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  • When politicians talk about workers, they tend to focus on certain types of jobs.

    當政治人物討論勞工時,都傾向著重於某些類型的工作

  • Bernie stood with American workers.”

    「Bernie 和美國勞工站在同一陣線上。」 (註:Bernie 現為美國聯邦參議員)

  • It’s American workers that remake this country

    「是美國勞工重建了這個國家。」

  • But in the US, retail workers have outnumbered manufacturing workers since 2002.

    但美國的門市銷售人員數從 2002 年起就已經超過製造業員工數了

  • And food service workers aren’t far behind.

    而餐飲業員工數也緊跟在後

  • These jobs are in every community - theyre the base of the service economy.

    這些工作存在於每個社會中──是為服務經濟的地基

  • So with the recession in the rear-view mirror, it’s worth asking: can these jobs be good jobs?

    而隨著經濟不景氣的逼近,非常需要問:「這些工作會是好工作嗎?」

  • What do we want?

    我們要什麼!

  • Contract!

    契約!

  • When do we want it?

    我們何時要!

  • Now!

    現在!

  • These Kroger workers are rallying outside a grocery store in West Virginia

    這些 Kroger 超市員工正在西維吉尼亞州一家超市外示威

  • because their employer wouldn’t meet their demands, stalling negotiations for a new union contract.

    因為他們的雇主不同意他們的要求,讓對於工會新契約的談判陷入僵局

  • It’s not like were asking for the sun, the moon and the stars."

    「不是說我們要求的東西強人所難。」

  • "We want a modest living wage and we want the maintenance of our medical benefits.”

    「我們要的不過就是份可維生的薪水和不變的醫療福利。」

  • Kroger eventually agreed to a new 3-year contract for over 4,000 workers.

    Kroger 最後同意了超過四千名員工的新型三年期契約

  • It includes pay raises and zero cuts to their benefits.

    內容包含了薪資調漲以及維持不變的福利

  • By negotiating collectively, service workers can secure an hourly wage that is six dollars

    藉由共同協商,服務業員工能獲得的平均時薪高於無工會下所獲平均時薪 6 美元

  • higher on average than nonunion wages.

    藉由共同協商,服務業員工能獲得的平均時薪高於無工會下所獲平均時薪 6 美元

  • But they are a small minority.

    但這些人只佔非常少數

  • Private sector union membership in the US has fallen to 6.4% of all workers.

    美國私營部門工會會員數降到了只剩全體勞工的百分之 6.4

  • It’s even lower in the retail and food service industries.

    在零售和餐飲業所佔的比例甚至更低

  • The decline of unions in the US was caused in part by larger trends that have shifted the types of jobs available,

    美國工會的減少有部分原因是由於既有工作種類遭變動轉換的大趨勢

  • especially for those without a college degree.

    尤其是那些不需大學學歷的工作

  • During the 80s, 90s and 2000s, several occupations that used to provide a stable middle-class income

    在八零、九零年代和 2000s 期間,好幾個過往提供穩定中產階級薪資收入的工作

  • grew more slowly than both higher-wage and lower-wage jobs.

    其員工成長速度相較於那些較高薪和較低薪工作要慢了許多

  • That’s partly due to new technologies: robots in factories, and computer software in offices.

    那樣的情況部分要歸因於這些新技術──工廠的機器人和辦公室的電腦軟體

  • You know, “The decline in the middle has been steep.

    中間部分一直一來都是急遽下降

  • A lot of that has been growth of the top, which is good.

    而那部分的下降一直是頂端族群成長的來源,這件事是好的

  • People have moved out of the middle and into professional, technical and managerial jobs.

    人們不斷地從中間部分移出,然後進入到具專業性、技術性及管理性質的領域

  • But, the bottom section of the labor market, which comprises maybe 17-18 percentage of jobs,

    但,勞動市場的底部,由百分之 17 到 18 的工作組成

  • is about a third larger than it was in 1980.

    大約是 1980 年規模的三分之一大

  • And if you look just among people without a college degree it's much larger still.

    如果看那些沒有大學學位的人,規模仍然比勞動市場底部大很多

  • And that's the group we should be concerned about.”

    而那正是我們應該要擔心的群體

  • The great recession intensified those longer-term trends.

    經濟大蕭條強化了那些較長期的趨勢

  • Since 2010, the economy has added millions of jobs, but not evenly.

    從 2010 年起,已多了好幾百萬個工作,但分配並不平均

  • The biggest area of growth was in high-skill occupations, mostly for people with 4-year college degrees.

    需要高階技術的工作為成長最大的區塊,大部分都是給擁有學士學位的人

  • Meanwhile workers with a high school diploma were pushed out of middle-skill occupations.

    同時,需要中階技術的工作排除了只有高中文憑的人

  • And in low-skill jobs, theyre increasingly competing with those who have some college.

    而低階技術的工作,他們尤其要和那些有上過大學的人競爭

  • We're adding lots of jobs.

    我們要加入很多工作

  • The concern is that, many of the jobs that are being added are not good jobs, in terms

    重要的事是──很多要加入的工作,就提供合理的生存和工作保障標準而言,並非好工作

  • of offering a reasonable standard of living and job security.

    重要的事是──很多要加入的工作,就提供合理的生存和工作保障標準而言,並非好工作

  • And many of the good jobs that are being added are not accessible to typical workers.”

    而很多要加入的好工作,一般典型的勞工是無法得到的

  • Thank you all for joining us today to discuss the importance of predictable schedules and

    謝謝你們大家今天一起來討論關於可預測的班表和勞工薪資收入的重要性

  • incomes for workers.”

    謝謝你們大家今天一起來討論關於可預測的班表和勞工薪資收入的重要性

  • Hello my name is Kingia Phillips.

    你們好,我是 Kingia Phillips

  • I am a former worker at South Philadelphia Walmart.”

    我之前在南費城的 Walmart 工作

  • The juice pallets were the most hard to do.

    運果汁的棧板是最艱辛的部分

  • And you know, when youre pregnant, youre not supposed to lift above your head, but I had to.”

    然後你知道的,當你有身孕時,你不應該高舉重物過頭,但我無法避免

  • Kingia came to DC to speak in favor of a federal bill that would regulate work schedules

    Kingia 來到哥倫比亞特區表達對於「規範工作班表,志在增加工時及收入穩定性」的聯邦法案的支持

  • with the aim of increasing stability in hours and income.

    Kingia 來到哥倫比亞特區表達對於「規範工作班表,志在增加工時及收入穩定性」的聯邦法案的支持

  • After I had the baby I asked them, 'could I have my schedule adjusted, a tiny bit?'"

    「我生下孩子後,我問他們,『我能微調我的班表嗎?』」

  • "And they told me that we all have kids and they have a job to do, a company to run."

    「他們跟我說,我們大家都有孩子要顧、有工作要做、有公司要經營。」

  • "And it turned out that they cut my schedule down to 8 hours a week.”

    「結果最後他們把我的班表縮減到一週八小時」

  • - What were you doing before that? - I was doing 32 hours.

    - 在那之前,是多少? - 32 小時

  • Kingia got the impression that to get enough hours,

    Kingia 了解到,要拿到足夠的工時

  • workers have to be available any time the store is open,

    員工必須要在店家營業的時間能隨時現身

  • which is especially hard for parents, students, and people with a second job.

    而這對於父母、學生和有兩份工作的人來說尤其困難

  • So after a month, she quit.

    所以一個月後,她辭職了

  • “I knew they were just going to tell me to re-open my availability, and

    「我知道他們只會要我釋出原來的時間,而

  • that would be the only way for me to make more money and be able to sustain myself and my child.”

    那是我唯一能賺更多錢、養活我自己和我的孩子的方式。」

  • The federal proposal faces an uphill battle in a Republican congress, but since 2014,

    這個聯邦提案在共和黨員佔多數的國會裡面臨了艱難的一戰,但自 2014 年起

  • six cities and the state of Oregon have passed scheduling policies.

    六個城市和奧勒岡州都通過了「人力編制調度」政策

  • The details vary from place to place but most of them apply to fast food and retail workers,

    細節上因地方而異,但是大部分都適用於餐飲業和零售業員工

  • they require two weeks advance notice of work schedules, with extra pay for subsequent changes

    規定上說,班表需提前兩週通知,若公司後續有做變更則需額外支薪

  • that are initiated by the company.

    規定上說,班表需提前兩週通知,若公司後續有做變更則需額外支薪

  • Most of the measures also require employers to offer hours to existing employees before

    大多數的措施也要求雇主在雇用更多員工以前必須先將工時分配給現有的員工

  • hiring more people.

    大多數的措施也要求雇主在雇用更多員工以前必須先將工時分配給現有的員工

  • So what it does is, a lot of these policies start to balance out the burden of doing business,

    「所以它的作用在於,這些政策開始去平衡做生意所需負擔的責任

  • so that, you know, the people who are getting paid the lowest aren't the only ones bearing the cost.”

    也就是說,薪水最低的人不再是唯一承擔損失的人。」

  • Policymakers have also moved to increase the minimum wage and require paid sick leave in

    決策者們也在某些城市和州推動最低薪資的調漲以及有薪病假

  • certain cities and states.

    決策者們也在某些城市和州推動最低薪資的調漲以及有薪病假

  • It’s a response to the fact that not only are middle-class jobs moving out of reach for non-college workers,

    這不只是對於「中產階級工作排除無大學學歷勞工事件」的一個回應

  • but a lot of the remaining jobs have gotten worse since the recession hit.

    也是對於「經濟大蕭條襲來後,一堆剩餘的工作變得更糟」的事實的回應

  • In 2005, you could walk into a JC Penney, and it was a stable workforce.

    2005 年,JC Penney 的人力很穩定

  • "People had full-time hours, and health insurance, and even commission."

    完整的工時、健保,甚至還有佣金

  • "It was a workforce that knew each other, and felt like they could make their job better."

    那時,員工們互相認識,並認為他們能讓他們的工作變得更好

  • By 2008, that workforce was completely contingent.

    到了 2008 年,人力變得完全難以預料

  • People's hours were changing from one week to the next.

    員工的工時會從某一週被改到隔週

  • Nobody knew each other.”

    大家互不認識

  • The number of involuntary part time workers -- those are people working part time who

    不情願兼職的員工數──那些想轉全職工作的兼職員工──在經濟蕭條期間躍升了許多

  • would prefer full-time work -- that jumped during the recession.

    不情願兼職的員工數──那些想轉全職工作的兼職員工──在經濟蕭條期間躍升了許多

  • And the increase was greater for both the retail sector and for leisure and hospitality,

    零售業和休閒觀光服務業 (包括餐廳和旅館) 的上升幅度要整體來的更大

  • which includes restaurants and hotels.

    零售業和休閒觀光服務業 (包括餐廳和旅館) 的上升幅度要整體來的更大

  • This is part of a much broader trend.

    這是整個趨勢的一部分

  • A 2016 study found a significant rise inalternative work arrangementsacross the economy.

    一份 2016 年的研究發現整個經濟體在「替代 (彈) 性工時安排制」使用的顯著上升

  • That includes temp workers, contract firm workers and freelancers.

    包含了臨時工、合同工和自由工作者

  • They make sense: Salaried and full-time workers are fixed costs for employers.

    那是合理的:受薪職員和全職員工對雇主來說是固定的成本

  • Whether revenue is up or down, you have to pay them and fund their benefits.

    無論收益是高是低,都必須支付他們薪水並為他們的福利提供資金

  • But if you have a pool of more flexible workers whose hours you can dial up and down to match your sales,

    但如果你有一群彈性工人,你可以自由調整他們的工時去配合銷售的狀況

  • you can save money, at least in the short term.

    你就能省下一些錢,至少就短期來說可以

  • Those cost-cutting strategies have been enabled by new technologies.

    新技術已經讓那些縮減成本的策略能夠實行了

  • Today, a lot of big employers are using workforce scheduling technologies, and so

    目前,很多知名的僱主都在使用人力編排調度技術

  • it's an algorithm that's setting the schedule.

    是由一種演算法在安排班表

  • And when you look it, do an analysis of when the peak hours are, it's easier to slot people in for

    當你去分析出來客的尖峰時段時,要去填補四小時班的人力並找到替補的人就更容易

  • four hour shifts and then rotate it out.

    當你去分析出來客的尖峰時段時,要去填補四小時班的人力並找到替補的人就更容易

  • But there's very few companies (that) have systems that basically say, you know,

    但幾乎沒有公司會設置系統說,

  • My goal is to try to give people some stability in their hours from one week to the next, and

    「我的目標就是給予員工每週穩定的工時」

  • I'm gonna try to match people's schedules from one week to the next.’"

    「我要嘗試去配合員工每週的行程表」

  • What this has meant for some workers is schedules and paychecks that change from week to week.

    這對某些員工來說也就意味著每週班表和薪資的不確定

  • A gallup poll of hourly workers with varying hours found that

    蓋洛普對於工時變動的時薪工人的民意調查顯示 (註:蓋洛普為全球知名的民意調查公司)

  • one out of three said their schedules cause them financial hardship.

    每三個人就有一個人表示,他們的班表造成他們經濟上的困難

  • Instead of giving me two 8 hour shifts and a 4 hour shift, they would give me 5 4-hour shifts.

    他們會給我 5 天 4 小時的班,而不是 2 天 8 小時的班搭配 1 天 4 小時的班

  • So I would have to go to school and go to work 5 times a week, instead of working 3 days a week.”

    所以我除了必須上學,一個禮拜還有 5 天必須去工作,而不是一個禮拜工作 3 天就好

  • The amount of hours they give out is based on sales, which I believe is horrible.

    雇主所給的工時數是以銷售額作為依據,而我認為這是很糟糕的

  • One week I’ll have 13 hours, the next i’ll have 25, the next I’ll have 30, then back down to 15.

    某一週我可能有 13 小時的工時,下一週變 25,再下一週 30,然後又降回到 15

  • And thatthat shows on my paycheck.”

    而那──那都會顯示在我的薪資明細上

  • Target and Walmart already post schedules at least a week and a half in advance.

    Target 和 Walmart 都已經提前 1.5 週就公布班表

  • Both companies have also raised their minimum wages in recent years.

    兩家公司近年來也調漲了最低薪資

  • And several retailers have announced an end to the controversial practice of on-call scheduling.

    然後好幾家零售商已經宣布了要終結備具爭議性的待命調度執行

  • On-call shifts require employees to call employers the day before or the day of a potential shift

    待命班要求員工需在前一天或是有可能需要人力的那一天打給僱主

  • to find out if theyll be needed to work.

    去確認他們是否需要去上班

  • If employees are not needed, they don’t get paid.”

    如果員工不被需要,他們也就沒有薪水拿

  • But theyre a long way from a model like Costco’s

    但相較於 Costco 這樣的模範來說,他們還有很長一段路要走

  • which guarantees a minimum amount of weekly hours for both full and part time workers.

    Costco 給於全職和兼職員工每週最低工時的保障

  • The union model for including workersinput in business decisions

    算入員工對於公司決策投入的工會典範

  • has not really moved with the economy into these low-wage service jobs.

    沒有真的一起帶動這些低薪服務性工作的經濟

  • And it hasn’t been replaced with something else.

    也尚未被其他東西所取代

  • So if workers feel like they can’t find a voice at their jobs,

    所以,如果勞工認為他們在工作上無法發聲表達意見

  • theyll likely keep looking for one in the law.

    他們很可能會在法律上持續尋找發聲管道

When politicians talk about workers, they tend to focus on certain types of jobs.

當政治人物討論勞工時,都傾向著重於某些類型的工作

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 Vox 員工 工作 勞工 薪資 工會

壞工作的興起,解釋 (The rise of bad jobs, explained)

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    kiki 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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