminal underworld.

    當他逃到倫敦時,他成為了一個下層社會的罪犯

  • These stories frequently portray Victorian life as grimy, corrupt, and cruel.

    這些故事往往都在描寫維多利亞時代污穢、腐敗又殘酷的生活

  • But Dickens also saw his time as one in which old traditions were fading away.

    但狄更斯也將他自己生存的時代,視為一個傳統漸漸消失的時代

  • London was becoming the incubator of the modern world through new patterns in industry, trade, and social mobility.

    透過嶄新的工業、貿易和社交模式,倫敦逐漸成為現代世界的孕育地

  • Dickens's London is therefore a dualistic space:

    因此狄更斯的倫敦是個二元世界:

  • a harsh world that is simultaneously filled with wonder and possibility.

    一個同時充斥著驚奇和可能性的嚴苛世界

  • For instance, the enigma of Great Expectations

    舉例來說,《孤星血淚》(片名:《遠大前程》)

  • centers around the potential of Pip,

    所描寫的主軸就圍繞在 Pip 的發展上

  • an orphan plucked from obscurity by an anonymous benefactor and propelled into high society.

    他是一位被匿名捐贈者所拉拔、從下層社會晉升到上層社會的孤兒

  • In his search for purpose,

    在他的人生探索中

  • Pip becomes the victim of other people’s ambitions for him

    Pip 成為了其他人野心的受害者

  • and must negotiate with a shadowy cast of characters.

    迫使他必須和那些灰色地帶的角色打交道

  • Like many of Dickens’s protagonists,

    就像許多狄更斯描寫的主角

  • poor Pip's position is constantly destabilized,

    可憐的 Pip 的立場一直在動搖

  • just one of the reasons why reading Dickens is the best of times for the reader,

    這也是為何對讀者來說,當故事主角面臨最糟的處境時

  • while being the worst of times for his characters.

    是閱讀最欲罷不能的時候

  • Dickens typically offered clear resolution by the end of his novels,

    狄更斯的小說總是有個清楚明朗的結局

  • with the exception of The Mystery of Edwin Drood.

    除了《艾德溫.德魯德之謎》這部作品

  • The novel details the disappearance of the orphan Edwin under puzzling circumstances.

    這本小說詳細描寫了詭譎的孤兒 Edwin 失蹤案

  • However, Dickens died before the novel was finished

    然而,這個作品還沒完成狄更斯就過世了

  • and left no notes resolving the mystery.

    留下一宗毫無提示的謎案

  • Readers continue to passionately debate over who Dickens intended as the murderer,

    讀者們繼續熱烈爭論誰是狄更斯所設定的兇手

  • and whether Edwin Drood was even murdered in the first place.

    還有 Edwin Drood 會不會早在第一個場景就被殺了

  • Throughout many adaptations,

    透過許多改編、

  • literary homages,

    崇尚文學的讀者

  • and the pages of his novels,

    以及狄更斯留下的小說書頁

  • Dickens’s sparkling language and panoramic worldview continue to resonate.

    狄更斯卓越的文字駕馭能力和廣大的世界觀依舊和讀者們產生共鳴

  • Today, the adjective Dickensian often implies squalid working or living conditions.

    今天,Dickensian 這個形容詞通常就是在描述悲慘的工作或生活環境

  • But to describe a novel as Dickensian is typically high praise,

    但用 Dickensian 來描述一本小說就是個至高的讚美

  • as it suggests a story in which true adventure and discovery occur in the most unexpected places.

    就像在暗示在最絕望的地方,就會有真正的冒險和新發現

  • Although he often explored bleak material,

    雖然狄更斯經常探索灰暗的故事元素

  • Dickens’s piercing wit never failed to find light in the darkest corners.

    但他敏銳的洞察力總會在最黑暗的角落找到一絲希望之光

The starving orphan seeking a second helping of gruel.

挨餓的孤兒懇求一點點燕麥粥的施捨

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 故事 小說 社會 作品 讀者

【閱讀素養】【TED-Ed】狄更斯的作品特色和價值 (Why should you read Charles Dickens? - Iseult Gillespie)

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    Jenny 發佈於 2018 年 08 月 06 日
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