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  • Ever see a medieval painting of baby Jesus

    你可曾注視過一幅中世紀聖嬰圖,

  • sitting or standing on his mother's lap

    小耶穌站或坐在他母親的腿上,

  • and wonder why she's so large?

    然後想著,為什麼她這麼大?

  • Paintings like Cimabue's enthroned Madonna with angels

    繪畫如契馬布耶的《寶座聖母像》、

  • or Duccio's Maesta

    或是杜奇歐的《寶座上的聖像》,

  • also appear out of proportion.

    同樣都不成比例。

  • If Mary were to stand up, it seems,

    如果聖母瑪麗亞站起來,看起來

  • the angels in the picture would be as tall as her shin bone,

    圖畫裡的天使只到她的脛骨高,

  • and her torso would be disproportionately small

    而她的身軀與腿相比

  • when compared to her legs.

    則是不成比例的小。

  • Maybe you thought the artist simply wasn't skilled enough

    或許你認為這些藝術家 就是技巧還不夠熟練

  • to paint realistically

    到能寫實作畫

  • or lacked the mathematical skill of perspective.

    或是缺乏透視畫法的數學根據。

  • But that's not the full story.

    但事實並不盡然。

  • To understand why, we need to go back

    要瞭解為什麼, 我們得回到

  • to the late fifth century

    第五世紀末,

  • when the city of Rome was attacked by the Goths.

    當時羅馬城被哥德人攻擊。

  • Rome was built in marble and meant to last forever.

    羅馬以大理石建城,意圖永流萬世。

  • It represented, for many years,

    很長一段時間,它代表了

  • the pinnacle of human civilization,

    人類文明的尖峰,

  • so its destruction left a huge void.

    所以其毀滅(在人類文明史上) 留下了巨大的空洞。

  • Theologians, who preached about a world beyond the physical,

    神學家,這些宣講形而上世界的人

  • began attracting an audience as Rome crumbled,

    在羅馬崩毀時開始獲得人心,

  • and Christianity started to fill the void left by the Empire.

    而基督教開始填滿羅馬帝國 所留下的空洞。

  • As a replacement for the physical beauty of Rome,

    羅馬強調的人體美, 但取而代之的是,

  • Christianity offered a metaphysical beauty of virtue

    被基督徒提出的形而上美德

  • and an eternal heaven

    及不像羅馬會被摧毀的

  • that could not be destroyed as Rome had.

    永恆天堂。

  • After the fall of Rome,

    羅馬帝國沒落之後,

  • early medieval theologians turned away from physical beauty,

    中世紀早期的神學家 撇棄了人體美,

  • rejecting it in favor of inner-beauty.

    為了內在美而否定了它。

  • They maintained that while the physical world was temporary,

    他們主張有形的世界只是暫時,

  • virtue and religion were permanent.

    而美德及宗教才是永遠。

  • Beautiful objects could lead to a misguided worship of the object

    美麗的事物可能會 誤導我們去崇拜它,

  • rather than the worship of goodness.

    而非其所代表的美德。

  • It is said that the early sixth century preacher, St. Benedict,

    傳說六世紀早期的傳道人聖本篤,

  • upon thinking of a beautiful woman,

    在想到一位美女後,

  • threw himself into a thorn patch,

    投身入荊棘叢,

  • and through his suffering,

    而他在這苦難中,

  • regained his focus on spiritual beauty.

    得以重新專注在靈裡的美。

  • He feared his desire for the beautiful woman

    他怕他對美女的慾望

  • would distract him from his desire to love God.

    會分散他渴望去愛神的心。

  • As European civilization transitioned away from empires

    隨著歐洲文化逐漸從帝國

  • and towards religion,

    轉移到宗教,

  • monasteries became the gatekeepers of knowledge,

    修道院成了知識的守門人,

  • which meant that classical books

    也就是說這些頌讚肉體快感的

  • that praised physical pleasures

    經文古籍

  • were not copied or protected.

    不再被抄錄或保存。

  • Without protection, they became the victims of natural decay,

    這些書籍一旦失去了保護, 便成了自然腐敗力量的犧牲:

  • fire,

    火災、

  • flooding,

    水災、

  • or pests.

    或蟲蛀。

  • And without the help of monks transcribing new copies,

    沒有了僧侶的手抄本,

  • these texts and the philosophies they carried

    這些書籍的文字 及所要傳達的哲理

  • disappeared in Western Europe

    就在西歐文化中消失了,

  • and were replaced by the works of people like St. Benedict,

    取而代之的,是像聖本篤 這樣的人的作品,

  • which brings us back to these depictions of Jesus and Mary.

    這把我們帶回之前說的 聖嬰及聖母圖。

  • Because Christianity had so fervently rejected physical beauty,

    因為基督教是如此強烈的 抗拒人體美,

  • these medieval artists purposefully avoided

    這些中世紀藝術家刻意避免

  • aesthetically pleasing forms.

    悅人眼目的美形。

  • At first, decorations for churches or palaces

    首先,教堂或宮殿的裝飾

  • were limited to interesting geometric patterns,

    限制在有趣的幾何圖案,

  • which could be pleasing

    這令人心情愉悅

  • without inspiring sinful thoughts of physical pleasure.

    但不會撩起對肉體的邪念。

  • As the medieval period progressed,

    隨著中世紀演進,

  • depictions of Jesus and Mary were tolerated,

    描繪耶穌及聖母漸漸被默許,

  • but the artist clearly made an effort to veil Mary

    但藝術家非常明顯地 努力要遮蔽瑪利亞

  • and give her disproportionately large legs,

    並給了她一雙不成比例的長腿,

  • with those enormous shin bones.

    與巨大的脛骨。

  • The fear remained that a beautiful illustration of Mary

    他們仍然害怕 一幅美麗的瑪利亞圖

  • might inspire the viewer to love the painting

    會引發觀畫者愛上繪畫本身

  • or the physical form of Mary,

    甚或愛上瑪利亞的肉體,

  • rather than the virtue she's meant to represent.

    而不是欣賞她所代表的美德。

  • So even though it may be fun to think we can paint

    所以即使這可能很好玩, 想到我們能

  • more realistically than Cimabuey or Duccio,

    比契馬布耶或杜奇歐畫的 更栩栩如生,

  • we need to remember that they had different goals

    我們必須記住當他們提起畫筆時,

  • when picking up a paintbrush.

    其實是抱著不同的目的。

Ever see a medieval painting of baby Jesus

你可曾注視過一幅中世紀聖嬰圖,

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B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 羅馬 美德 肉體 寶座 帝國

【TED-Ed】中世紀藝術中失真的聖母 Distorting Madonna in Medieval art - James Earle

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