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  • In 1879, amateur archaeologist Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola

    1879 年,業餘考古學家馬塞利諾·桑斯·德·桑圖奧拉

  • and his young daughter Maria explored a dark cave in Northern Spain.

    和她女兒瑪麗亞在北西班牙發現一個黑暗洞穴

  • When Maria wandered off by herself, she made an amazing discovery.

    當時瑪麗亞在洞內閒晃時,有了驚人的發現

  • They were standing inside a site of ancient art,

    在他們面前的是史前人類壁畫

  • the walls and roofs decorated with prehistoric paintings and engravings,

    牆壁和洞穴頂部都繪畫著史前繪畫和雕刻

  • ranging from 19,000 to 35,000 years old.

    大約有 19,000 至 35,000 年的歷史

  • Similar marks of our ancestors have been preserved in caves all over the world.

    類似的人類祖先繪畫都保存在全世界各個洞穴之中

  • The oldest we've found were made up to 40,000 years ago.

    被發現最古老的繪畫有 40,000 年的歷史

  • What do these images tell us about the ancient human mind

    究竟這些圖像反映出何種史前人類的思想

  • and the lives of their creators?

    以及那些繪畫者的生活?

  • These early artists mixed minerals, clay, charcoal, and ochre with spit or animal fat

    這些早期繪畫者混合礦物、黏土、木炭、混合唾液的赭石或動物脂肪

  • to create paint.

    製作顏料

  • They drew with their hands and tools, like pads of moss, twigs, bones, and hair.

    他們用手作畫或使用工具,例如苔癬墊、樹枝、骨頭、毛髮

  • In many instances, their images follow the contours of the cave

    在許多壁畫當中,大多都依照洞穴壁上的輪廓

  • to create depth and shade.

    製造景深以及陰影效果

  • The most common depictions are of geometric shapes,

    最常見的描繪方式是幾何構圖

  • followed by large mammals, like bison, horses, mammoths, deer, and boars.

    繪製大型哺乳類,例如:野牛、馬匹、猛瑪象、麋鹿、野豬

  • Human figures appear rarely, as well as occasional hand prints.

    人形繪圖相當少見,連手掌印也是如此

  • Some have theorized that these artworks are the creation of hunters,

    有些人推測這些壁畫是由獵人所畫

  • or of holy men in trance-like states.

    或由在與神靈接觸的古聖者所畫

  • And we've found examples created by men, women, and even children.

    有找尋到一些由男人、女人甚至小孩的畫作

  • And why did they create this art?

    可是為何他們要創作壁畫?

  • Perhaps they were documenting what they knew about the natural world,

    或許他們要記錄當時所知的自然世界

  • like modern scientists,

    就如同現代科學家

  • or marking their tribal territory.

    也或許是劃分部落界線

  • Maybe the images were the culmination of sacred hunting rituals

    可能這些壁畫是神聖的狩獵儀式代表作

  • or spiritual journeys.

    或是心靈修行

  • Or could they be art for art's sake, the sheer joy and fulfillment of creation?

    抑或是藝術感作祟,純粹是樂趣以及滿足創作慾?

  • As with many unsolved mysteries of the ancient world,

    如同這些古代世界的未解謎團

  • we may never know for sure,

    我們也許永遠都無法確定原因

  • barring the invention of a time machine, that is.

    除非能夠搭乘時光機回去探究一番

  • But while the answers remain elusive,

    然而即便答案仍舊是未知數

  • these images are our earliest proof of human communication,

    這些壁畫依然是人類傳達訊息的早期證據

  • testifying to the human compacity fo creativity

    證明了人類的創造能力

  • thousands of years before writing.

    且是在幾千年前,文字尚未發明前的產物

  • They are a distinct visual language that imagines the world outside the self,

    這些是獨特的視覺語言,描繪古人對於世界的想像

  • just like modern art forms,

    就如同現代藝術形式

  • from graffiti and painting to animated virtual-reality caves.

    從塗鴉繪畫到栩栩如生的擬真洞穴

In 1879, amateur archaeologist Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola

1879 年,業餘考古學家馬塞利諾·桑斯·德·桑圖奧拉

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 壁畫 繪畫 人類 瑪麗亞 混合

【TED-ed】360°探索洞穴壁畫 (Explore cave paintings in this animated cave - Iseult Gillespie)

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    April Lu 發佈於 2018 年 01 月 09 日
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