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  • Cities are a big deal: we pretty much all have to live in them;

    城市是個很重要的地方:我們大多數人都住在城市裡

  • We should try hard to get them right.

    我們應該試著讓城市變得更好

  • So few cities are nice; very, very few out of many thousands are really beautiful.

    好的城市不多;成千上萬的城市中真正美麗的更是稀少

  • Embarrassingly, the more appealing ones tend to be old,

    有點尷尬地,越古老的城市越有吸引力

  • which is weird because we're mostly much better at making things now: cars, planes, or phones.

    這是相當奇怪的,因為現在我們製造物品的技術越來越好、越來越精緻:車子、飛機或電話

  • Why not, then, cities?

    我們的城市為什麼不這麼做呢?

  • It's crazy to settle for this and to leave something so important to chance.

    安於當前這醜陋的現況並期望偶然性會為我們帶來美好事物的想法是相當瘋狂的

  • We need to get more scientific and identify the principles that determine how a city gets to be pretty or ugly.

    我們需要一些更科學且一致的原則來認定一個城市是美或醜

  • It's not a mystery why we like some cities so much better than others.

    我們會對某些城市特別喜愛的原因並不是不可理解的

  • This is a manifesto about how to make attractive cities.

    這個宣言告訴我們如何創造吸引人的城市

  • There are six fundamental things a city needs to get right.

    這六個基本原則是創造一個美好城市要做到的

  • 1. Not too chaotic; Not too ordered

    1. 不能太無秩序;也不能太有秩序

  • One of the things we really love in cities is order.

    在城市中我們非常喜歡的一點是秩序

  • Order means balance, symmetry and repetition;

    秩序意味著平衡、對稱和重複

  • it means the same thing happening again and again, and the left side matching the right side.

    意思是相同的事情一再發生,左側與右側是相稱的

  • Order is one of the reasons so many people love Paris.

    許多人喜愛巴黎的其中一個理由就是秩序

  • But most cities are a complete mess.

    但多數的城市是完全的紊亂

  • When it's a mess, it seems like no one is in charge.

    當它一片混亂,看起來就像沒有人負責管理

  • And that's worrying.

    而那是令人憂心的

  • It's horrible when everything is jumbled up.

    當所有事情一片混亂會變得相當可怕

  • A pitched roof next to a flat roof,

    一個尖屋頂建築緊接著是平頂建築

  • a stark geometrical box next to a muddled car park,

    一個結實的幾何建築旁邊是一片泥濘的停車場

  • high rise towers that look as if they've been placed at random, like teeth in a gaping mouth.

    摩天大樓就像被隨意放置,如同缺牙的嘴巴裡的牙齒排列一樣

  • We generally have an itch to straighten things out,

    我們通常會想把東西好好整頓

  • and when we can't, it's frustrating.

    但如果不行,那會讓人相當受挫

  • The same urge is there when we look at cities.

    我們對城市也有相同的迫切感

  • Often, it's not skyscrapers that we mind in the city,

    經常,我們在意的不是城市中的摩天大樓

  • it's skyscrapers that have been dumped without planning,

    而是摩天大樓被丟在城市中卻沒有任何規劃

  • like they are increasingly in London,

    就像倫敦越來越多的摩天大樓

  • whereas New York or Chicago shows the ordered way that we love.

    反之紐約或芝加哥展現出來的秩序就是我們喜愛的

  • However, you have to keep something else in mind:

    然而,還有些東西你需要謹記在心:

  • excessive order can be just as much of a problem.

    過度的秩序也會發生問題

  • Too much regularity can be soul destroying.

    太過規律會使精神崩潰

  • Too much order feels rigid and alien.

    太有秩序會使人感到呆板僵化以及不適

  • It can be bleak, relentless, and harsh.

    它會變得荒涼、冷酷與令人不快

  • So the ideal we're seeking is variety and order.

    所以我們追求的理想是多元且有秩序的

  • This is the idea in a square in Telč in the Czech Republic:

    這是在捷克共和國泰爾奇鎮的廣場

  • where every house is the same width and height

    這裡每間房屋的面寬與樓高都相同

  • but within that ordered pattern,

    但在這一致的規格之下

  • every house has been allowed freedom at the level of form and colour

    每間房屋都可以自由的設計樣式及顏色

  • or in Java-eiland in Amsterdam where the pattern is quite strict:

    或是荷蘭阿姆斯特丹的爪哇島住宅群,那裡的規格也相當嚴謹

  • each house has the same height and width,

    每個房屋有著相同的樓高與面寬

  • the color range is restricted,

    可使用的顏色範圍也有限制

  • but within this grid, each unit is completely individual.

    但在這限制之下,每個住宅單元都有不同的獨立樣式

  • We're perfectly in the middle between chaos and boringness here.

    在這裡可說是在混亂與乏味中拿捏得恰到好處

  • And that's what humans adore.

    那也是人們所仰慕的

  • That's what more and more cities should have:

    所以越來越多的城市需要:

  • order and variety.

    秩序與多元

  • So as a general rule:

    所以這個通則是:

  • too much mess, and it's off putting,

    太過混亂,會讓人討厭

  • but too much simple order, and it's boring.

    但純粹的秩序,會使人乏味

  • What we crave it's organized complexity

    我們所渴望的是複雜但有計畫的

  • which you can see as much here:

    就像這裡所看到的

  • as here:

    還有這裡

  • Now, for the second thing that makes cities beautiful:

    讓城市變得更美的得第二個原則是:

  • they have to have visible life.

    它們必須是生氣勃勃地

  • There are streets that are dead and streets that are alive

    以下我們舉幾個死氣沉沉與生氣勃勃的街道案例

  • and in general, we crave the live ones.

    通常我們希望看到的是有活力的那一個

  • This is a live street in Hong Kong.

    這是個有活力的香港街道

  • This is a live scene in Venice.

    這是在威尼斯的一個生動場景

  • In the 18th century, the painter Canaletto

    在十八世紀有個畫家,通稱加納萊托

  • specialized in pictures of cities everyone loved

    他擅長描繪城鎮景色且廣受喜愛

  • because they're full of life.

    因為他的畫作充滿生機

  • There's always plenty going on.

    在他許多畫作中都能看到這個特點

  • In this painting we can see a stonemason's yard.

    在這幅畫作中可以看到一個砌石工地

  • The work sheds are rough, but they're charming.

    這是個克難簡陋的工作場所,但卻相當吸引人

  • It's fascinating to see what people are up to.

    它會吸引我們去仔細看看畫作中的人們究竟在做什麼

  • How do they load those huge blocks onto the gondolas?

    他們是如何將這些巨石裝上那些小船?

  • The life of the city is on display,

    這城市的活力就展現在眼前

  • and we're primed to love this.

    我們最喜愛的也是這部分

  • Contrast this with dead streets of many modern cities.

    相較之下在許多現代城市中死氣沉沉的街道

  • Today, the places where a lot of the work gets done

    在現今許多工作被完成的這個地方

  • look dull and dead.

    看起來是呆滯且無生機的

  • They're spaced out along huge highways,

    它們被許多高速公路分隔開來

  • and you never go there unless you happen to work there yourself

    除非你剛好要去那邊工作,否則你不會去到那裡

  • because there's nothing to see.

    因為那裡沒什麼看頭

  • And most office buildings are brutally anonymous;

    大多數的辦公大樓都有相當高的隱密性

  • the people inside might be working in all sorts of fascinating stuff,

    或許裡面的人正在做些有趣的工作

  • but we just don't know, and it's disorienting and cold.

    但我們就是無法得知,而且它不只冰冷還會使人迷失方向

  • The street levels are dead.

    這樣的街道是死氣沉沉的

  • Contrast this with the streets we all love,

    相較之下,我們喜愛的那些街道

  • where you can see things going on: a bakery,

    你可以看到生活中的事物在街上發生:一間麵包店

  • a cobbler's shop, and markets selling carpets, a burger bar, a bookshop;

    一間鞋坊、賣著地毯的攤販、還有漢堡店、書局

  • these are streets we love because they're full of life.

    這些是我們喜歡的街道景像,因為充滿生機

  • More and more, in modern cities, we've hidden life away.

    在現代城市中,我們越來越傾向將活力隱藏起來

  • We have lots of dead sheds, and dead towers,

    我們有許多死氣沉沉的小屋、高樓

  • connected up by dead motorways where you can barely glimpse your fellow humans.

    被汽車快速道路連接起來,在這裡你也只能匆匆一瞥鄰近的人們

  • Rather than the old alleyways where you can see people at work,

    那些舊街小巷就不同了,你可以看到人們在這工作

  • look them in the eye as they walk down the road

    看著他們在路上穿梭

  • and feel connected to others.

    與他人產生連結感

  • Modern planners have become obsessed by

    現代的規劃者越來越著迷於

  • hiding technology

    隱匿的技術

  • rather than trying to make it nice to look at.

    而非試著做得好看一點

  • Today we'de be outraged if we heard a huge pipeline

    如今我們會大力的撻伐,如果我們聽到有條巨大管線

  • was gonna be slapped across a lovely river;

    要直接大喇喇地橫跨一條美麗的河流

  • we'd be up in arms!

    我們一定會氣瘋的!

  • But we book trips to go and see the Roman Pont du Gard in southern France.

    但我們會跟著旅行團去參觀法國南部古羅馬時期建築的加爾橋

  • That's because it's built for beauty and practicality.

    那是因為它不僅建得實用,也建得美麗

  • We think it's the pipe we hate. It's not.

    我們認為我們討厭的是管線,但並不是

  • It's just the ugliness.

    就只是因為它醜

  • So let's make sure our streets are full of life,

    所以讓我們打造個生氣勃勃的街道

  • full of people doing stuff you can see through the windows.

    你可以從窗戶看到外面有許多人正在做他們該做的事

  • That's what make certain cities so attractive to walk along:

    那就是吸引人們漫步在這個城市中的原因

  • the work is on show,

    日常生活正在上演

  • the people are proud of what they're doing

    人們對他們做的事引以為傲

  • and happy to let the world notice and appreciate

    也樂於讓這個世界看見、欣賞

  • the practical side of things.

    這實際的一面

  • There's a third principle of good cities:

    第三個成為美好城市的原則:

  • They are compact.

    它們是緊密的

  • In the past, being able to be alone

    過去,能夠獨立

  • or just with your partner or family, was at first, a huge achievement.

    或是只與伴侶或家人在一起,被認為是很大的成就

  • Only the largest class, the poor, lived huddled together

    只有貧窮的中低階層才會擁擠地住在一起

  • and it was horrid.

    這是令人毛骨悚然的

  • As soon as people had money, they wanted to move out,

    當人們有錢了,就會想要搬出去

  • and have their own plots.

    擁有自己的居所

  • Through the later decades of 20th century,

    一直到 20 世紀末期

  • more and more people tucked themselves away in a private realm.

    越來越多人將自己圍在私人王國裡

  • And it's been a disaster.

    這可說是個災難

  • It's become deadly, cold, and boring,

    城市逐漸變得了無生機、冰冷與乏味

  • and very, very wasteful on the environment.

    而且非常非常的浪費環境資源

  • A compact city like Barcelona

    一個緊密的城市,像巴塞隆納

  • swallows a fraction of the energy

    只使用了少量的能源

  • of a sprawling one like Phoenix, in Arizona.

    而一個蔓延的城市,如亞利桑那鳳凰城

  • We've built a world of endless dead dormitory suburbs

    我們建造了一個無邊無際地死氣沉沉的郊外住宅區

  • connected by sterile wide motorways

    透過廣闊荒蕪的高速公路連結起來

  • all because we labor under the false impression

    這麼做的原因是因為我們對人們的虛偽感到費力

  • that we want to be far away from other people.

    我們想要盡量遠離他人

  • But in fact it's wonderful to have the balancing moderating influence of living close to other people in uplifting surroundings.

    但事實上在高聳建物環繞下,與他人住得緊密一點是件好事,可以產生平衡、緩和的效果

  • That's why we need tightly packed, well-ordered cities

    這就是為什麼我們需要一個緊密但井然有序的城市

  • with lots of squares in public places in which we can hang out.

    城市中還要有許多公共廣場,讓我們可以打發時間

  • All the most beautiful compact cities have squares.

    所有美麗的緊密城市都有廣場

  • Yet, the art of the square has gone into terrible decline.

    但廣場的品質早已一落千丈

  • We keep promoting the invention of mobile phones,

    我們不斷發明更好的行動電話

  • but no one's built a good square anywhere on this planet for decades.

    但這些年來在這星球上還沒有人建出一個好的廣場

  • It's not rocket science though.

    但那又不是火箭科學

  • Look at the Piazza di Santa Maria in Trastevere, Rome.

    看看羅馬越台伯河的聖母大殿

  • It's a public place, but intimate and closed enough to feel like an extension of your home.

    它是個公共空間,但你在這感受到得親近感,就像是從家中延伸出來的空間

  • Lounging about here, having a coffee or a beer, reading a paper,

    你可以在這裡閒逛、來一杯咖啡或啤酒、讀讀報紙

  • you get to be around other people,

    會有許多人們在你周遭

  • their moderating, cheering affect is restoring.

    他們不疾不徐,愉快的氛圍再次充滿在這個空間

  • It takes you away from the over intense, couple obsessed atmosphere of the home.

    讓你遠離家中過度緊張、夫妻間庸擾的氛圍

  • There's an art to a good square:

    打造一個好的廣場需要:

  • it should be neither too big nor too small,

    不能太大也不能太小

  • anything over 30 meters in diameter starts become too large

    直徑超過 30 公尺就開始變得過大了

  • by which we mean: the individual become overly small relative to the space around them,

    意思是:跟周邊的空間相比,個體在這之中就會顯得太微小了

  • creating a sense of alienation and dislocation.

    會產生一種疏離感及位置錯亂

  • In a good square you should be able to see the face of a person across the square,

    一個好的廣場,你應該要能夠一眼望去便清楚看見一個人的臉

  • You could if need be hail someone walking on the other side.

    在有需要的時候,你要能從另一端走來時看清某人以便跟他打招呼

  • The ideal square must offer a feeling of containment, but not claustrophobia.

    理想的廣場需要具備一種侷限感,但不是造成幽閉恐懼症的密閉感

  • There's another principle of good cities to do with orientation and mystery.

    另一個好的城市需要做到的原則是指引方向與神秘感

  • By definition, cities are huge,

    當然地,城市很大

  • but the cities that a lot of people love also have lots of little back streets

    但城市中另一個受重人喜愛的地方是許多窄小的後巷

  • and small lanes where you can feel cozy and get a bit lost.

    及小巧的巷弄,你會在此感到舒適也同時會有點迷失方向

  • We're drawn to the sense of mystery and enclosure that these streets offer.

    我們被這些街道帶給我們的神秘感及被其環繞的感覺所吸引

  • It's actually lovely to get a bit lost.

    而稍微迷失方向也確實是件美好的事

  • A warren of alleyways can feel homely and intimate.

    一條壅擠的小巷會給你一種親密感與家的感覺

  • At Cartagena, in Colombia,

    在哥倫比亞卡塔赫那

  • the balconies nearly touch across the street-

    在街道上方的陽台近得快碰在一起了

  • you can see your neighbors having breakfast, you know when they've gone to bed,

    你可以看到鄰居正在吃早餐,你可以知道他們什麼時候睡覺

  • what time the children do their homework on a Sunday evening.

    在周末傍晚幾點是孩子們做作業的時間

  • The fact that everyone is little bit on display a lot of the time tends to make people nicer.

    事實上,稍稍展現日常生活出來,會讓人們變得更好

  • They don't shout at each other quite so much.

    他們不會經常向對方大呼小叫

  • They put flowers on the table more often.

    他們更常在桌子擺上花飾

  • We like it, but we forget that we do, and we don't quite know how to ask for it.

    我們喜歡這樣,但我們忘記我們曾經是這樣,甚至不知道如何要求

  • Modern planners and developers give us maximum privacy

    現代規劃師給了我們最大程度的隱私

  • because they suppose that's what we all want,

    因為他們認為所有人都想要這樣

  • and because they insist that cars and lorries, which like a lot more space than people,

    也因為他們認定小客車與大貨車,那些比人們還佔空間的東西

  • are the most important things in the world.

    是世界上最重要的東西

  • Of course we need balance between small streets and big ones.

    當然我們需要在大街與小巷間達到平衡

  • Necessarily, cities are large.

    必然地,城市很大

  • We love small streets, but they're a nightmare when you have to go any distance.

    我們喜歡小巷弄,但當你需要在巷弄中走上一段距離時,就會變成夢魘

  • So the ideal is to have big boulevards, grand, wide straight places, and also little warrens of streets.

    所以最理想的是既有林蔭大道、寬廣筆直的空間,也有一些狹窄壅擠的小巷弄

  • We need cities that offer us two important pleasures:

    我們需要城市提供我們這兩個重要的願望

  • the pleasures of mystery and the pleasures of orientation.

    指引方向以及提供神秘感的願望

  • Let's think about scale now.

    現在讓我們來談談規模

  • Modern cities are all about big things.

    現代城市充滿了 「 大傢伙 」

  • Joseph Campbell once wrote:

    Joseph Campbell 曾寫到:

  • "If you want to see what a society really believes in,

    「 如果你想要看看一個社會真正的信仰,

  • look at what the biggest buildings on the horizon are dedicated to".

    就看看他們地表上最大的建築物是在做什麼的吧。 」

  • The biggest most prominent things tell us about the actual, rather than admitted priorities of a society.

    最大最顯著的東西告訴我們這個社會的現實面,而非進駐城市的優先次序

  • We don't collectively say we worship sports shoe corporations, tax specialists,

    我們不會異口同聲的說我們崇尚運動品牌、租稅專家

  • the oil industry, and pharmaceuticals.

    石油產業與醫藥產業

  • Our cities, however, tell another story.

    然而,我們的城市告訴我們另一個故事

  • They're full of enormous towers devoted to just these things.

    這裡充斥著為了這些產業而生的高聳建築物

  • That is a bit depressing.

    這是有點令人沮喪的

  • As humans, we don't mind things being big, per se,

    做為人類來說,我們並不介意那些東西高高在上

  • we don't mind being humbled,

    我們並不介意卑躬屈膝

  • so long as the things we are bowing to deserve homage,

    只要我們屈服的東西值得尊敬

  • like a beautiful mosque, or a cathedral, or a museum.

    像是漂亮的清真寺、大教堂或是博物館

  • But we've allowed our cities to be hijacked by aggressive commercial interests,

    但我們允許那些野心勃勃的商業利益劫持我們的城市

  • by towers that honor not God, or love, or humanity,

    被那些並非為了榮耀上帝、愛或人性的高樓

  • but pizza corporations and hedge funds.

    而是披薩公司、避險基金公司的高樓所劫持

  • They exist because we've made a big dumb collective mistake:

    它們存在,因為我們都犯了個愚蠢的錯誤

  • we focused on who owns land, but we don't think about who owns space, who has air rights.

    我們專注於誰擁有土地,但我們並沒想到是誰擁有這片空間與天空

  • And in the end, who has air rights

    最終結果是,誰擁有了這片天空

  • determines what you can see from your window.

    決定了你從窗戶看出去的景象

  • We suggest that the ideal height for any city block

    我們建議最理想的城市建築高度

  • is five stories high.

    是五層樓高

  • No more. Above that people start to feel small, insignificant, and trivial.

    不能再多,再高就會使人們感到渺小、無關緊要、微不足道

  • So we say: cut down those towers and pack everything into five stories.

    所以我們才會說:拆掉這些高樓,將所需的空間放入五層樓的建築中

  • Make it dense, compact, and tight,

    讓他們更密集、更緊密

  • like they do in some parts of Berlin, Amsterdam,

    就像柏林、阿姆斯特丹

  • London, and Paris, the bits we love.

    倫敦、巴黎,那些我們喜愛的城市一樣

  • Of course, occasionally there can be a huge building,

    當然,有時候也可以有些巨大的建築存在

  • but let's keep it for something really special,

    但請保持它的獨特性

  • something all of humanity can love.

    確保它是我們人類會喜歡的

  • Towers have to be worthy of their prominence,

    高樓突出於周遭建築,必須要有它的價值存在

  • they must be aligned with our best ambitions and long-term needs.

    它必須符合我們的雄心壯志及長久需求

  • Finally, make it local.

    最後,在地化的特色

  • Somethings should be the same everywhere.

    有些東西在全世界都該是一致的

  • We don't expect there to be a uniquely Venezuelan telephone

    我們並不期望有個獨特的委內瑞拉版的電話

  • or a distinctively Icelandic bicycle.

    或是一個特殊的冰島腳踏車

  • But, we don't want buildings to look the same everywhere.

    但我們不想要讓所有建築物看起來都一樣

  • It's hugely disappointing when you fly somewhere for hours, land, and feel you could be anywhere.

    當你經歷數小時飛行,著地後發現那裡跟其他地方沒有不同,會有極大的失望

  • The problem isn't just that we like a bit of variation for it's own sake;

    問題並不只是我們喜歡有點變化的緣故;

  • because of climate, history and social traditions,

    因為氣候、歷史與風土民情下

  • each society really does have different needs,

    每一個地方社會都有不同的需求

  • different strengths and weaknesses.

    不同的優勢與劣勢

  • There are many distinct styles of happiness;

    有截然不同的歡樂型態、

  • many good and varied ways of conductive and collective life.

    有各種不同美好的途徑可以傳遞與豐富生活

  • The sameness of cities is a problem

    城市的一致性是個問題

  • because it reveals how far each of us must be from engaging with an specific character of it's own place.

    因為這說明了我們每個人都不可能身處在一個擁有地方特色的場所

  • It's like wearing the same clothes in all climates,

    就像在不同的氣候中穿著一樣的衣服

  • or speaking exactly the same way irrespective of who you're talking to.

    或是不論在跟誰交談都以相同的方式講話

  • Cities need to have strong characters

    城市需要有強烈的色彩

  • connected to the use of distinctive local materials and forms.

    並與當地獨特建材及形式連結

  • The pale sandstone, of Millbrae Crescent in Glasgow's south side, is a local material,

    在格拉斯哥南部的 Millbrae Crescent 使用的白色砂岩就是當地建材

  • A medium grained, carboniferous, blond sandstone-

    一種中等顆粒、石炭紀時期的金黃色砂石

  • formed when the Scottish landmass lay near the equator.

    在蘇格蘭大陸還位在赤道邊緣時形成的

  • Or around Cambridge, brick from the local yellowish gault clay is a major traditional material.

    或是劍橋附近,一種用當地淡黃色黏土製成的石磚,是當地的傳統建材

  • Or think of the way the great Australian architect, Glenn Murcutt,

    或是想想澳洲偉大的建築師 Glenn Murcutt