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  • I'm going to talk today

    今天我要講的是

  • about the pleasures of everyday life.

    有關日常生活的快樂

  • But I want to begin with a story

    但我想先說一則關於

  • of an unusual and terrible man.

    一位特殊又可怕的人的故事

  • This is Hermann Goering.

    他是赫曼.戈林(Hermann Goering)

  • Goering was Hitler's second in command in World War II,

    戈林是希特勒在二戰時期的副司令官

  • his designated successor.

    也是他指定的接班人

  • And like Hitler,

    和希特勒一樣

  • Goering fancied himself a collector of art.

    戈林也自認自己是一位愛好藝術的收藏家

  • He went through Europe, through World War II,

    他在二戰時期,走遍歐洲

  • stealing, extorting and occasionally buying

    竊取,強奪,偶爾購買

  • various paintings for his collection.

    不同的畫作作為私人收藏

  • And what he really wanted was something by Vermeer.

    而當中他最想擁有的是維梅爾(Vermeer)的作品

  • Hitler had two of them, and he didn't have any.

    希特勒收藏了其中兩幅,而他一幅也沒有

  • So he finally found an art dealer,

    後來他終於找上了一位藝術品經銷商

  • a Dutch art dealer named Han van Meegeren,

    一位名叫漢‧凡‧米格倫(Han van Meegeren)的荷蘭畫商

  • who sold him a wonderful Vermeer

    他賣給他一幅完美的維梅爾的作品

  • for the cost of what would now be 10 million dollars.

    該作品估計現值一千萬美元

  • And it was his favorite artwork ever.

    該作品也是戈林的最愛

  • World War II came to an end,

    二戰結束時

  • and Goering was captured, tried at Nuremberg

    戈林被捕,在紐倫堡審判

  • and ultimately sentenced to death.

    而最終被判死刑

  • Then the Allied forces went through his collections

    後來盟軍審查了他的收藏品

  • and found the paintings

    找到那些畫作

  • and went after the people who sold it to him.

    逮捕了當時販售畫作給他的人

  • And at some point the Dutch police came into Amsterdam

    某天荷蘭警方到阿姆斯特丹

  • and arrested Van Meegeren.

    逮捕了凡‧米格倫

  • Van Meegeren was charged with the crime of treason,

    凡‧米格倫被控叛國罪

  • which is itself punishable by death.

    叛國罪是會被判處死刑

  • Six weeks into his prison sentence,

    米格倫在監獄服刑的六星期裡

  • van Meegeren confessed.

    他坦承犯罪

  • But he didn't confess to treason.

    但他並非認了叛國罪

  • He said, "I did not sell a great masterpiece

    他說:「我並沒有販賣偉大的畫作

  • to that Nazi.

    給那個納粹。

  • I painted it myself; I'm a forger."

    那是我自己畫的,我是一名仿畫家。」

  • Now nobody believed him.

    沒有人相信他

  • And he said, "I'll prove it.

    然後他說:「我可以證明的。

  • Bring me a canvas and some paint,

    給我一些畫布和顏料,

  • and I will paint a Vermeer much better

    我可以畫出一幅

  • than I sold that disgusting Nazi.

    比我賣給那令人厭惡的納粹更好的維梅爾作品。

  • I also need alcohol and morphine, because it's the only way I can work."

    我還需要酒和嗎啡,因為這樣我才能工作。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So they brought him in.

    所以他們給了他這些東西

  • He painted a beautiful Vermeer.

    他也畫出了一幅美麗的維梅爾畫作

  • And then the charges of treason were dropped.

    後來叛國的罪名就撤銷了

  • He had a lesser charge of forgery,

    他被判了一個較輕的偽造罪

  • got a year sentence

    判刑一年

  • and died a hero to the Dutch people.

    死後成為荷蘭人民的英雄

  • There's a lot more to be said about van Meegeren,

    關於凡‧米格倫還有很多事情可以說

  • but I want to turn now to Goering,

    但我想回來談戈林

  • who's pictured here being interrogated at Nuremberg.

    照片裡的他在紐倫堡被審問

  • Now Goering was, by all accounts, a terrible man.

    戈林,據所有的罪狀,是一個可怕的人

  • Even for a Nazi, he was a terrible man.

    就算是對納粹分子而言,他還是個可怕的人

  • His American interrogators described him

    他的美籍審問官形容他

  • as an amicable psychopath.

    是一名友善的精神變態者

  • But you could feel sympathy

    但各位可以對他感到同情的是

  • for the reaction he had

    他的反應

  • when he was told that his favorite painting

    當他被告知他最愛的畫作

  • was actually a forgery.

    其實是幅仿畫

  • According to his biographer,

    據他的傳記作者所說

  • "He looked as if for the first time

    「他看上去好像是

  • he had discovered there was evil in the world."

    他第一次發現有世界上有邪惡的事。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And he killed himself soon afterwards.

    之後他很快地就自殺了

  • He had discovered after all

    他後來發現

  • that the painting he thought was this

    他原先以為的這幅畫

  • was actually that.

    事實上是這一幅

  • It looked the same,

    這看起來是相同的

  • but it had a different origin, it was a different artwork.

    但來源不同,這是完全不同的畫作

  • It wasn't just him who was in for a shock.

    不單是他感到驚訝

  • Once van Meegeren was on trial, he couldn't stop talking.

    某次凡‧米格倫受訊時,他不由自主地說出

  • And he boasted about all the great masterpieces

    他吹噓所有其他藝術家所創作的

  • that he himself had painted

    偉大的畫作

  • that were attributed to other artists.

    都是他一個人所畫

  • In particular, "The Supper at Emmaus"

    其中特別是《在伊默斯的晚餐》

  • which was viewed as Vermeer's finest masterpiece, his best work --

    這幅被視為是維梅爾最優秀的作品,他的鉅作

  • people would come [from] all over the world to see it --

    這幅眾人願意從世界各地前去觀賞的作品

  • was actually a forgery.

    其實是幅仿畫

  • It was not that painting, but that painting.

    不是這一幅,而是這一幅

  • And when that was discovered,

    當真相被發現後

  • it lost all its value and was taken away from the museum.

    這幅畫失去了價值,也從博物館裡撤下

  • Why does this matter?

    為什麼會這樣?

  • I'm a psychologists -- why do origins matter so much?

    心理學家們,為什麼來源如此重要?

  • Why do we respond so much

    為何我們對於所知的事物

  • to our knowledge of where something comes from?

    來自何處的反應如此大?

  • Well there's an answer that many people would give.

    大部分的人會說一個答案

  • Many sociologists like Veblen and Wolfe

    很多社會學家像是Veblen和Wolfe會認為

  • would argue that the reason why we take origins so seriously

    我們之所以如此看重事物來自何處

  • is because we're snobs, because we're focused on status.

    是因為我們很勢利,我們看重地位

  • Among other things,

    除此之外

  • if you want to show off how rich you are, how powerful you are,

    如果你想展現自己的財力和權力

  • it's always better to own an original than a forgery

    當然擁有一幅真跡會比擁有一幅仿畫來的好

  • because there's always going to be fewer originals than forgeries.

    因為和仿畫比起來,真跡只會越來越少

  • I don't doubt that that plays some role,

    我不否認這或多或少有些關聯

  • but what I want to convince you of today

    但我今天想告訴各位的是

  • is that there's something else going on.

    這當中還有別的原因

  • I want to convince you

    我想讓各位知道

  • that humans are, to some extent, natural born essentialists.

    人類,其實就某些層面而言,我們是天生的本質主義者

  • What I mean by this

    我的意思是

  • is we don't just respond to things as we see them,

    我們對於物件的反應不只是我們看見他們

  • or feel them, or hear them.

    感受到他們,或聽見他們

  • Rather, our response is conditioned on our beliefs,

    相反地,我們的反應來自我們對該物件的認知

  • about what they really are, what they came from,

    他們本質,他們的來源

  • what they're made of, what their hidden nature is.

    他們的材質,以及他們的潛在特性

  • I want to suggest that this is true,

    我想說這是真實的

  • not just for how we think about things,

    不單是我們如何看待物品

  • but how we react to things.

    而是我們對物品的反應

  • So I want to suggest that pleasure is deep --

    我想傳達的是,快樂其實是深層的

  • and that this isn't true

    這並非

  • just for higher level pleasures like art,

    只針對像是藝術這種較高層次的快樂

  • but even the most seemingly simple pleasures

    而是即便是看似最簡單的快樂

  • are affected by our beliefs about hidden essences.

    也都受到我們對於物品潛在本質的認知的影響

  • So take food.

    拿食物來說

  • Would you eat this?

    各位想吃這塊肉嗎?

  • Well, a good answer is, "It depends. What is it?"

    一個好的答案是「要看這是什麼肉?」

  • Some of you would eat it if it's pork, but not beef.

    如果不是牛肉,而是豬肉,某些人會吃

  • Some of you would eat it if it's beef, but not pork.

    如果不是豬肉,而是牛肉,也有某些人會吃

  • Few of you would eat it if it's a rat

    如果是老鼠肉

  • or a human.

    或人肉,極少數的人也會吃

  • Some of you would eat it only if it's a strangely colored piece of tofu.

    而如果是一塊奇怪顏色的豆腐,也有某些人會吃

  • That's not so surprising.

    這一點都不需要驚訝

  • But what's more interesting

    更有趣的是

  • is how it tastes to you

    這塊肉對我們來說味道如何

  • will depend critically on what you think you're eating.

    取決於我們認為我們在吃什麼

  • So one demonstration of this was done with young children.

    以幼童當作例子來看

  • How do you make children

    要如何讓孩童

  • not just be more likely to eat carrots and drink milk,

    不僅僅能多吃紅蘿蔔和多喝牛奶

  • but to get more pleasure from eating carrots and drinking milk --

    更要讓他們在吃紅蘿蔔和喝牛奶時覺得快樂 --

  • to think they taste better?

    覺得這兩樣東西更好吃?

  • It's simple, you tell them they're from McDonald's.

    很簡單,你就告訴他們這兩樣東西是從麥當勞買來的

  • They believe McDonald's food is tastier,

    他們相信麥當勞的食物比較好吃

  • and it leads them to experience it as tastier.

    這點讓他們覺得所吃的東西比較美味

  • How do you get adults to really enjoy wine?

    那要如何讓成人真正享受紅酒呢?

  • It's very simple:

    非常簡單:

  • pour it from an expensive bottle.

    就把酒從很貴的酒瓶倒出來

  • There are now dozens, perhaps hundreds of studies showing

    現在有幾十個,可能是上百個研究顯示

  • that if you believe you're drinking the expensive stuff,

    如果你相信你在喝昂貴的東西

  • it tastes better to you.

    你會覺得它的味道更好

  • This was recently done with a neuroscientific twist.

    最近有個用神經科學方式的實驗

  • They get people into a fMRI scanner,

    他們讓人躺進dMRI掃描儀

  • and while they're lying there, through a tube,

    當人躺在那裡,通過一根管子

  • they get to sip wine.

    他們可以喝酒

  • In front of them on a screen is information about the wine.

    而在他們面前的螢幕則會顯示關於他們喝的酒的資訊

  • Everybody, of course,

    每一個人

  • drinks exactly the same wine.

    喝的都是同樣的酒

  • But if you believe you're drinking expensive stuff,

    但如果你相信你在喝昂貴的酒

  • parts of the brain associated with pleasure and reward

    大腦掌管快樂和回報的區塊

  • light up like a Christmas tree.

    就像點亮聖誕樹一樣興奮起來

  • It's not just that you say it's more pleasurable, you say you like it more,

    這不只是你說你比較快樂,或你比較喜歡

  • you really experience it in a different way.

    而是你用不同的方式在感受這件事

  • Or take sex.

    就性別來說

  • These are stimuli I've used in some of my studies.

    這是我曾用在某些研究裡的刺激方式

  • And if you simply show people these pictures,

    如果單純讓人們看這些照片

  • they'll say these are fairly attractive people.

    他們會說這些人相當地有魅力

  • But how attractive you find them,

    但你認為他們多有魅力

  • how sexually or romantically moved you are by them,

    多性感,多麼令你覺得浪漫

  • rests critically on who you think you're looking at.

    關鍵在於你覺得你正在看誰

  • You probably think the picture on the left is male,

    你也許認為左邊這張圖是男性

  • the one on the right is female.

    右邊這張圖是女性

  • If that belief turns out to be mistaken, it will make a difference.

    但如果這樣的認知是錯誤的,那將是完全不同的感受

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • It will make a difference if they turn out to be

    如果他們比各位想的還要年輕或年長

  • much younger or much older than you think they are.

    也會有不同的結果

  • It will make a difference if you were to discover

    如果你發現你用慾望的角度看的人

  • that the person you're looking at with lust

    其實是你的兒子或女兒

  • is actually a disguised version of your son or daughter,

    或你的母親或父親的變裝照

  • your mother or father.

    感受也是截然不同的

  • Knowing somebody's your kin typically kills the libido.

    獲悉某人是你的親人通常會扼殺掉慾望

  • Maybe one of the most heartening findings

    也許其中最令人振奮的發現是

  • from the psychology of pleasure

    心理學上的快樂

  • is there's more to looking good than your physical appearance.

    是你看起來比外表更好看

  • If you like somebody, they look better to you.

    如果你喜歡某人,你看他們就會覺得比較好看

  • This is why spouses in happy marriages

    這就為何在幸福的婚姻裡

  • tend to think that their husband or wife

    配偶們都會認為他們的另一半

  • looks much better than anyone else thinks that they do.

    遠比別人認為的還要好看許多

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • A particularly dramatic example of this

    一個特別典型的例子

  • comes from a neurological disorder known as Capgras syndrome.

    是神經系統疾病,稱做卡波格拉斯症候群

  • So Capgras syndrome is a disorder

    卡波格拉斯症候群是一種精神疾病

  • where you get a specific delusion.

    讓人有特定的幻覺

  • Sufferers of Capgras syndrome

    卡波格拉斯症候群的病人

  • believe that the people they love most in the world

    相信這世界上他們最愛的人

  • have been replaced by perfect duplicates.

    被人給完美的冒充了

  • Now often, a result of Capgras syndrome is tragic.

    卡波格拉斯症候群常有悲慘的事

  • People have murdered those that they loved,

    他們把他們最愛的人給殺害

  • believing that they were murdering an imposter.

    因為他們相信他們殺害的是一位冒充者

  • But there's at least one case

    但至少有一個病例

  • where Capgras syndrome had a happy ending.

    一位卡波格拉斯症候的病人有了美滿的結局

  • This was recorded in 1931.

    這是1931年的一個紀錄

  • "Research described a woman with Capgras syndrome

    研究裡一位患有卡波格拉斯症候群的女性

  • who complained about her poorly endowed and sexually inadequate lover."

    抱怨她那位天資不足且缺乏魅力的情人

  • But that was before she got Capgras syndrome.

    但這是在她罹患卡波格拉斯症候群之前

  • After she got it, "She was happy to report

    在她罹患此精神疾病後,「她開心的說

  • that she has discovered that he possessed a double

    她發現他擁有兩倍的優點

  • who was rich, virile, handsome and aristocratic."

    是一位富有,強健,貴族般的情人。」

  • Of course, it was the same man,

    當然,她口中說的是同一位男人

  • but she was seeing him in different ways.

    但她卻用不同的眼光看他

  • As a third example,

    第三個例子

  • consider consumer products.

    談談消費產品

  • So one reason why you might like something is its utility.

    你喜歡東西的其中一個原因可能是其功用

  • You can put shoes on your feet; you can play golf with golf clubs;

    你可以把鞋穿在腳上;你可以用這套高球球具打高爾夫球

  • and chewed up bubble gum doesn't do anything at all for you.

    而嚼泡泡糖則對你一點用處也沒有

  • But each of these three objects has value

    但這三樣東西

  • above and beyond what it can do for you

    根據他們的來歷

  • based on its history.

    都有超乎其功用的價值

  • The golf clubs were owned by John F. Kennedy

    這套高球球具原是甘迺迪所有

  • and sold for three-quarters of a million dollars at auction.

    在一次拍賣會上以七十五萬美元賣出

  • The bubble gum was chewed up by pop star Britney Spears

    這泡泡糖是流行明星小甜甜布蘭妮嚼過的

  • and sold for several hundreds of dollars.

    後來賣了幾百塊美元

  • And in fact, there's a thriving market

    事實上,心愛的人吃過的食物

  • in the partially eaten food of beloved people.

    也是很有市場的

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • The shoes are perhaps the most valuable of all.

    這雙鞋可能是三樣裡最有價值的

  • According to an unconfirmed report,

    根據未經證實的報導

  • a Saudi millionaire offered 10 million dollars

    一位沙烏地阿拉伯的富翁花了一千萬美元

  • for this pair of shoes.

    賣了這雙鞋

  • They were the ones thrown at George Bush

    這就是那雙在幾年前在伊拉克

  • at an Iraqi press conference several years ago.

    一場記者會上丟布希的鞋子

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Now this attraction to objects

    而這種物品產生的吸引力

  • doesn't just work for celebrity objects.

    並非只發生在有名的物品

  • Each one of us, most people,

    我們每一個人,大部分的人

  • have something in our life that's literally irreplaceable,

    都有某些東西是無法被取代的

  • in that it has value because of its history --

    這些東西的價值來自於物品的背景 --

  • maybe your wedding ring, maybe your child's baby shoes --

    也許是你的婚戒,也是你孩子嬰兒時穿的鞋 --

  • so that if it was lost, you couldn't get it back.

    所以如果東西遺失了,你無法找回

  • You could get something that looked like it or felt like it,

    你可能可以找到看起來或摸起來類似的物品

  • but you couldn't get the same object back.

    但你無法找回一模一樣的東西

  • With my colleagues George Newman and Gil Diesendruck,

    與我的同事George Newman和Gil Diesendruck一起

  • we've looked to see what sort of factors, what sort of history, matters

    我們希望了解是什麼樣的因素,什麼樣的背景,原因

  • for the objects that people like.

    會讓人喜歡物品

  • So in one of our experiments,

    所以在我們某一個實驗裡

  • we asked people to name a famous person who they adored,

    我們請人們說出他們喜歡的名人

  • a living person they adored.

    一位他們崇拜的還在世的人

  • So one answer was George Clooney.

    其中有人回答喬治克隆尼

  • Then we asked them,

    然後我們問他們

  • "How much would you pay for George Clooney's sweater?"

    「你願意花多少錢買喬治克隆尼的毛衣?」

  • And the answer is a fair amount --

    答案是一筆相當多的金額 --

  • more than you would pay for a brand new sweater

    比起買一件全新的毛衣還要多

  • or a sweater owned by somebody who you didn't adore.

    也比你不崇拜的人所擁有的毛衣還多