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  • It was the end of October in the mountains in Austria.

    時間是十月底, 地點在奧地利的山區。

  • I was there on a field trip with my architecture students from Zurich.

    我和我的建築系學生 從蘇黎世到那裡做實地考察。

  • And when we reached a high valley,

    當我們抵達一處高山谷,

  • I surprised them with the news that there was no hut

    我告訴他們,

  • or hotel booked for the night.

    這裡沒有小屋或飯店可以過夜的消息 讓他們吃了一驚。

  • It was not a mistake.

    那並不是個失誤。

  • It was totally on purpose.

    我完全是故意的。

  • The challenge was to build our own shelter with whatever we could find.

    我們的挑戰就是要用任何 能找到的東西來建立自己的庇護所。

  • And we all survived.

    我們都存活下來了。

  • It was cold, it was really tough ...

    當時很冷,情況非常艱困…

  • and it was a great learning experience

    那是一次很棒的學習經驗,

  • to discover that there are a lot of resources given by nature for free,

    他們發現原來大自然 免費提供了許多的資源,

  • and all that we need is our sensitivity to see them ...

    我們所需要的,就是對這些資源 要有足夠的敏感度...

  • and our creativity to use them.

    及使用它們的創意。

  • I found myself in a similar situation.

    我發現我自己也曾經 遇過類似的狀況。

  • When I was an architecture student about 13 years ago,

    大約十三年前, 我還是建築系學生時,

  • I went to Bangladesh to a remote village called Rudrapur

    我前往孟加拉共和國 一個叫做魯達普爾的偏遠村落,

  • with the aim to design and build a school as my thesis project.

    主要目的是去設計並建立一所學校, 作為我的論文專案。

  • I had lived in that village before when I was 19 and a volunteer

    我十九歲時住過那個村落, 當時我是孟加拉的

  • at Dipshikha, a Bangladeshi NGO for rural development.

    鄉村發展非政府組織 「迪普西卡」的志工。

  • And what I had learned from them

    我從他們身上學到的是,

  • was that the most sustainable strategy for sustainable development

    最永續的永續發展策略

  • is to cherish and to use your very own resources and potential,

    就是珍惜和使用 你自己的資源和潛能,

  • and not get dependent on external factors.

    不要去依賴外部因子。

  • And this is what I tried to do with my architecture as well.

    這也是當時我嘗試要做的建築風格。

  • In terms of suitable building materials for my school,

    用當地適當的建材來蓋我的學校,

  • I didn't have to look far.

    不需要捨近求遠。

  • They were right under my feet:

    它們就在我腳下:

  • mud, earth, dirt, clay, however you call it ...

    泥巴、泥土、土壤,看你怎麼稱呼它…

  • and bamboo that was growing all around.

    還有長滿地的竹子。

  • Electricity in remote Bangladesh is rare,

    孟加拉共和國的偏遠地區, 「電力」很稀有,

  • but we didn't need it.

    但我們並不需要。

  • We had human energy

    我們有「人力」,

  • and the people were happy to have the work.

    人們都開心地做著這工作。

  • Tools were an issue, too,

    工具也是個問題,

  • but we had these guys,

    但我們有這些伙伴,

  • water buffalos.

    水牛。

  • We had also tried a bit cows,

    我們也試過用乳牛,

  • but interestingly, they were too intelligent.

    但有趣的是,牠們太聰明。

  • They were always stepping in the holes of the previous round.

    牠們老是去踩上一圈走過的洞。

  • They wouldn't mix the mud, the straw --

    牠們不願意混合泥巴、稻草…

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • the sand, which are the ingredients in the walls.

    沙子,這些都是 牆壁要用的混合原料。

  • And except a small team of consultants

    除了一個小型的顧問團隊,

  • like my partner for realization, Eike Roswag,

    比如我的實現搭擋艾克洛斯瓦、

  • and my basket-weaver cousin, Emmanuel,

    以及我那位織籃子的表兄伊曼紐爾,

  • it was all built by craftsmen from the village.

    學校全由村落的工匠建造。

  • And this is the METI school after six months of construction.

    這是 METI 學校 在建設六個月後的樣子。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Thank you.

    謝謝。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • Load-bearing earth walls that really ground the school,

    承重用的泥土牆 強化了學校的結構基礎,

  • and large bamboo structures that bring the lightness in.

    大型的竹子結構讓重量變得很輕。

  • That's the classroom on the ground floor.

    這是一樓的教室。

  • Attached to it are the caves.

    洞穴跟它接在一起。

  • They're for reading, for snuggling, for solo work,

    其用途是閱讀、小歇、單獨工作、

  • for meditation, for playing ...

    冥想、玩樂…

  • and the classroom on the top.

    這是頂樓的教室。

  • The children all signed with their names in Bengali the doors,

    孩子們都把他們的 孟加拉語名字簽在門上,

  • and they did not only sign, they also helped building the school.

    他們不只簽名,還協助建立學校。

  • And I'm sure you all had your hands in mud or clay before.

    我相信各位都曾把手 放到泥巴或泥土中過。

  • It's wonderful to touch. I love it.

    我很愛那種美好的觸感。

  • The children loved it.

    孩子們也很愛。

  • And can you imagine the feeling of a small boy or a girl

    各位能否想像,當這些小男生、 小女孩、未受過教育的零工們,

  • or an illiterate day laborer standing in front of that school building

    當他們站在這棟建築物前面時,

  • and knowing that you built this

    心中理解,這間學校是靠普通的竹子、

  • out of the ordinary bamboo and just the dirt underneath your feet,

    腳下的泥巴和我自己的雙手

  • using nothing but your hands?

    從無到有,所建立起來的那份感動?

  • That gives such an enormous boost of trust and confidence

    那會大大提升你對 你自己以及這個社區

  • in yourself and the community.

    的信任和信心。

  • And in the material.

    還有對材料運用的自信。

  • Especially mud has a very poor image.

    特別是我們對泥巴的印象 非常糟糕。

  • When we think of mud, we think of dirt --

    當我們想到泥巴時, 我們會想到汙物──

  • it's ugly, it's nondurable --

    它很醜陋,它不耐久──

  • and this is the image I want to change.

    我想要改變我們對泥巴的印象。

  • In fact, it's the 11th rainy season for this school now,

    事實上,這間學校現在已經 經歷了第十一個雨季了,

  • really harsh, horizontal monsoon rains,

    非常嚴酷的強烈季風雨,

  • and the walls are standing strong.

    而牆壁現在依舊穩固地屹立著。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • So how does it work?

    所以是怎麼做到的?

  • First rule, a good foundation that keeps the wall dry from the ground,

    規則一,要有好的地基來讓 牆壁保持乾燥不受地面影響,

  • and second rule, a good roof that protects from the top,

    規則二,有要好的屋頂, 從上方做保護,

  • and third rule, erosion control.

    規則三,侵蝕控制。

  • Mud walls need speed breakers

    泥巴牆需要有減速的凸障,

  • so that the rainwater cannot run down the wall fast,

    這樣雨水才不會快速地 延牆壁流下,

  • and these speed breakers could be lines of bamboo

    可以用成排的竹子 來做這些減速凸障,

  • or stones or straw mixed into the mud,

    或是把石頭或稻草混合到泥巴當中,

  • just like a hill needs trees or rocks in order to prevent erosion.

    就像山丘需要有樹木 或石頭才能避免侵蝕。

  • It works just the same way.

    道理是一樣的。

  • And people always ask me if I have to add cement to the mud,

    人們總會問我, 我是否有在泥巴中加水泥,

  • and the answer is no.

    答案是:沒有。

  • There is no stabilizer, no coating on these walls,

    這些牆壁沒有穩定劑、沒有塗層,

  • only in the foundation.

    只有地基才有。

  • So this is the close-up of the wall

    這是牆壁的近距離照片,

  • after 10 rainy seasons,

    在十個雨季之後,

  • and as much as I grew a bit older,

    就像我變老了一樣,

  • the wall got some wrinkles as well.

    牆上也有了皺紋。

  • The edges my not be as sharp as before,

    牆角可能沒有像以前那麼筆直,

  • but it still looks pretty good,

    但看起來狀況還不錯,

  • and if it needs repairing,

    如果它需要維修,

  • it is really easy to do.

    也非常容易辦到。

  • You just take the broken part,

    只要針對壞掉的部份,

  • make it wet, and put it back on the wall,

    把它弄濕,再補土回牆壁上即可,

  • and it will look the same as before.

    它就會看起來跟以前一樣了。

  • Wish that would work on me, too.

    真希望我也可以這樣。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Yeah, and the great thing is,

    而很棒的一點是,

  • if an earth wall is not needed anymore,

    如果不再需要泥土牆了,

  • it can go back to the ground it came from,

    它就可以回到它所屬的地方:地上,

  • turn into a garden,

    轉變成一個花園,

  • or get fully recycled without any loss of quality.

    或是可以完全回收使用, 品質不受任何影響。

  • There's no other material that can do this,

    沒有其他材料能做到這點,

  • and this is why mud is so excellent in terms of environmental performance.

    那就是為什麼泥巴的 環保表現能如此出色。

  • What about the economic sustainability?

    那麼經濟永續性又如何呢?

  • When we built the school,

    當我們建造這間學校時,

  • I practically lived on the construction site,

    我可以說是住在工地裡,

  • and in the evening, I used to go with the workers to the market,

    晚上,我會和工人一起去市場,

  • and I could see how they spent their money.

    我可以看到他們如何花錢。

  • And they would buy the vegetables from their neighbors,

    他們會向鄰居買蔬菜,

  • they would get a new haircut or a new blouse from the tailor.

    他們會去剪個新髮型 或是向裁縫師買件新上衣。

  • And because the main part of the building budget

    因為建設預算的主要部份

  • was spent on craftsmanship,

    都花在工匠師傅的手藝上,

  • the school wasn't just a building,

    這間學校不只是一棟建築,

  • it became a real catalyst for local development,

    它更是當地發展的催化劑,

  • and that made me happy.

    那讓我很開心。

  • If I had designed the school in cement and steel,

    如果我用水泥和鋼鐵 來設計這間學校,

  • this money would have been exported and lost for those families.

    這筆錢就會被出口, 那些家庭就無法受惠。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • The building budget at that time was 35,000 euros --

    當時的建築預算是 35,000 歐元,

  • it's probably doubled by now --

    現在大概要兩倍的價錢,

  • and this is a lot of money for that region,

    對那個區域來說,這是筆很大的錢,

  • and especially because this money is working within the community

    特別是,這筆錢留在社區中,

  • and rotating fast,

    快速流轉,

  • and not on the stock market.

    而不是流入股票市場。

  • So when it comes to the economic sustainability of my project,

    所以每當我談到專案的經濟永續性,

  • my main question is, who gets the profit?

    我主要的問題會先問:誰獲利?

  • How many of you in here

    在座各位有多少人

  • have some experience living in a mud house?

    有住過泥巴房子?

  • Chris Anderson, where is your hand?

    克里斯安德森,你該舉個手吧?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • You? OK.

    你有?好。

  • Yeah.

    是啊。

  • It seems totally out of our focus,

    我們大概不在乎這個,

  • but approximately three billion people all around the planet

    但地球上大約有三十億人

  • are living in earth houses,

    都住在泥土房中,

  • and it is a traditional building material

    它是種傳統的建築材料,

  • in Europe just as much as in Africa.

    不僅在非洲,在歐洲也差不多如此。

  • Strangely enough,

    非常奇怪的是,

  • mud is not considered worthy of being studied at universities ...

    在大學中,泥巴並不被 認為是值得研究的。

  • so I brought the dirt to Harvard,

    所以,我把泥巴拿去哈佛,

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • precisely 60 tons of dirt right in front of the main facade

    精確地說,是把 60 噸的泥巴,

  • of the Graduate School of Design.

    通通都放在設計研究所的正前方。

  • Students and faculty rolled up their sleeves,

    學生和教職員捲起袖子,

  • got their hands dirty

    把手弄髒(親手去做),

  • and transformed the front into a warm place for people to gather.

    把前面區域轉變成 讓人們聚聚的溫暖地方。

  • Children would climb the structures,

    孩子可以攀爬構造體,

  • skaters would ride the ramp,

    玩滑板車的人可以使用斜坡滑板,

  • students having lunch breaks,

    學生在這裡吃中餐,

  • and it was particularly fascinating to see how many people were touching the wall,

    特別棒的是,你可以看到 很多人在觸碰牆面,

  • and we usually don't go around cities caressing our facades, right?

    我們通常不會在城市裡 到處撫摸建築物外牆,對吧?

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Of course, this was a small-scale project,

    當然,這是個小規模的專案,

  • but in terms of awareness-building and in terms of education,

    但就建材認知層面及教育層面來說,

  • it was like an acupuncture trigger point.

    它就像是針灸的激痛點。

  • And in fact, in more and more countries,

    事實上,在越來越多的國家中,

  • load-bearing earthen structures are not allowed to be built anymore

    已經不再允許用泥土作為承重結構了,

  • although they're traditional and have lasted for hundreds of years,

    雖然它們是傳統做法 且已經被用了數百年,

  • and not because the material is weak,

    並非因為這種材料太脆弱,

  • but because there are no architects and engineers

    而是因為沒有建築師和工程師

  • who know how to deal with that material.

    知道要如何處理這種材料了。

  • So education on all levels,

    所以在各層級上的教育,

  • for craftsmen, engineers and architects,

    對工匠、工程師、建築師的教育,

  • is really strongly needed.

    是非常必要的。

  • Equally important is technological development,

    技術的發展也是同等重要,

  • like prefabrication developed by my colleague Martin Rauch,

    像是我同事馬丁拉奇的預鑄工法,

  • who is an Austrian artist and expert in earthen structures.

    他是澳洲的藝術家和泥土結構專家。

  • And he has created technologies for rammed earth elements,

    他創造了夯土技術、

  • for prefabrication of rammed earth elements

    土壤的預鑄工法,

  • that include insulation, wall heatings and coolings

    讓牆體有隔熱、保溫與散熱的功能,

  • and all sorts of electrical fittings

    以及各類預埋的電路配管,

  • that can be layered to multistoried buildings,

    這些都可以運用在多層建築上,

  • and this is important in order to scale up

    這些對放大建築規模、

  • and in order to fasten up the processes,

    加速建築流程是很重要的,

  • like in the Ricola Herb Center in Switzerland.

    就像在瑞士的利口樂香草中心。

  • And finally, we need good built projects

    最後,我們需要好的建築專案,

  • that prove you can build with an ancient material

    來證明我們能將古老的材料

  • in a very modern way.

    運用在現代建築上。

  • It is not a matter of how old a material is;

    重點不在材料有多古老;

  • it's a matter of our creative ability to use it today.

    而是我們現今運用 這些建材的創意能力。

  • These, for example, are three hostels

    比如,這三間旅館,

  • that I did in China in the village Baoxi,

    是我在中國的寶溪村做的,

  • about six hours by bus from Shanghai.

    從上海搭公車過去大約要六小時。

  • The outside shape is woven bamboo,

    外牆是用竹子編的,

  • and the inside core is stones and rammed earth.

    內在的核心是石頭和夯土。

  • And it is a traditional building material.

    竹子是一種傳統建材。

  • Even large parts of the Great Wall of China

    甚至中國長城都有很大部份

  • have been built with rammed earth,

    是用夯土做的,

  • but it's getting replaced by concrete.

    但它們後來被混凝土取代。

  • And this trend is happening very fast.

    這個趨勢發展很快。

  • Within only a couple of years,

    僅在幾年內,

  • China has consumed more cement than the United States

    中國消耗的水泥量

  • in the entire 20th century.

    已經超越了美國在二十世紀的總量。

  • And this trend of replacing natural building materials

    這個取代天然建材的趨勢

  • with materials that require a lot of energy,

    需要消耗許多能量的材料、

  • that are energy-intensive,

    能量密集的材料、

  • and that emit CO2

    排放二氧化碳的材料,

  • is really clearly contributing to climate change.

    很顯然會造成氣候改變。

  • And we have alternatives,

    我們有替代方案,

  • such as mud, stones, timber, bamboo, earth,

    比如泥巴、石頭、木材、竹子、泥土,

  • that are totally effective options for all sorts of purposes.

    都是很有效益的選擇, 各種目的皆可使用。

  • This, for example, is an office building that we did

    比如,我們為澳洲歐米克朗電子儀器

  • for Omicron Electronics in Austria.

    建造了一棟辦公室大樓。

  • Mud is healthy for the planet, but also for the human bodies,

    對地球以及對人體來說, 泥巴都是健康的,

  • and the material is low-tech,

    材料是低科技的,

  • but the performance is high-tech.

    但成效卻是高科技的。

  • The earth walls keep the highly sophisticated tools in the building safe

    泥土牆能以天然方式調節濕度,

  • by naturally regulating moisture.

    讓放在建築物內的 高度精密工具都很安全。

  • And this wall in my own home

    這是我自己家中的牆,

  • is our humidfier.

    是我們的加濕器。

  • We love our six tons of dirt at home

    我們很愛家裡的六噸泥巴,

  • not only because it's healthy and sustainable.

    不僅是因為它很健康且永續,

  • Its archaic warmth is touching deep within.

    它的古式溫暖能深深觸及內心。

  • My personal dream is to build a mud skyscraper right in Manhattan.

    我個人的夢想是要在曼哈頓 建造一棟泥巴摩天大樓。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Yeah.

    是啊。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • And this dream isn't so crazy

    這夢想並不算瘋狂,

  • if you think of the mud city of Shibam in Yemen

    想想葉門希巴姆的泥巴城市,

  • that was built in the 16th century

    它是在十六世紀建造的,

  • and has lasted now for 500 years.

    至今已有五百年。

  • What was possible that long ago is possible today as well,

    那麼久以前就有可能做到的事, 在現今也是可能的,

  • and we can apply all our technical know-how

    我們能把我們所有的技術知識

  • to these ancient materials

    用到這些古老材料上,

  • so that it meets our needs and our dreams.

    讓它們能符合我們的需求及夢想。

  • All around us,

    在我們周圍,

  • and just below our feet ...

    在我們腳下

  • are wonderful natural building materials.

    是美好的天然建材。

  • Let's use them.

    我們來運用它們。

  • And I deeply believe

    我深深相信,