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  • What if the state covered your cost of living, would you still go to work?

    如果國家照顧你的生活的成本,你還會去上班嗎?

  • Go back to school?

    回學校讀書?

  • Not work at all? What would you do?

    完全不工作?

  • This concept is called a universal basic income or UBI

    你會做什麼?

  • And it's nothing less than the most ambitious social policy of our times

    這個概念叫做無條件基本收入或UBI

  • in 2017, basic income is gaining momentum around the world

    在我們這個時代,沒有比這個更有野心的社會政策了

  • First trials are ongoing or on their way

    在2017年,基本收入在全世界的聲勢獲得增長

  • and a growing number of countries are considering UBI as an alternative to welfare

    第一次的嘗試正在進行中

  • How would it work and what are the key arguments for and against?

    越來越多的國家在考慮用UBI作為社會福利的代替品

  • Right now people can't really agree. What universal basic income is or should be

    它是如何運作的,而它關鍵的贊成與反對論點又是什麼?

  • Some want to use it to eliminate welfare and Cupp bureaucracy

    目前人們對於無條件基本收入是什麼或是該不該還沒有達成一致

  • Others want it as a free extra for existing programs, or even want it to be so high that work itself becomes optional

    某些人想要用它來消除社會福利與減除官僚主義

  • For this video we'll talk mostly about the minimum basic income

    其他人則想要它成為現有計畫的免費附帶

  • enough money to be above the poverty line

    甚至想要它變得這麼高,工作本身成為一個可有可無的選項

  • in the US this means about $1,000 a month or $12,000 a year

    在這個影片裡面,我們大部分會談最低基本收入

  • The money would not be taxed and you could do whatever you wanted with it in

    位於貧窮線上的足夠金錢

  • In this scenario UBI is a way of transferring the wealth of a society

    在美國,這表示每個月需要1000美金

  • while still keeping the free market intact

    或一年12,000美金

  • But if we hand out free money will people just spend it on booze and stop working?

    這些錢不會被抽稅

  • A 2013 study by the World Bank

    你可以拿它來想幹什麼就做什麼

  • specifically examined if poor people waste their handouts on tobacco and alcohol if they receive it in the form of cash

    在這個情境下,UBI是一種社會財富傳遞的方式

  • The clear answer, no they don't. The opposite is true

    同時依然保持自由市場的完整

  • Other studies have shown that the richer you are, the more drugs and alcohol you consume

    但是若我們奉上免費金錢,人們是否會就這樣把錢拿去買酒並停止工作?

  • The lazy and drunk poor person is a stereotype rather than reality

    世界銀行在2013年的一份研究中

  • What about laziness?

    特別調查若是窮人是否會把以現金形式收到的救濟品花在菸酒上

  • Universal basic income test runs done in Canada in the 1970s showed that around

    答案很清楚,他們並沒有這樣做

  • 1% of the recipients stopped working, mostly to take care of their kids

    但相反的,其他研究顯示你越有錢,越會花在毒品跟酒精上

  • On average people reduced their working hours by less than 10%

    又懶又醉的窮人是一種刻板印象,而非事實

  • The extra time was used to achieve goals like going back to school or looking for better jobs

    那懶惰呢?

  • But if laziness and drugs are not a huge deal, Why doesn't our current welfare state solve poverty

    1970年代在加拿大執行完成的無條件基本收入測試

  • Welfare or unemployment programs often come with a lot of strings attached

    顯示大約有1%受測者停止工作,大部分去照顧他們的孩子

  • Like taking part in courses,

    平均來說,人們減少了10%以內的工作時數

  • Applying to a certain number of jobs a month or accepting any kind of job offer

    多出來的時間被用來達成像是回學校上課,或是尋找更好的工作之類的目標

  • no matter if it's a good fit, or what it pays

    但若是懶惰與毒品不是大問題,為什麼我們目前的社會福利沒有解決貧窮?

  • Besides the loss of personal freedom, these conditions are often a huge waste of time and only served to make the unemployment statistics

    社會福利或是失業救濟計畫通常會伴隨許多條件

  • Seem less bad

    像是參與課程

  • Often your time would be much better spent looking for the right job

    在一個月內申請一定數量的工作,或是接受任何種類的工作機會

  • continuing education or starting a business

    不管它合不合適,也不管它的薪水

  • Another unwanted side effect of many welfare programs is that they trap people in poverty and promote passive behavior

    除了失去個人自由以外,這些條件通常浪費很多時間

  • Imagine a benefit of $1,000 each month

    只是為了讓失業統計數據不要那麼難看

  • in a lot of programs if you earn a single dollar extra the whole thing is taken away

    通常你的時間要該用來花在找正確的工作

  • If you take a job, that's paying $1200 you might not only lose your benefits,

    繼續受教育

  • but because of your taxes and another costs like transportation

    或是創業

  • You might end up having less money than before

    許多社福計畫的另外一個不想要的負面影響是他們把人們困在貧窮當中,而且鼓勵消極的行為

  • So if you actively try to better your situation, and your total income is not improving or even a shrinking

    想像每個月有1000元的救濟金

  • welfare can create a ceiling that traps people in poverty

    在大多數計劃裡,如果你多賺了一塊錢,那麼整份社會福利都會被拿掉

  • and rewards passive behavior

    如果你找了一份工作付你1200元,那麼你可能不只失去你的救濟金

  • A basic income can never be cut and therefore getting a job and additional income would always make your financial situation better

    還因為你的稅金以及其他花費,像是通勤

  • Work is always rewarded

    最終你的錢甚至比之前還少

  • instead of a ceiling it creates a floor from which people can lift themselves up

    所以如果你很積極地試著改進你的情況,但是你的總收入不但沒有增加,甚至可能縮水

  • But even if UBI is the better model, is it economically feasible?

    社會福利會建立一個天花板,把人們關在貧窮當中

  • What about inflation?

    並鼓勵消極的行為

  • Won't prices just rise making everything just like it was before?

    基本收入永遠不會被中斷,因此找到新工作以及額外的收入都一定會增進你的財務狀況

  • Since the money is not being created by magic or printers it needs to be transferred from somewhere

    工作永遠都有收穫

  • It's more of a shift of funds than the creation of new ones

    取代天花板,它創造了一個地板讓人們可以自立自足

  • Hence; no inflation

    但就算UBI是一個比較好的模型,它在經濟上是可行的嗎?

  • Ok, but how do we pay for it?

    通貨膨脹要怎麼辦?

  • There's no right answer here because the world is too diverse

    物價不會變高而讓一切都變得徒勞無功嗎?

  • How well-off the country is, what the local values are,

    因為錢不是膜術變的,也不是印表機印一印就好,而是必須從某個地方轉換而來

  • Are things like high taxes or cutting the defence budget politically acceptable or not?

    它更多是資金的轉移,而不是創造新的資金

  • How much welfare state is already in place and is it effective?

    因此,沒有通貨膨脹

  • Each country has its own individual path to a UBI

    好,但我們如何支付?

  • The easiest way to pay for a UBI is to end all welfare and use the free funds to finance it

    這沒有正確答案因為這世界太多樣化

  • Not only would this make a number of government agencies disappear, which in itself saves money, it would also eliminate a lot of bureaucracy

    國家的富裕程度,當地的價值觀是什麼

  • on the other hand cutting them could leave many people worse off than before

    像高稅收或削减國防預算之類的事情在政治上是可以接受的嗎?

  • If the goal is to have a foundation for everybody there still need to be programs of some sort because just like countries,

    現行有多少社會福利,以及其成效如何?

  • People are not the same

    每個國家有自己個別通往UBI的途徑

  • The second way - higher taxes especially for the very wealthy

    要為UBI支付,最簡單的方法,就是中止所有社會福利,然後使用釋放出來的資金來挹注它

  • In the US for example there's been a lot of economic growth but most of the benefits from it have gone to the richest few percent

    這不只會讓許多政府機構消失,本身就可以省下不少錢,它也可以消滅許多官僚作業

  • the wealth gap is rapidly widening

    另外一方面,中斷它們會讓許多人比以前過得更糟

  • and many argue that it might be time to distribute the spoils more evenly to preserve the social peace

    如果目標是讓每個人都有一個基礎,那依然需要某些形式的計畫

  • There could be taxes on financial transactions, capital, land value, carbon, or even robots

    因為就像國家,不是人人都相同

  • But UBI is not necessarily expensive

    第二種方法 - 收更多的稅,特別是對於那些非常有錢的人

  • According to a recent study

    例如在美國,有很多的經濟成長,但是大部分的利益都落在最有錢的少數人

  • a UBI of $1,000 per month in the US

    貧富差距越來越大

  • Could actually grow the GDP by 12% over eight years

    而且有許多人認為也許是時候重新更公平地分配利益以保持社會安定

  • because it would enable poor people to spend more and increase overall demand

    可能會在財務移轉,資本,土地價值,碳,或甚至是機器人上加稅

  • What about the people who do the dirty work?

    但是UBI並不一定很貴

  • Who will work in the fields, crawl through sewers, or lift pianos?

    根據最近的研究

  • If you don't need to for survival, will people still do hard boring and unfulfilling labor?

    在美國一份每個月1000元的UBI

  • UBI might give them enough leverage to demand better pay and working conditions

    其實可以在8年內提高12%的GDP

  • a study calculated that every extra dollar going to wage earners would add about $1.21 to the national economy

    因為他會促使窮人花費更多,而增加整體需求

  • While every extra dollar going to high-income Americans would add only 39 cents

    那些做辛苦工作的人要怎麼辦?

  • There would still be very rich and poor people

    誰會想要在田裡工作,清理下水道或是扛鋼琴?

  • but we could eliminate fear, suffering, and existential panic for a significant part of the population

    你果你不需要求生,那人們還會做困難無聊無法讓人滿足的勞動嗎?

  • Making poor citizens better off could be a smart economic tactic

    UBI也許會給他們足夠的力量要求更好的待遇以及工作條件

  • For some this isn't enough. They want a UBI large enough to live a middle-class existence

    一份研究計算出,每個受薪階級多賺1元,就會為國家經濟增加1.21元

  • If we set the financial obstacle aside, this idea fundamentally challenges, how our society is constructed

    而每流進高收入美國人一元,只會增加39分

  • By earning money, you earn the possibility to take part in society this determines your status and options

    還是會有非常有錢跟非常窮的人

  • But it also forces many people into spending huge chunks of their time on things they don't care about

    但我們可以消除大部分人口的恐懼,苦難以及存在主義恐慌

  • in 2016 only 33% of US employees were engaged at work

    讓貧窮的市民過得更好會是一個聰明的經濟策略

  • 16% were actively miserable and the remaining 51% were only physically present

    對某些人來說這還不夠,他們希望UBI大到能過中產階級的生活

  • Would 67% of people stop working if they could?

    如果我們把財務障礙擺在一邊,這個想法根本上地挑戰了我們的社會是如何建構的

  • It would be unfair to portray work as just a chore

    透過賺錢,你獲得了參與這個社會的可能性,這決定了你的狀態與選擇

  • work gives us something to do. It challenges us

    但是它也強迫許多人花上他們大部分的時間在他們並不關心的事情上

  • it motivates us to improve, it forces us to engage

    在2016年,只有33%的美國員工樂於工作

  • Many find friends or partners at work, we work for social status wealth and our place in the world

    16%感到痛苦不堪而剩下的51%根本心不在焉

  • We're looking for something to do with our lives and for many people work gives them meaning

    這67%的人如果他們可以的話,會停止工作嗎?

  • There are other concerns with UBI

    把工作描述成在做雜務是不公平的

  • If all welfare programs were exchanged for one single payment, this gives the government a lot of leverage

    工作讓我們有事可做,它挑戰我們

  • individual programs are easier to attack or cut than a multitude

    它督促我們進步, 強迫我們與人接觸

  • or populist smite promise drastic changes to the UBI to get into power

    許多人在工作時找到朋友或是夥伴,我們為了社會地位,財富與我們在世界上的位置而工作

  • and a universal basic income doesn't tackle all problems when it comes to equality

    我們都在為我們的生命尋找某些事情來做,而對某些人來說,工作給了他們意義

  • Rents for example

    UBI還有其他的考量

  • while $1,000 might be great in the countryside, it's not a lot for expensive metropolitan areas

    如果所有的社會福利計畫都換成了單一支付,這給了政府非常大的影響力

  • which could lead to poor people moving outwards and the difference between rich and poor

    個別的計畫比起多樣的計畫比較容易被攻擊或中斷

  • becoming even more extreme

    或是民粹主義者會承諾大幅改變UBI以取得權力

  • and of course, for some people, the concept of work itself not being essential for survival is appalling

    而且說到平等,無條件基本收入沒有解決所有的問題

  • Conclusion

    例如租房子

  • So is the universal basic income a good idea? The honest answer is that we don't know yet

    儘管1000塊錢在鄉下很不錯,但是在昂貴的都市地區卻不怎麼樣

  • There needs to be a lot more research more and bigger test runs

    這會導致窮人越搬越遠而使貧富差距

  • We need to think about what kind of UBI we want and what we're prepared to give up to pay for it

    變得更加極端

  • The potential is huge. It might be the most promising model to sustainably eliminate poverty

    而且當然,對某些人來說,工作本身的概念已經不是生存所必要的這件事非常駭人聽聞

  • It might seriously reduce the amount of desperation in the world and make us all much less stressed out

    結論

  • This video was made possible by a

    所以無條件基本收入是一個好辦法嗎?說老實話,我們還不知道

  • Universal basic income provided by you, our viewers

    還需要更多的研究以及更大的實際測試

  • Ten thousand people around the world gift us a monthly income on patreon.com/Kurzgesagt

    我們必須思考我們想要哪一種的UBI,我們準備要用什麼來支付它

  • You enable us to pay salaries and buy new hardware you enable us to make more videos

    這個可能性是很巨大的。它可能是最有希望可以永續消除貧窮的模型

  • And you enable us to spend more time on them

    它可能真能減少這世上的絕望,讓我們輕鬆點

  • Kurzgesagt would truly not be what it is today without your help

    這部影片之所以成為可能是藉由你,我們的觀看者,提供的無條件基本收入

  • You help us stay independent, and you give us the freedom to put quality before quantity

    這世界上有一萬人每個月在petreon.com/Kurzgesagt上獎勵我們收入

  • Thank you so much

    你讓我們能付薪水,還有買新的硬體,能做更多的影片,讓我們能花更多的時間在它們上面

What if the state covered your cost of living, would you still go to work?

如果國家照顧你的生活的成本,你還會去上班嗎?

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全民基本收入解讀_人人都能免費領錢?全民基本收入 (Universal Basic Income Explained_Free Money for Everybody? UBI)

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    王惟惟 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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