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  • When I graduated from university,

    當我大學畢業後。

  • I didn't know what career I wanted to choose.

    我不知道自己想選擇什麼職業。

  • I had a lot of interests,

    我有很多興趣。

  • but which interest should I pursue and try and turn into a job?

    但我應該追求哪種興趣,並嘗試將其轉化為工作?

  • So, back then, I was really interested in martial arts.

    所以,那時候,我對國術真的很感興趣。

  • Here's me.

    這是我。

  • But I didn't want to turn that into a career.

    但我不想把它變成事業。

  • Here's my face.

    這是我的臉。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I was really interested in, and I was studying philosophy,

    我真的很感興趣,我是學哲學的。

  • but one of the philosophers I most enjoyed reading -

    但我最喜歡讀的一位哲學家--。

  • late at night, in my dorm room -

    在深夜,在我的宿舍 -

  • recently said,

    最近說:

  • "Philosophy is a bunch of empty ideas,"

    "哲學是一堆空想"。

  • and there's no job in philosophy, anyway.

    而哲學裡沒有工作,反正。

  • So that was out.

    所以,這是出。

  • Being a slightly weird kid,

    作為一個有點奇怪的孩子。

  • I was really interested in investing and finance,

    我對投資和金融真的很感興趣。

  • and I had even taken a portion of the small savings I had,

    而我甚至還從自己的一點積蓄中拿出了一部分。

  • and invested them into gold when I was a teenager.

    並在我十幾歲的時候將它們投資到黃金中。

  • I knew that following the finance root would be a really well-paid career,

    我知道,跟著金融根基走,會是一個很高薪的職業。

  • but I was wondering, like,

    但我想知道,像,

  • maybe I wouldn't make as much difference as I could in that,

    也許我不會像在那方面有多大的不同。

  • it wouldn't help society,

    它不會幫助社會。

  • so in the end, it wouldn't really be that fulfilling.

    所以到最後,也不會真的那麼滿足。

  • I was left with the question,

    我就剩下一個問題了。

  • "How could I choose a fulfilling career?"

    "我怎麼能選擇一個充實的職業呢?"

  • And, maybe many of you have asked yourself the same question.

    而且,也許很多人都問過自己同樣的問題。

  • I thought about this question,

    我想過這個問題。

  • I realized I didn't even know how to go about choosing a career,

    我意識到我甚至不知道該如何去選擇職業。

  • and I, you know, read books, I went to careers advisors,

    我,你知道,看書, 我去職業顧問。

  • I just couldn't really find the information I really needed:

    我只是無法真正找到我真正需要的資訊。

  • what would I be good at in the end?

    我到底會擅長什麼?

  • What skills should I learn now?

    我現在應該學習哪些技能?

  • Which areas is there a great social need where I can make a difference?

    哪些領域有很大的社會需求,我可以有所作為?

  • These unanswered questions led me to,

    這些未解之謎讓我找到了。

  • kind of, delay the decision by a few years.

    樣,延後幾年再做決定。

  • Instead of actually settling on a career,

    而不是真正定下職業。

  • I founded an organization dedicated to researching the question

    我成立了一個組織,專門研究這個問題。

  • of which career to choose.

    的選擇哪種職業。

  • And this organization is called "80000hours,"

    而這個組織叫做 "八萬小時"。

  • that's the number of hours you have in your working life,

    這'是你工作生活中的小時數。

  • that's a long time,

    這是一個很長的時間。

  • so, it's worth really doing some serious research,

    所以,它'值得真正做一些認真的研究。

  • and try to work out how best to use them.

    並努力研究如何最好地利用它們。

  • We help you do some of this research,

    我們幫你做一些這樣的研究。

  • and we publish all of our findings;

    並且我們公佈所有的調查結果。

  • it's part of a free online careers guide: 80000hours.org.

    它'是免費在線職業指南的一部分。80000hours.org。

  • Here's some of the team today,

    這是'今天的一些團隊。

  • surrounded by laptops and whiteboards, as normal.

    周圍的筆記本電腦和白板,正常。

  • So, you might at this point be thinking to yourself,

    所以,你此時可能會想。

  • "Well, you hardly look like you're above the legal age to drink,

    "嗯,你很難看出你'超過了法定的喝酒年齡。

  • what could you tell me about choosing a career?"

    你能告訴我關於選擇職業的什麼?"

  • Well, it's true that one of the main things we discovered

    好吧,這是真的,我們發現的主要事情之一。

  • is that we have a lot to learn.

    是我們有很多東西需要學習。

  • Choosing a career is a complex problem and not enough serious research

    擇業是個複雜的問題,認真研究的程度不夠

  • has been done into how best to do it.

    已對如何最好地做到這一點進行了研究。

  • But we have spent the last three years

    但我們在過去的三年裡

  • doing research with academics of University of Oxford,

    與牛津大學的學者一起做研究。

  • and most importantly,

    最重要的是,

  • we've coached hundreds of people on how to make real career decisions.

    我們'已經指導了數百人如何做出真正的職業決策。

  • All this research and thinking has led us to the conclusion

    所有這些研究和思考,使我們得出了這樣的結論

  • that careers advice today focuses on the wrong thing.

    今天的職業建議集中在錯誤的事情上。

  • Throughout most of history

    縱觀歷史的大部分時間

  • people basically did what their parents did.

    人們基本上做了他們的父母所做的事情。

  • Some people in the 1980s thought,

    上世紀80年代的一些人認為。

  • "The greed is good,"

    "貪婪是好事"。

  • and they focused on making money.

    而他們專注於賺錢。

  • But our generation grew up with some different careers advice,

    但我們這一代人在成長過程中,有一些不同的職業建議。

  • and that's that you should follow your passion.

    而這'就是你應該追隨你的激情。

  • You can see that use of this phrase

    你可以看到,這句話的使用

  • increased dramatically from the mid-nineties.

    從九十年代中期開始急劇增加。

  • But today I think need to move beyond "Follow your passion,"

    但今天我認為需要超越 "跟隨你的激情"。

  • as the career advice to focus on,

    作為重點關注的職業建議。

  • and instead of asking what our own interests and passions are,

    而不是問我們自己的興趣和激情是什麼。

  • we should be focusing much more

    我們應該更多的關注

  • on what we can do for other people, and to make the world a better place.

    我們可以為別人做什麼,讓世界變得更美好。

  • Ok, so let's go back to my decision,

    好吧,讓我們回到我的決定。

  • how would "follow your passion" apply to me?

    "follow your passion "如何適用於我?

  • I think what "Follow your passion" tells you to do is three things:

    我認為 "追隨你的激情 "告訴你要做的是三件事。

  • the first is to identify your greatest interests;

    首先是確定自己最大的興趣。

  • second, find careers that match those interests;

    第二,找到符合這些興趣的職業。

  • thirdly, pursue those careers, no matter what.

    第三,無論如何,都要追求這些職業。

  • Finding a fulfilling career

    找到一個充實的職業

  • is just a matter of having the courage to pursue your passion.

    就是要有勇氣去追求自己的激情。

  • In my case,

    就我而言

  • I was interested in martial arts and philosophy, remember?

    我對國術和哲學感興趣,記得嗎?

  • So, which career should I pick?

    那麼,我應該選擇哪個職業呢?

  • Any ideas?

    有什麼想法嗎?

  • I should obviously become a Shaolin monk -

    我明明應該去當少林寺的和尚---。

  • Buddhism and martial arts, together.

    佛法與國術,同在。

  • What's the theory behind this advice?

    這個建議背後的理論是什麼'?

  • You get passion match,

    你得到的激情匹配。

  • then you really enjoy your work, you're really motivated,

    那麼你真的很喜歡你的工作,你'真的很有動力。

  • so you're more likely to be successful,

    所以你'更有可能成功。

  • and if you are successful doing something you're passionate about,

    而如果你成功地做一些你所熱衷的事情。

  • then you have a fulfilling career.

    那麼你的事業就會很充實。

  • And, spelled out like that,

    而且,是這樣拼出來的。

  • this really does sound like pretty reasonable advice, right?

    這真的聽起來像相當合理的建議,對不對?

  • I can maybe get behind that.

    我也許可以得到支持。

  • But let's just think about it in a bit more depth.

    但我們還是再深入思考一下吧。

  • Turns out if you follow your passion, you're probably going to fail.

    事實證明,如果你追隨你的激情,你很可能會失敗。

  • Why do I say that?

    我為什麼這麼說?

  • Let's look at the data.

    讓我們來看看數據吧'。

  • A survey of 500 Canadian students found that their greatest passions

    一項針對500名加拿大學生的調查發現,他們最大的熱情是什麼?

  • were ice-hockey and dance.

    是冰球和舞蹈。

  • Ninety percent of them were passionate

    其中百分之九十的人都是熱情的

  • about sports, arts, music, something like that.

    關於體育,藝術,音樂,類似的東西。

  • But if we look at census data we can see

    但如果我們看一下人口普查數據,就會發現

  • that only three percent of jobs are in art, sport, and music.

    即只有3%的工作崗位是藝術、體育和音樂。

  • So it just has to be the case

    所以只能是這樣了

  • that even if only one in ten people followed their passion,

    即使只有十分之一的人追隨他們的激情。

  • still, the majority would fail to be successful.

    但大多數人還是無法成功。

  • So this first step just doesn't work.

    所以,這第一步就不行了'。

  • I think the second step is also not reliable.

    我覺得第二步也不靠譜。

  • In that, even if you match your passion with your work,

    在這一點上,即使你的激情與你的工作相匹配。

  • and you're successful,

    而你'成功了。

  • you can stlll quite easily fail to have a fulfilling career,

    你可以Stlll很容易失敗 有一個充實的職業生涯。

  • that's because you might not find the work meaningful.

    那是因為你可能覺得工作沒有意義。

  • This was a bit like me deciding not to go into finance,

    這有點像我決定不做金融。

  • I thought, well, I was interested in it,

    我想,好吧,我對它很感興趣。

  • maybe I could be successful but I wouldn't make a difference,

    也許我可以成功,但我不會有所作為。

  • maybe it would still end up not being fulfilling,

    也許最後還是會不滿足。

  • so I think the second step doesn't work either.

    所以我認為第二步也不行'。

  • Now, at this point you might be thinking,

    現在,這時你可能會想。

  • "Sure, passion isn't the only thing that matters,

    "當然,激情不是唯一重要的東西。

  • if I follow my passion, it doesn't guarantee that I'll succeed,

    如果我追隨我的激情,它並不保證我'會成功。

  • but maybe at least makes me more likely to succeed,

    但也許至少讓我更有可能成功。

  • and to have a fulfilling career."

    並擁有一份充實的事業。"

  • As a career advice, this is the best we can do.

    作為職業建議,這是我們能做的最好的。

  • But I think that is wrong as well.

    但我認為這也是錯誤的。

  • Picture to yourself now, the most assertive person you know,

    現在給自己想象一下,你認識的最有主見的人。

  • who' s really passionate about selling and persuading,

    誰'的真正的熱情銷售和說服。

  • and they're really extroverted.

    而他們'真的是外向型的。

  • Surely someone like that should go

    當然,這樣的人應該去

  • and become an advertising accounts manager, like in Mad Men,

    併成為廣告客戶經理,就像《瘋狂的人》裡一樣。

  • or they should become a car salesman, or something like that,

    或者他們應該成為一個汽車銷售員,或類似的東西。

  • something which involves selling, being extroverted, and talking to people.

    涉及到銷售、外向、與人交談的東西。

  • Well, it turns out that would be a really bad decision:

    嗯,事實證明,這將是一個非常糟糕的決定。

  • analysis of a determined study showed

    堅定的研究分析表明

  • that really passionate sales people really persuasive, assertive types

    真正有激情的銷售人員真的很有說服力,自信的類型

  • who went into those kinds of sales jobs

    誰去做那種銷售工作

  • actually ended up more likely to burn out and in fact died younger

    其實最後更容易被燒死,事實上更早死

  • than normal people who take those jobs.

    比正常人做這些工作的人。

  • Following their passion actually made them more likely to die.

    追隨自己的激情,其實更容易讓他們死亡。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And more generally, researchers have tried to show for decades

    而更普遍的是,研究人員幾十年來一直試圖表明

  • that there's a strong relationship between interest match

    興趣匹配之間有很大的關係。

  • and how successful and happy people end up in their work,

    以及人們在工作中如何成功和幸福的結局。

  • but so far, they failed to show a strong connection between the two.

    但到目前為止,他們未能顯示出兩者之間的緊密聯繫。

  • I think this isn't because your interests just don't matter,

    我想這是不是'因為你的興趣就是不重要。

  • but it's just that when it comes to real career decisions,

    但它'只是,當它涉及到真正的職業決定。

  • your interests are just not a decisive factor,

    你的利益不是決定性的因素。

  • other things matter much more,

    其他事情更重要。

  • like what your skills are, and what your mindset is.

    比如你的技能是什麼,你的心態是什麼。

  • Indeed, we think our interests matter a lot more than they do,

    事實上,我們認為我們的利益比他們更重要。

  • because we really underestimate how much they change:

    因為我們真的低估了他們的變化。

  • just think about your own interests five or ten years ago,

    想想自己五年或十年前的興趣就知道了。

  • and how different they are from today.

    以及它們與今天的不同。

  • I mean, back then, you're probably this tall,

    我的意思是,那時,你'可能這麼高。

  • and you're probably interested in completely different things.

    和你'可能對完全不同的東西感興趣。

  • Five or ten years time,

    五年或十年的時間。

  • you will be interested in totally different things again.

    你又會對完全不同的事物產生興趣。

  • All this means that your present interests

    所有這些都意味著,你現在的利益

  • are just not a solid basis on which to chose a career.

    只是不具備堅實的擇業基礎。

  • So, if we're not going to focus on interests,

    所以,如果我們'不注重利益。

  • what should we focus on?

    我們應該關注什麼?

  • If you're not just going to follow your passion,

    如果你不只是去追隨你的激情。

  • what should you do instead?

    你應該做什麼,而不是?

  • If I had to sum up careers advice as a single slogan,

    如果讓我用一句口號來概括職業建議。

  • here's what I would choose: "Do what's valuable."

    這裡'是我會選擇的。"做有價值的事"。

  • By this I mean

    我的意思是

  • focus on getting good at something that genuinely helps others,

    專注於做好一些真正能幫助別人的事情。

  • and makes the world a better place.

    並使世界變得更加美好。

  • That's the secret to a fulfilling career.

    這就是成就事業的祕訣'。

  • Now, obviously doing what's valuable is going to be better for the world,

    現在,很明顯,做有價值的事情會對世界更好。

  • you're going to do more good like that,

    你'要做更多這樣的好事。

  • but people have also thought for millennia

    但千百年來,人們也認為

  • that helping others is the secret to be personally fulfilled and happy.

    幫助他人是個人成就感和幸福感的祕訣。

  • I've just got a representative couple of quotes here

    我'我這裡只有幾句有代表性的話語。

  • just read out the first one:

    剛讀完第一篇。

  • "A man true wealth is the good he does in this world."

    "一個人真正的財富是他在這個世界上做的好事。"

  • Today we actually have hard data to back this up.

    今天,我們其實已經有了確鑿的數據來證明這一點。

  • Professor of Psychology Martin Seligman in his 2011 book: Flourish,

    心理學教授馬丁-塞利格曼在其2011年的著作中。Flourish,

  • aimed to sum up the last couple of decades of empirical research

    旨在總結過去幾十年的實證研究。

  • into what really causes people to be satisfied and happy in their lives.

    成真正使人們在生活中得到滿足和幸福的原因。

  • And two of the key ingredients he identifies

    而他指出的兩個關鍵因素

  • just are doing what's valuable.

    只是正在做有價值的事情'。

  • The first of these is achievement, or sometimes called mastery,

    其中第一個是成就,有時也叫掌握。

  • and this means getting really good at something,

    這就意味著要在某件事情上變得很好。

  • working hard and getting good at something.

    勤奮工作,有所收穫。

  • The second is meaning, also called purpose,

    二是意義,也叫目的。

  • and this means striving to do something greater than just make yourself happy,

    而這意味著要努力做一些比讓自己快樂更偉大的事情。

  • so it means making the world a better place.

    所以這意味著讓世界變得更美好。

  • Put the two together,

    把這兩個放在一起。

  • get good at something it makes the world a better place,

    擅長的事情,它使世界變得更美好。

  • do what's valuable.

    做有價值的事。

  • I think, doing what's valuable has lots of other personal benefits as well.

    我想,做有價值的事,對個人也有很多其他好處。

  • For instance,

    例如:

  • even if you work in a charity, the people who have the greatest impact,

    即使你在慈善機構工作,影響最大的人。

  • do the most valuable things,

    做最有價值的事情。

  • find it easier to raise fundings, and therefore pay their bills,

    發現更容易籌集資金,從而支付賬單。

  • and that's important, too.

    而這也很重要。

  • I have at least found in my own experience,

    我至少在自己的經驗中發現。

  • if you focus on helping others, then lots of people want you to succeed,

    如果你專注於幫助別人,那麼很多人都希望你成功。

  • so it's actually easier to be successful as an altruist

    所以說,作為一個利他主義者,其實更容易成功。

  • compared to just being in it for yourself.

    相比於只是為了自己。

  • So, it now turns out that actually the advice "Follow your passion,"

    所以,現在發現,其實 "追隨你的激情 "的建議,。

  • just gets things backwards.

    只是把事情弄反了。

  • Rather than start from what we happen to be passionate about now

    而不是從我們現在所熱衷的事情入手

  • and then hope that success and a fulfilling career will follow,

    然後希望成功和充實的事業會隨之而來。

  • instead, it's much more true to say

    相反,它更真實地說

  • that we should focus on doing what's valuable,

    我們應該專注於做有價值的事情。

  • and then that will lead to passion and a fulfilling career.

    然後就會有激情和充實的事業。

  • I've definitely found this in my own experience.

    我'在自己的經歷中肯定發現了這一點。

  • If when I was 16, you had given me this careers test:

    如果我16歲的時候,你給我做了這個職業測試。

  • "Would you like to give career guidance to people?"

    "你願意給大家做職業指導嗎?"

  • I'd have clicked the "Hate it" button.

    我'會點擊 "討厭它 "的按鈕。

  • I was pretty shy and into science,

    我很害羞,喜歡理科。

  • and the idea of giving careers advice to people was not appealing at all.

    而給人提供職業建議的想法一點也不吸引人。

  • But now I spend all of my time thinking about careers advice,

    但現在我把所有的時間都用在了思考職業建議上。

  • and am absolutely obsessed and fascinated by it.

    並對它絕對的痴迷和著迷。

  • Focusing on doing what's valuable

    專注於做有價值的事情。

  • has given me clear, concrete, meaningful goals,

    讓我有了明確、具體、有意義的目標。

  • and that's made my life a lot better.

    這讓我的生活好了很多。

  • There's no more endless reflection

    不再有無盡的反思。

  • on which of my interests represents my true calling,

    在我的利益中,哪一個代表了我的真正使命。

  • which doesn't exist anyway.

    反正不存在的。

  • So, how can you actually do what's valuable in your careers,

    那麼,如何才能真正做到事業上的價值呢'。

  • what practical steps should you follow?

    你應該遵循哪些實際步驟?

  • This is what we spend most of our time

    這是我們大部分時間都在做的事

  • trying to work out at 80000Hours,

    試圖在80000Hours鍛鍊。

  • I'm just going to give you a super-quick summary

    我只想給你一個超級簡單的總結。

  • of three things we'd say that you can do.

    的三件事,我們'會說,你可以做。

  • The first of these is to explore,

    首先是探索。