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  • With devastating hurricanes, refugee crisis

    摧毀性的颶風、難民危機

  • and the real possibility of nuclear war. It can sometimes

    還有極可能發生的核戰,有時候

  • feel like the end is near. But what are the biggest threats

    會覺得末日近了;然而,什麼是對人類

  • to humanity and is there anything we can do to stop them?

    最大的威脅,我們該採取甚麼行動阻止這一切的發生呢 ?

  • Experts all over the world from the Global Challenges Foundation

    位於斯德哥爾摩全球挑戰基金會的專家們

  • in Stockholm and the Centre for the Study of Existential Risk

    以及劍橋大學的既有危機研究

  • at the University of Cambridge consider this question yearly

    每年研究此議題

  • using scientific research. Some risks lay

    並使用科學研究數據。部分危機

  • millions of years into the future like gamma-ray burst

    遺臭萬年,像是由星際爆炸所產生的

  • caused by a star explosion which would destroy our

    γ 射線 (伽瑪射線),破壞臭氧層

  • ozone layer or even the over expansion or

    甚至是向外層擴張

  • collapse of the entire universe. Closer to home

    還有整個宇宙的瓦解。我們居住的藍星

  • we have our sun which will eventually become a red giant as it ages

    有隨著它老化而變成紅色巨星的太陽

  • and engulf the entire planet

    並吞噬整個太陽系的行星

  • but even that isn't for another 5 billion years.

    但這會是 50 億年後的事了

  • More imminent is an asteroid large enough to

    較迫切的是小行星,大到足以

  • create a global catastrophe which is estimated to occur

    造成大災難

  • every 120,000 years. While none are currently

    每 12 萬年會發生一次,而目前為止

  • expected to hit earth soon existing data is incomplete

    沒有顯示任何隕石即將來臨,因為相關數據不足

  • with a worldwide effort underway to

    全世界仍致力於

  • to search the skies. Should it happen

    天際的研究;要是真的發生

  • it could create a global cooling event like the ice age.

    會讓全球進入冰河時期

  • But even smaller asteroids could have a significant impact

    就算是小行星,也會對大自然和人類生態系統

  • on both natural and human ecosystems too.

    帶來相當的衝擊

  • An even closer possibility is the super volcano

    更有可能的是超級火山的爆發

  • the devastation in Pompeii from Mount Vesuvius released around

    維蘇威火山爆發釋放出約 4 平方公里的岩漿

  • 4 km cubic of magma but the super volcanos

    化龐貝城為廢墟;而超級火山的影響

  • can release more than 500 km cubic.

    威力達 500 平方公里

  • The real worry from this worldwide is

    另世界各地堪憂的是

  • the ash cloud which would block out the sunlight, cooling the globe

    火山灰阻擋了陽光,冷卻大地

  • and crippling agriculture. The last known eruption occurred

    使農業被荒廢。上次為人所知的是

  • around 25.000 years ago in New Zealand and

    2 萬 5 千年前於紐西蘭的火山爆發

  • researchers predict they occur every 30.000 to 50.000 years.

    研究員預測每 3 萬到 5 萬年會發生

  • Scientists are currently monitoring Yellowstone

    科學家正監測位於美國的黃石 (國家公園)

  • in the US as a future potential site. But not

    做為未來的預測基準;然而

  • all of our threats are natural. Overpopulation can

    並非所有的威脅源自於自然因素。人口過剩

  • outstrip Earth's capacity to produce food

    超過地球糧食以及

  • and other resources. And amplify the threat of infectious

    其他自然資源的供應。高密度人口擴大了

  • pandemics due to high densities. Perhaps with bioengineered

    流行傳染疾病的速度,或許伴隨著

  • diseases. Conversely evidence is

    生物工程的疾病;相對地

  • already pointing to declining fertility rates.

    證據已經顯示生育率正在衰退中

  • Will we see the human population gradually die off

    我們是否會看見人類因為生育率低

  • from lack of births? Or will climate change beat this concern?

    而逐漸滅絕呢 ? 抑或者是氣候變遷議題捷足先登 ?

  • A rise of 3 degrees Celsius would be incredibly

    攝氏升溫三度 C 足以實質地

  • significant with most of Florida and Bangladesh underwater.

    影響佛羅里達州以及水鄉澤國孟加拉

  • While several coastal cities would become swamped.

    海岸城市將會被淹沒

  • On top of this longer and more damaging wild fire seasons,

    野火季時間的延長與造成的災害

  • more destructive hurricanes, heat waves, food insecurity

    摧毀性的颶風、熱浪、糧食短缺與

  • and drought. All of which can impact and amplify

    乾旱,所有帶來的影響加大

  • incidents of violence with. Nations already suffering

    暴力事件的衍生。受缺水

  • from water and climate conditions which ultimately

    與氣候變遷所苦國家

  • impacted deteriorating economic conditions.

    禍不單行,拖累經濟發展

  • Then, there is nuclear war. Tensions over North Korea have brought this conflict to the forefront.

    接著,還有核戰。北韓情勢緊張,衝突升溫

  • With over 7000 known warheads between Russia and the US.

    美俄之間超過 7000 座彈頭

  • And nukes within the UK, France

    英、法、中、印度、巴基斯坦、以色列和北韓

  • China, India, Pakistan, Israel and North Korea.

    境內的核武

  • The doomsday clock created by the

    原子科學家的

  • Bulletin of Atomic Scientists represents the likeliness of a

    末日時鐘報時,代表

  • man-made global catastrophe. Though the clock more recently

    人類造成世界毀滅的可能

  • included climate change and some other developments that

    包括氣候變遷,以及其他置人類於危險之中的發展

  • put humanity at risk emphasis is placed on nuclear war.

    核戰是主要禍害

  • Since its creation in 1947, the furthest

    自從核子於 1947 的誕生

  • we've been from midnight or doomsday is in 1991

    距核戰末日最遠的是 1991 年

  • when the clock was 17 minutes to midnight.

    以時鐘來看,為午夜前 17 分鐘

  • Today in 2017 the clock sits

    今年 2017 年

  • at 2.5 minutes to midnight. The second closest it has ever been.

    離核戰末日為午夜前 2 分半;是目前第二次近的

  • Even a small nuclear war

    即使是小型核戰

  • could create a nuclear winter which would cause global cooling

    都會造成小型的冬季、全球冷卻

  • and damage to the ozone layer that may ultimately

    破壞臭氧層,可能造成

  • create droughts that lasts more than a decade.

    持續十年之久的乾旱

  • But the greatest threat of all: Researches currently believe

    但是,最大的威脅,根據研究員最近的說法

  • it's artificial intelligence. If growth continues to

    是人工智慧。若持續成長

  • become comparable to the industrial and agricultural revolutions

    將和農工業革命不相上下

  • Experts predict autonomous machines will attain

    那麼,專家預言在 2075年,智慧機器將可以

  • near human level intelligence by 2075.

    媲美人類智商

  • And even if these machines don't become malevolent or evil

    即使這些機器立意良善

  • what happens if those programmed to kill fall into the

    但若錯植程式

  • wrong hands? Or when AI programmed to do something good

    以至於錯殺無辜呢 ? 或是人工智慧立意良善

  • go about it with a destructive method?

    卻不擇手段呢 ?

  • Thank you all so much for watching this video! If you liked it

    非常感謝您觀看此影片 ! 若您喜歡

  • make sure that you subscribe so that you can see our videos that come out every Thursday.

    請您記得訂閱,每週四您將可以收看我們最新影片

  • And we're gonna like some other videos over there that are similar to this one.

    右邊有更多和今天相似的影片

  • About how rich people are prepping for the apocalypse and

    有關於多少人類對天啟的應對

  • how to survive a nuclear war. This year is almost over. Hang in there!

    以及如何從核戰中生存。今年將進入尾聲,新年新氣象 !

  • Peace guys!

    和平萬歲 !

With devastating hurricanes, refugee crisis

摧毀性的颶風、難民危機

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 火山 人類 末日 變遷 乾旱 氣候

人類最有可能滅絕的十一個原因 (The 11 Greatest Threats To Humanity)

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    kiki 發佈於 2018 年 04 月 28 日
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