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  • When it comes to what things look like,

  • the Western world is obsessed by perfection, by symmetry, and ideal proportion.

  • This is a taste for beauty shaped by reverence for universal laws,

  • mathematics, and an appetite for the perfect and the eternal.

  • Japanese aesthetics are, however, very different indeed,

  • and the core of the difference is captured in a term for which Western languages have no direct equivalent:

  • a term known as Wabi-Sabi [pronounced: Wah-bi-sah-bi].

  • Wabi-Sabi refers to the beauty of the impermanent, the imperfect, the rustic, and the melancholy.

  • It derives not from the love of invincibility, youth and flawlessness,

  • but from a respect for what is passing, fragile, slightly broken and modest.

  • Wabi-sabi believes the things are always more beautiful forbearing the marks of age and individuality;

  • A trickle of glaze or a beautifully repaired crack on a piece of pottery are to be appreciated rather than made invisible.

  • Wabi-sabi's history is intimately linked with Buddhism and its suggestion that wisdom comes from making peace without transitory, imperfect and unheroic natures

  • Kyushu, Japan. 1191.

  • A monk known as Eisai returns to Japan from China,

  • with plans to create Japan's first Zen Buddhist temple.

  • Zen presents a challenge to Japan's indigenous religion; Shinto.

  • Zen offers a complex philosophical system which presents nature with its constant cycles of life and imperfect patterns

  • as a focus of meditation and a lens through which to understand our own transients and emptiness.

  • Zen will go on to be the philosophical bedrock of Wabi-sabi.

  • 14th Century, Japan.

  • The meaning of two words: Wabi (侘 )and Sabi ( 寂)

  • begin to evolve and become more positive than they had been.

  • Wabi had originally meant the misery and loneliness of living in nature,

  • away from human consolation, but,

  • its meaning now shifts to refer to an almost exquisite bitter sweet melancholy a being on ones' own.

  • Sabi, meanwhile, which had originally meant chill, lean, or withered,

  • started to denote the marks of aging and wear, which can enhance an object.

  • It refers to a positive impermanence and the welcome and noble signs of time.

  • The ancient pattern of a pot or a crack beautifully mended are now called Sabi.

  • 00:02:33,020 --> 00:02:34,800 Kyoto, 1488.

  • Murata Shukō sits down to write a letter to his student, Furuichi Chōin.

  • This document will come to be known as the Letter of the Heart (Kokoro no fumi)

  • And will define the ideal way that one should drink tea - the tea ceremony -

  • and lays out the aesthetic of Wabi-Sabi.

  • The tea ceremony had originated as a way for monks to stay awake in order to practice long periods of Zen meditation,

  • but recently it's been overtaken by the ruling class of warlord, or shoguns.

  • They used it as a way of showing off expensive vessels and utensils imported from China.

  • The tea ceremony has become flashy, often in elaborate and gaudy surroundings,

  • and slipped a long way from its spiritual roots.

  • Now, Shuko redesign the tea ceremony wth the ideals of Wabi-Sabi in mind.

  • The fashion at the time was to enjoy tea on a balcony while looking at the full moon,

  • but Shuko claims that he has no taste for the full moon.

  • Instead, he urges his student to appreciate the more subtle interplay of shadows on half of the moon,

  • or the partially clouded moon.

  • He also stresses that one should abandon the perfect and lustrous tea drinking cups of the Chinese,

  • which seem to evoke the flawlessness of the full moon,

  • and instead to commission more rustic ware from Japanese artisans,

  • who will make little errors in the glaze, and let these be a deliberate part of their work.

  • Kyoto, 1582.

  • Sen no Rikyu is someone to the service of Toyotomi Hideyoshi,

  • a powerful warlord who unites the warring factions of Feudal Japan.

  • He commissions Rikyu to create a tea ceremony,

  • that can help to foster peace.

  • Along with Shuko, Sen no Rikyu is revered in Japan as the father of the modern tea ceremony,

  • and the most perfect practicioner of Wabi-Sabi -

  • a story that is most often used to illustrate the spirit of Wabi-Sabi is taken from his life.

  • One day, Rikyu asked a disciple to clean his tea house,

  • and the young boy worked all day to scrub and sweep every inch of the house and garden.

  • When Rikyu came to inspect it, he reached up and shook a maple tree overhanging the path.

  • The sprinkling of leaves that fell brought Wabi-Sabi to the scene,

  • thus the manmade and the natural, artifice and random chance

  • were united in a perfect expression of beauty and wisdom.

  • Rikyu goes further than Shuko in undermining the high taste of the shoguns,

  • and strips everything non-essential from his tea ceremony.

  • The pots he uses are often directly taken from peasant environments,

  • or are modeled after a particularily rustic roof tile that he spots while walking through a local village.

  • Rikyu also codifies the movements of the tea ceremony,

  • creating the perfectly economical and graceful notions of creating tea with a minimum fuss -

  • thereby adding Wabi-Sabi to the very core of the ritual.

  • Unfortunately for Rikyu, his boss, the warlord Hideyoshi, comes from a peasant background,

  • and begins to fear that the whole process is maybe an elaborate joke at his expense.

  • This causes him to order Rikyu to commit harakiri.

  • In an eerie parallel to Socrates' demise, Rikyu holds a final tea ceremony among his closest friends

  • before obediently stabbing himself through the stomach.

  • Today, all the great schools of tea trace their lineage back to Rikyu,

  • and all follow the motions and traditions that he set out.

  • The maker of the humble tile that he so admired was known as Raku,

  • and Raku pots are still made today, and appreciated as the greatest embodiment of Wabi-Sabi.

  • If you take tea in the Silver Pavilion in Kyoto - the birthplace of the formal tea ceremony in Japan,

  • you can drink from the same cup as the troublesome Hideyoshi once sipped from.

  • Edo, 1684.

  • Matsuo Basho, the father of the Haiku, and Japan's most revered poet,

  • sets off on the first of his great pilgrimages.

  • These aimless wanderings will take him to the heart of solitude and nature,

  • and help him capture the spirit of Wabi-Sabi in words.

  • A depressive with a great talent,

  • Basho takes great joy in wandering the dangerous roads around Edo disguised as a beggar.

  • Here he distills the fragile beauty of the sights around him

  • into poetry that tries to spot the eternal.

  • Through the fleeting moment, we can hear the beautiful desolation in one of his most famous haiku,

  • Solitary now - Standing Amidst the blossoms- Is a cypress tree.

  • GInza district, Tokyo, 2013.

  • An enormous new outlet of Louis Vuitton opens

  • built by the Japanese architect Jun Aoki.

  • Fourty-five percent of all Japanese women are now estimated to own a bag

  • by the french luxury goods firm: featuring Western ideals, shininess, perfection and symmetry.

  • Wabi-Sabi is, like many traditional Japanese ideas,

  • under enormous threat from the consumerist values of the west.

  • Wabi-Sabi is, at one level, an idea that relates to pottery, drinking tea, and the history of Japan,

  • but another, it's a lesson for all of us, for all times,

  • because the place we really have to come to terms with imperfection, melancholy and age, is in ourselves.

  • Wabi-Sabi is a giant marketing effort which urges us to take a second look at what we might otherwise dismiss or treat with disdain.

  • It recognises that our tastes are not fixed,

  • and that if someone with talent and artistic grace urges us to look more sympathetically

  • at some moss, a slightly wonky teacup, or indeed, the wise, wrinkled face of a friend or relative,

  • we will be able to find charm and beauty here too.

  • Our notions of beauty and interests are relative and open to change and improvement.

  • With the ideals of Wabi-Sabi in mind, we may learn to find greater satisfaction in the humbler moments;

  • In a walk down a slightly crooked path, or an overcast autumn day,

  • or a less than blemish free house, face or soul.

When it comes to what things look like,

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B2 中高級 美國腔

思想史---------------------Wabi-sabi (HISTORY OF IDEAS - Wabi-sabi)

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    PC home 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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