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  • The average person gets rid of approximately 130 grams of poop every day.

    每個人每天平均都會排掉大約 130 公克的糞便

  • Maybe twice that much if theyve had Taco Bell.

    不過如果吃了塔可鐘(墨西哥速食店)的食物,每個人可能會有兩倍多的糞便

  • Seven and a half billion of us on Earth.

    全球有 75 億的人口

  • That’s a literal mountain of human poop every day.

    這可以說是人們每天的糞便就可以堆出一座山

  • Yet most of "us" get to pretend it doesn’t exist, all thanks to an invention that

    不過大多數的「我們」都忽略了它的存在,主要是歸功於一項發明,

  • has improved health and quality of life more than any other in humanity’s history.

    這項發明在人類歷史上大大提升了健康以及日常生活的品質

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  • Bears do it in the woods, whales do it in the ocean, and 2.4 billion of us DON’T do it in a toilet.

    熊會在樹林中大號,鯨魚會在海洋中大便,而其中 24 億的我們沒在馬桶上大號

  • Dysentery, typhoid, parasites, and other infections lead to hundreds of thousands of deaths every year,

    痢疾、傷寒、寄生蟲、以及其他的傳染病導致每年無數的死亡人數

  • all because one in three people alive in 2017 don’t have access to toilets and latrines.

    都是因為在這 2017 年中有三分之一的人們仍活在沒廁所以及馬桶的生活中

  • From on top of our porcelain thrones, weve left a lot of our species drowning in feces.

    坐在瓷器的馬桶上時,我們排出許多的微生物都浸泡在糞便中

  • Nearly a "billion" people still defecate out in the open: in street gutters, open water, orin the woods.

    仍然有 10 億多的人隨地大小便:像是在街道上的排水溝、開闊的海水、或是... 樹林中

  • Thousands of years ago, we all did it that way, but as we developed agriculture and settled into towns, poop started piling up.

    數千萬年前,我們都是以那樣的方式來上大號,但從我們發展出農耕以及定居在城鎮後,糞便便統一被處理掉了

  • Around five thousand years ago, Neolithic villagers constructed the first known toilets at Skara Brae.

    大概在 5000 多年前,在斯卡拉布雷新石器時代的村民建造了大家都已熟悉的第一個馬桶

  • At the same time, many houses in Mohenjo Daro, featured toilets complete with drains, people

    同時,在摩亨佐達羅的許多房子中都設置廁所連著排水溝,人們

  • washed their poop into sewers that emptied into the Indus River.

    在排水溝上大號後,汙穢就流入印度河中

  • It’d still be thousands of years before we linked germs to disease, but avoiding filth has deep evolutionary roots.

    這要花幾千年時間才會發現是細菌導致死亡,不過清除汙穢的思想卻已發展深遠

  • Bodily excretions, death, and rotten smells can be signs of danger or disease, triggering our innate sense of disgust.

    人類身體的排泄物、死亡、以及腐蝕的味道是一種危險或疾病的徵兆,導致我們內在感官上的厭惡

  • This biological instinct ended up in the moral codes of many religions, like

    這樣的身體本能在許多宗教道德準則中記載著,就像是

  • this passage from the Old Testament instructing the Hebrews to do their Exodus in a… holey fashion.

    舊約聖經中教導希伯來人在挖的洞口處大號

  • Roman society was comfortable with caca.

    在羅馬的社會中對於大號並不諱言

  • At one point, Rome had 144 public toiletslong open benches that emptied into the Cloaca

    羅馬一度曾有 144 間的公共廁所... 綿延開放式的蹲坐設施並流入到下水道中

  • Maxima, a sewer system that carried waste to the Tiber river.

    馬克西姆是一個下水道系統,運送汙穢到台伯河中

  • But the vast majority of Romans simply pooped in a pot and threw it into the street.

    但仍然有大多數的羅馬人在便盆上大號後,就把它丟到街上

  • As waste and disease piled up, Romans pointed to the stink as the cause of sickness.

    當這種汙穢以及疾病的攀升,羅馬人指出這樣的惡臭就是導致生病的原因

  • After the Roman Empire faded away, this connection between bad air and bad health

    在羅馬帝國消逝之後,對於臭味以及疾病間的

  • persisted, clogging up toilet innovation for more than a thousand years.

    關係便被流傳下來,在接下來的 1 千多年間,馬桶持續地革新

  • During medieval outbreaks like the Plague, doctors wore long pointed masks, like this one, filled with perfumes or aromatic herbs

    中世紀爆發的瘟疫期間,醫生戴著充滿香水以及清香藥草味的鳥嘴面具來

  • "cleanse" bad air, which they believed to be the cause of disease.

    「淨化」惡臭,他們相信是惡臭造成這個疾病

  • They were wrong, but this obsession with stink would change the world in ways no one saw coming.

    他們錯了,但對於臭味的迷思卻深深影響了世界

  • Contrary to popular belief, Thomas Crapper didn’t invent the flush toilet.

    相反於廣傳的認知,湯馬斯·克拉普不是發明沖水馬桶的人

  • That honor goes to John Harington, hisAjaxdevice emptied the bowl with water from an overhead tank.

    這項榮耀是屬於約翰·哈林頓,他所謂的「Ajax」設計,是用一個高處的儲水箱來沖水清除異物

  • But flush toilets didn’t catch on until 1775, when Alexander Cummings revolutionized

    但沖水馬桶直到 1775 年才漸漸流行,亞歷山大·卡明斯徹底改造

  • the way we poo by adding a water-filled “S trapto block explosive, and supposedly

    了我們上大號的方式,他增建了一個「S 型的水管管道」能有效地沖走馬桶裡的排泄物,也就是說

  • disease-causing sewer gas from rising up the pipes, the same basic toilet design we still use today.

    從下水道飄出的氣體是造成疾病的原因,至今我們仍用著這套基本的馬桶設計

  • During the Industrial Revolution, most people’s business still ended up in streets and cesspools,

    在工業革命期間,大多數人的內急都在街上以及化糞池解決,

  • and the growing population was too big a load for London’s sewers.

    而持續成長的人口導致倫敦的下水道難以再承受

  • By the mid-1800s, the city was literally overflowing with crap.

    約 1800 世紀中期時,城市可以說是污穢滿溢

  • With crap comes cholera, an infection from bacteria whose toxins basically cause

    隨之而來的是霍亂,一種細菌性的感染,這病毒主要疾病為

  • all the water in your body to pour out of your butt in the form of diarrhea, death by dehydration.

    體內的水嚴重地腹瀉而出,像是痢疾一樣,脫水致死

  • Cholera hit London in 1854.

    霍亂爆發在 1854 年的倫敦

  • Instead of theold bad airtheory, a doctor named John Snow believed cholera was

    不再是「舊有的惡臭」理論,一名瓊恩·雪諾醫生認為霍亂是

  • transmitted by drinking water tainted with sewage.

    傳遞性的疾病是由於飲用了受汙染的地下水

  • Snow’s map of cholera cases clustered around a water pump.

    雪諾指出發生霍亂的地帶,主要都在下水道的抽水機附近

  • When he when he removed the pump’s handle, new cholera cases fell.

    當他移除了抽水機的把手(不給取水)時,就再也沒有霍亂的新案例了

  • Soon after, London enclosed its sewers and diverted waste downstream of London, but doctors

    過了不久之後,倫敦關閉了自家的下水道,轉換了排放汙歲的下水道,但醫生們

  • wouldn’t totally accept Snow’s ideas for nearly 50 years.

    在約 50 年期間並不完全認同雪諾的理論

  • The Great Depression saw an expansion of sewage treatment plantsand modern toilet paper!–and

    經濟大蕭條讓我們看到一個下水道擴建的處理場-以及現今的廁所用紙!還有

  • this is basically the sanitation system we have today, where magical chairs make nasty things

    這個建設也就是我們現在所擁有的衛生系統,也就是神奇的椅子使這些汙歲

  • disappear, out of sight, out of smell, and out of mind.

    消失掉、看不到、聞不到、忘記它

  • It’s no three sea shells but we've come a long way.

    不是用三顆海貝殼(用貝殼擦屁股,不浪費紙巾),但我們已經進步很多了

  • and this privileged pooping existence lets us keep something else out of mind:

    這樣特別的廁所設計讓我們忘記了某件事情:

  • The 2.4 BILLION people who still don’t have toilets.

    也就是仍有 2.4 億的人沒廁所可用

  • Nearly 800,000 children under 5 still die every year from diarrhea.

    每年仍然有將近 80 萬名五歲以下的孩子死於痢疾

  • More than AIDS, more than malaria.

    多過於愛滋病,也多過於瘧疾

  • That’s an Airbus A380 full of children crashing every 6 hours.

    可以說是每 6 個小時就有一架載滿孩子的 A380 客機墜機

  • It’s estimated last year poor sanitation cost the global economy 260 billion dollars, due to illness, loss of income, and years of life lost.

    根據去年的全球經濟指出,匱乏的衛生條件已造成了 2600 億的損失,由於疾病、失去經濟來源、以及年復一年的死亡

  • Worse, women suffer these impacts disproportionately to men.

    更糟的是女性遭受的影響比例遠遠高於男性

  • In 2007, readers of the BMJ votedmodern sanitationas the #1 medical advance since 1840.

    在 2007 年, BMJ 的讀者投票評選「現代衛生設備」是在 1840 年前以來排名第一的醫療重點

  • Not antibiotics, not vaccines.

    不是抗生素,也不是疫苗

  • Toilets and clean water.

    馬桶和乾淨的水

  • We "have" made progress.

    我們「已經」有所進步了

  • Since 1990, 14% more people have access to sanitation, *many* fewer are dying, but fewer is not zero.

    從 1990 年以來, 百分之 14 以上的人們使用衛生設備,死亡人數「變得很少」,但還不是完全沒有

  • With a little effort, we can "wipe" this problem from the Earth.

    只再需要一點點的努力,我們就可以把這個問題從地球上給「徹底解決掉」

  • On the TV showThe Brady Bunch, ”their bathroom didn’t even have a toilet.

    在《脫線家族》這個電視節目中,他們的廁所竟然連一個馬桶都沒有

  • Pooping is so taboo, it was "literally" invisible.

    大號這想法是非常忌諱的,「幾乎」可以說是一種視而不見

  • We can’t even talk about it!

    甚至都不行提到它!

  • It’s no coincidence that many of our worst swear words involve defecation.

    這就是為什麼我們罵髒話都會扯到這些汙穢的字眼

  • In her book The Big Necessity, Rose George writes:

    在羅斯·喬治的《廁所之書》寫到:

  • How a society disposes of its human excrement is an indication of how it treats its humans too

    「一個社會處置人民髒污的方式就是他們對待人民的方式」

  • Everybody poops, and every person who is born should be able to do it safely.

    每個人都會大號,並且每個人出生之後都應該要有安全的環境來做這件事

  • Stay curious!

    繼續保持一顆赤子之心!

  • And pleasealways wash your hands when youre done.

    而且請... 一定要記得如廁完洗淨你們的雙手

  • Hey everyone, as always, thank you for watching and learning with us.

    嘿!各位,一如往常地,感謝你們的收看以及與我們共同學習

  • This week’s video was a stinky but important subject, and it was brought to you thanks to the support of Bill and Melinda Gates.

    這禮拜的影片是有關髒臭的,但這是個重要的主題,並且讓我們感謝比爾和梅琳達·蓋茲的支持

  • For years, Bill and Melinda Gates have supported efforts around the world to make people healthier

    幾年下來,比爾和梅琳達·蓋茲努力要讓全世界的人活得更健康

  • and make their lives better through innovation, education, and investing in projects to build a better future.

    並且使他們能擁有更好的生活品質,透過創新、教育、以及有計畫性的投資來建立起一個更好的未來

  • And it’s working!

    這樣的計畫正在進行中!

  • Since 1990, an estimated "122 million" children’s lives have been saved, thanks to things like

    從 1990 年以來,估計有 「122 萬」名小孩的生活已被解救,多虧了幾件事情,像是

  • better nutrition, family planning, economic opportunities, and vaccines.

    較好的營養、家庭計畫、經濟機會、以及疫苗

  • Here’s some proof: In 1988 there were more than 350,000 cases of polio.

    這裡有幾個證據:在 1988 年,小兒麻痺症的案例超過了 35 萬件

  • And last year?

    那去年呢?

  • Only 34.

    只有 34 件案例

  • Things have gotten a LOT better, and one day soon, that number *can be, and will be zero.*

    事情已經變得更好了,不久之後這個數字必將會「歸零」

  • But whether it’s bringing toilets to 2.4 billion people, or erasing the last few cases of polio,

    但是否這能使得 2.4 億的人們擁有馬桶,或能否消滅掉最後幾件的小兒麻痺症案例,

  • progress only happens when the privileged pay attention.

    進步只能在認真努力下才會發生

  • Go to gatesletter.com to read Bill and Melinda GatesAnnual Letter, and find out all the

    快去拜訪 gatesletter.com 這個網站,看看比爾和梅琳達·蓋茲的年度信件,並且發現所有

  • ways life has and will continue to improve for the world’s poorest

    生活中已擁有的以及持續地改善世界最貧困人民的生活方式

  • I’ll see you next time.

    我們下次再見

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 馬桶 大號 下水道 霍亂 廁所 蓋茲

馬桶如何改寫人類的歷史 (How The Toilet Changed History)

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