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  • Whether you're thinking of having kids today or becoming a parent in the future

    不論你現在或是未來考慮要生小孩

  • Many are aware that fertility declines as you age

    生育力都會隨著年齡增長而遞減

  • so when should you have kids,

    所以應該何時生小孩

  • and is there anything you can do to beat your biological clock?

    又是否有辦法扭轉生理上的劣勢呢?

  • A woman's first period is generally around age twelve or thirteen,

    女性第一次的生理期大概會發生在十二、三歲時

  • but most ovaries don't start releasing eggs until a few years after this

    但卵巢多半會在幾年後才開始釋放卵子

  • In fact, a woman's peak fertility

    事實上,一位女性的生育力巔峰期

  • isn't actually until her early or mid twenties

    大概落在二十歲出頭到二十幾歲中期

  • Unlike males who are constantly producing new sperm

    不像男性隨時在製造新的精子

  • females have a finite number of eggs, but don't worry

    女性所擁有的卵子數量是有限的,但不用擔心

  • By puberty you have around 300,000

    在青春期你大概會有三十萬顆卵子

  • way more than the 300 to 400 you will release in your lifetime

    數量遠遠超過一生會釋放的三百到四百顆卵子

  • However popular statistics show that after trying to conceive for one year,

    然而人口數據顯示,在試圖懷孕的一年裡

  • A thirty-year-old woman has a 25% chance

    一名三十歲的女性有百分之二十五的機率

  • of not conceiving a life birth

    無法成功懷孕

  • This increases to a 44% chance at 35,

    對三十五歲女性而言,機率增至百分之四十四

  • and 66% chance at 40 years old

    到了四十歲則有百分之六十六的機率

  • But most of this data comes from a 2004 journal

    但這些數據大多來自一篇 2004 年的期刊

  • looking at French birth records from 1670 to 1830

    內容探討法國 1670 年至 1830 年期間的出生率

  • it's safe to say that a lot has changed

    不可否認的是,相比那個時代沒有電力、

  • for the lives and health of women since before the age

    抗生素和穩定的食物來源,現代女性的生活和健康

  • of electricity, antibiotics, and reliable food supply.

    都已經改善許多

  • It also does an account for the amount of sex

    另外,伴侶之間性行為次數也該納入考量

  • couples were having and the fact that sex drive tapers off as you age.

    隨著年齡增長性慾望也會減少

  • Modern studies present a more optimistic look

    現代研究結果顯示較為樂觀

  • with the percentage of women unable to conceive

    二十七到三十四歲的女性

  • within a year of unprotected intercourse at 13% to 14%

    在試圖懷孕的一年內

  • for women aged 27 to 34

    失敗率僅為百分之十三至十四

  • and 18% for women aged 35 to 39.

    三十五到三十九歲的女性懷孕失敗的幾率也才百分之十八

  • Still showing declining fertility but much better odds

    隨著歲數的增長,生育力確實會降低

  • than the historical data suggest. Another study found that among

    但已經比歷史數據顯示的好上許多。另一研究發現

  • 38 and 39 year olds who have been pregnant before

    從前已懷過孕的三十八、三十九歲女子

  • 80% were able to become pregnant naturally within

    其中有百分之八十都能夠在半年內自然懷孕

  • six months. And this points to another flaw in the studies

    這也導向了此研究中的另一個瑕疵

  • Nearly half of all pregnancies in America are

    在美國,將近一半的懷孕案例都是出自意外

  • unintended. This means highly fertile women are more

    這意味著那些高生育力的女性

  • likely to become pregnant accidentally when they're younger,

    較可能在年輕時意外懷孕

  • while those purposefully trying to have kids for the first time

    而那些在三十歲過後才嘗試要次初懷孕的女性

  • in their late thirties are already disproportionately

    不論是幾歲,生育力都已大大降低

  • less fertile regardless of age creating an overestimate

    生理年齡對生育的影響

  • for the effect of biological aging.

    因而顯得更加劇烈

  • However, older eggs may not fertilize normally and there is an increase

    然而,較老的卵子或許無法自然受孕

  • of chromosomal abnormalities with age. A woman who is

    隨著生育年齡的增長,染色體異常的情況也越可能發生

  • thirty has a 1 in 800 chance of having a baby with

    三十歲女性有八百分之一的機率產下唐氏症寶寶

  • Down Syndrome, but the probability goes up to 1 in 100

    四十歲時生產,機率則高達百分之一

  • when she's forty. Granted, that's still only

    還好,那也只是百分之一的機率而已

  • a 1% chance. But what about men? Many assume

    那對於男性來說呢?許多人認為男性生育能力並無受限

  • male fertility is limitless with some famous examples like

    畢竟有許多知名案例,例如查理卓別林

  • Charlie Chaplin having kids up until his seventies.

    到了高齡七十歲還仍然生得出孩子

  • And while men do continually make new sperm, the more cell divides

    不過雖然男性隨時都在製造新的精子

  • the higher probability of genetic mutations.

    細胞分裂次數越多,基因突變的機率也越高

  • By the time a man reaches 50, the cells that create his sperm

    當一名男性臨屆五十歲,製造精子的細胞

  • have gone through over 800 rounds of division and replication.

    早已經過了超過八百回的細胞分裂和複製

  • As a result, older fathers carry increased

    因此高齡父親有較高機率生出患有先天疾病的嬰兒

  • risk of children with schizophrenia, autism, cancer

    包含精神分裂症、自閉症、癌症、

  • a form of dwarfism, neurofibromatosis, and even skull and

    侏儒症、神經纖維瘤病,甚至是顏面骨骼畸形

  • facial abnormalities. On top of this, even among young men

    除此之外,就連在過去四十年內西方國家的

  • in the Western world, sperm counts have dropped over 50%

    年輕男性精子數量都已經減少

  • in the last 40 years

    超過百分之五十

  • The impact and importance of this

    這會導致的結果

  • is yet to be determined though

    還有待闡明

  • Of course, there's more to raising children than biology

    不容置疑的是,有關生育孩童更多是在生物範疇之外的

  • anecdotal accounts points to younger parents having more energy, but

    趣聞軼事表示年輕父母有更多的精力

  • older parents having more maturity and financial stability.

    而年長父母則更加成熟,財務情況也較為穩定

  • Of course, more income does not mean better parents

    有更多的收入不代表就是好父母,沒錯

  • but research has shown that higher family income is linked to higher

    但是研究也指出高入學測驗成績往往來自有較高收入的家庭

  • SAT scores. Not to mention in low to middle

    遑論在低收入到中低收入國家

  • income countries the risk of death per birth for women between

    十五至十九歲的婦女分娩死亡案件

  • 15 to 19 years old is 28% higher

    比二十至二十四歲的婦女要高出百分之二十八

  • than for women 20 to 24 years old. Studies have

    研究也發現

  • also found that in some Sub-Saharan African countries

    在一些撒哈拉沙漠以南的非洲國家中

  • Up to 25% of girls and young women drop out of school

    高達四分之一的女孩和年輕女性因為意外懷孕

  • because of unintended pregnancies.

    而輟學

  • Preserving young female eggs by cryogenically freezing them

    低溫冷凍儲存年輕女性卵子的做法也越來越常見

  • has also become more common but isn't a guarantee

    但是並無法全然掛保證

  • with increasing age still affecting pregnancy success rates

    因為年齡的遞增也會影響懷孕成功率

  • and researchers finding that the freezing process degrades

    而且研究者也發現冷凍儲存會使卵子品質降低

  • the quality of the eggs. Additionally, this isn't a viable

    再者,這對大多數女性來說不會是個選項

  • option for most women, as the cost of freezing alone

    因為光是冷凍卵子就要花費一萬美元

  • is 10,000 dollars, and one round of in vitro fertilization

    而一次的玻管受精過程就要

  • can cost upwards of 12,000 dollars.

    花費高達一萬兩千美元

  • Overall, yes, conceiving a baby becomes more difficult

    整體看來,當男女雙方年齡增長,生育會變得更加困難

  • as both men and women age, but it is not the level of

    但也沒有嚴重到媒體經常報導的

  • baby panic that is so often discussed in the media.

    高不孕程度

  • Individual fertility is very variable

    基於基因和生活方式

  • based on genetics and lifestyle, and the best time to have kids

    個體的生育力不一,決定何時適合生小孩是一件很私人的事

  • is a very personal decision as is having kids at all.

    就如同養育孩子的方式也是

  • Special thanks to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation for supporting this episode.

    特別感謝比爾及梅琳達蓋茲基金會對本集的贊助

  • Even though the world is on an incredible path of progress,

    縱然世界正以驚人速度進步發展

  • it's important to remember that progress isn't inevitable.

    必須記得這些進展並非理所當然

  • That's why the Gates Foundation has created a Goalkeepers Report

    這正是為何蓋茲基金會創立了守門員記錄

  • which will help raise awareness, accountability, and drive action

    喚起大眾的意識及責任感,並呼籲

  • for a better future.

    為了一個更好的將來行動

  • Did you know that the number of mothers who die during childbirth

    你知道在過去一個世代裡,因分娩致死的孕婦數量

  • has been halved in the past generation?

    減少了一半嗎?

  • The Gates Foundation wants to ensure continued healthy lives

    蓋茲基金會希望確保大眾的健康

  • and promote well-being for all ages.

    與永續健全發展

  • Click the link in the description to read the report and see the progress being made.

    按下底下描述中的鏈接,看看這項記錄

  • And subscribe for more weekly science videos every Thursday!

    也要記得訂閱收看更多每週四釋出的科學影片!

Whether you're thinking of having kids today or becoming a parent in the future

不論你現在或是未來考慮要生小孩

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 卵子 女性 機率 精子 年齡 男性

該生小孩了嗎? (When Should You Have A Baby?)

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    April Lu 發佈於 2017 年 11 月 20 日
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