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  • What makes a good horror story?

    要如何寫出好的驚悚故事呢?

  • Sure, you could throw in some hideous monsters, fountains of blood, and things jumping out from every corner.

    當然,你可以創造一些恐怖的怪物、讓鮮血如湧泉噴出,再安排各式各樣的東西從不同的角落竄出。

  • But as classic horror author H.P. Lovecraft wrote,

    但是依據經典恐怖小說家霍華德.菲利普斯.洛夫克拉夫特所言:

  • "The oldest and strongest kind of fear is fear of the unknown."

    「最古老又最強烈的恐懼,就是對未知的恐懼。」

  • And writers harness that fear not by revealing horrors, but by leaving the audience hanging in anticipation of them.

    作者操弄讀者的恐懼感時,不是揭露恐懼,而是讓觀眾隨時懸著一顆等待恐懼的心。

  • That is, in a state of suspense.

    換言之,就是讓讀者處於「懸疑」狀態。

  • The most familiar examples of suspense come from horror films and mystery novels.

    最常見的例子可以在驚悚電影和神秘小說中找到。

  • What's inside the haunted mansion?

    什麼東西藏在陰森的大宅中?

  • Which of the dinner guests is the murderer?

    哪位晚餐訪客是兇手?

  • But suspense exists beyond these genres.

    但「懸疑」凌駕於這些小說類型之上。

  • Will the hero save the day?

    超級英雄今天可以拯救一切嗎?

  • Will the couple get together in the end?

    這對戀人最終能否修成正果?

  • And what is the dark secret that causes the main character so much pain?

    又是什麼不為人知的秘密讓主角倍感痛苦?

  • The key to suspense is that it sets up a question, or several, that the audience hopes to get an answer to, and delays that answer while maintaining their interest and keeping them guessing.

    創造懸疑的重點在於設定一個以上觀眾會想找出答案的問題,同時透過延遲揭曉答案,讓觀眾維持興趣和不斷猜測。

  • So what are some techniques you can use to achieve this in your own writing?

    所以該如何在寫作中使用上述的技巧呢?

  • Limit the point of view.

    限縮寫作視角。

  • Instead of an omniscient narrator who can see and relay everything that happens, tell the story from the perspective of the characters.

    不要使用全知觀點,而是用角色的觀點來說故事。

  • They may start off knowing just as little as the audience does, and as they learn more, so do we.

    這些角色一開始所知的可能和觀眾一樣少,隨著他們知道的越多,觀眾也知道越多。

  • Classic novels, like "Dracula," for example, are told through letters and diary entries where characters relate what they've experienced and fear what's to come.

    經典小說《德古拉》就是用書信和日記來說故事呈現不同角色所經歷的一切和對即將到來之事的恐懼。

  • Next, choose the right setting and imagery.

    接下來,選擇適當的場景和視覺設計。

  • Old mansions or castles with winding halls and secret passageways suggest that disturbing things are being concealed.

    有著曲折迂迴長廊、秘密通道的古老大宅院或是城堡,暗示這之中有著隱而未現的秘密。

  • Nighttime, fog, and storms all play similar roles in limiting visibility and restricting characters' movements.

    夜晚、霧氣還有暴風雨都發揮了讓視線模糊的功能,並且限縮角色的移動範圍。

  • That's why Victorian London is such a popular setting.

    這就是為什麼很多人喜歡選擇維多利亞時期的倫敦為故事場景。

  • And even ordinary places and objects can be made sinister, as in the Gothic novel "Rebecca", where the flowers at the protagonist's new home are described as blood red.

    但即使是平凡無奇的地點和物件也可以製造不詳的氛圍,像是哥德式小說《蝴蝶夢》,其中主角新家盛開的花被描述為血紅的。

  • Three: play with style and form.

    第三個要點是善用風格和形式。

  • You can build suspense by carefully paying attention not just to what happens, but how it's conveyed and paced.

    營造懸疑的方式不只是關注於發生了什麼事,而是事件如何傳遞與進行。

  • Edgar Allan Poe conveys the mental state of the narrator in "The Tell-Tale Heart" with fragmented sentences that break off suddenly.

    愛倫坡在《告密的心》中描述故事敘述者的心理狀態時,使用突然嘎然而止的零碎句子。

  • And other short declarative sentences in the story create a mix of breathless speed and weighty pauses.

    故事中其他簡短的直述句讓每個停頓都十分沉重,使人沒有喘息的空間。

  • On the screen, Alfred Hitchcock's cinematography is known for its use of extended silences and shots of staircases to create a feeling of discomfort.

    把鏡頭轉到大螢幕上,希區考克的電影拍攝手法最廣為人知的,就是運用大量沉默的時刻還有拍攝一層一層的階梯,來製造不安感。

  • Four: use dramatic irony.

    第四點,可以使用戲劇性反諷。

  • You can't just keep the audience in the dark forever.

    你不能永遠只是把觀眾丟在一片漆黑中。

  • Sometimes, suspense is best served by revealing key parts of the big secret to the audience but not to the characters.

    有時候,懸疑最好的呈現模式是透露最重要的線索給觀眾,但是不讓故事中的角色知道。

  • This is a technique known as dramatic irony, where the mystery becomes not what will happen, but when and how the characters will learn.

    這就是我們稱之為戲劇性反諷的技巧,讓神秘感不在於猜測接下來發生的事,而是劇中角色會在何時、又是如何得知這個秘密。

  • In the classic play "Oedipus Rex," the title character is unaware that he has killed his own father and married his mother.

    經典戲劇《伊底帕斯王》裡,主角並沒有意識到殺了自己的父親,並娶了自己的母親。

  • But the audience knows, and watching Oedipus gradually learn the truth provides the story with its agonizing climax.

    但是觀眾們熟知一切,看著伊底帕斯逐漸認清真相使得故事來到最為痛苦的高潮。

  • And finally, the cliffhanger.

    最後就是創造續集。

  • Beware of overusing this one.

    千萬不要過度使用這項技巧。

  • Some consider it a cheap and easy trick, but it's hard to deny its effectiveness.

    有些人認為這是廉價又簡單的小把戲,但我們很難否認它的成效。

  • This is where a chapter, episode, volume, or season cuts off right before something crucial is revealed, or in the midst of a dangerous situation with a slim chance of hope.

    它會讓一章節、一集、一冊或是一季的故事停留在最重要的情節發生之前,或是在極度危急的情況之中。

  • The wait, whether moments or years, makes us imagine possibilities about what could happen next, building extra suspense.

    不管是幾秒鐘或是幾年的等待,都會讓我們對於未來發生之事有無限的想像,製造更多懸疑感。

  • The awful thing is almost always averted, creating a sense of closure and emotional release.

    雖然最糟的事情常常能夠避開,創造收尾感,也讓觀眾鬆一口氣。

  • But that doesn't stop us from worrying and wondering the next time the protagonists face near-certain disaster.

    但這並不能防止我們擔心,想著下一次主角遇到近乎確實的災難。

What makes a good horror story?

要如何寫出好的驚悚故事呢?

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 懸疑 觀眾 主角 故事 秘密

【TED-Ed】如何創作出懸疑作品 (How to make your writing suspenseful - Victoria Smith)

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