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  • A solar eclipse happens when the moon’s shadow falls somewhere on the surface of Earth

    當月球的陰影遮住地球表面某處時,就發生日食

  • And a lunar eclipse is the opposite -- when the Earth’s shadow falls on the moon

    月食則恰恰相反,是當地球的影子落在月球上

  • The two sections of the shadow, the dark umbra and the partially shaded penumbra,

    陰影分為二部份,太陽光線全部及部份被地球阻擋造成的本影區和半影區

  • their placement determines which type of eclipse we can see from Earth.

    陰影的位置決定了我們可以從地球上看到哪種類型的月食

  • But not all eclipses are made equal.

    但不是每次日、月食都是相同的

  • The most spectacular, the one for your bucket list is a total eclipse of the sun.

    最壯觀的、值得你放進人生清單的就是日全食

  • A total solar eclipse begins as a partial eclipse.

    日全食開始於日偏食

  • Youll notice trees projecting the crescent sun,

    你會看到被新月型的太陽投射出的樹影

  • and shadows becoming sharper than normal.

    比平常更加清晰

  • The landscape darkens to a bluish-grey and youll start to feel the temperature drop.

    景觀變成灰藍色,你會開始感覺到溫度下降

  • From the west, the moon’s shadow rushes toward you like a silent storm.

    從西邊看,月亮的影子像無聲的風暴般衝向你

  • Look up and youll see the last sliver of the sun sparkling like a diamond ring,

    抬頭看,你會看到最後一縷陽光就像鑽石戒指一樣閃閃發光

  • before it’s broken into a string of beads by the moon’s rough terrain.

    然後被月球粗造的表面打碎成一串珠子

  • Now you can see the pearly glow of the sun’s corona and the pink and red light from the hydrogen

    現在,你可以看到太陽日冕的白色光芒

  • gas of the chromosphere.

    和氫氣造成的粉色和紅色光芒

  • Together these make up the sun’s outer atmosphere, and a total solar eclipse is the only occasion

    這些東西一起構成了太陽的外部大氣層,而日全食是你

  • you have to lay eyes on it.

    唯一可以看到這個景象的時候

  • This is totality and if you get a chance to see it, you should.

    這就是全食,如果有機會,你應該去看

  • The moon orbits earth every 29.5 days, but we don’t get eclipses every month.

    月球每 29.5 天繞地球運行一次,但是不會每個月都發生日食或月食

  • That’s because the moon’s orbit is not in line with earth’s orbit.

    那是因為月球的軌道與地球軌道不一致

  • it’s tilted about 5 degrees.

    月球的軌道倾斜了大约 5 度

  • That doesn’t seem like much but keep in mind that the scale of the model were showing

    這看起來並不多,但請記住,我們展示的模型

  • to you is way off.

    遠小於實際的規模

  • If the Earth and moon are this size, the distance between them should be around 10 ft.

    如果地球和月球是這樣的大小,它們之間的距離應該在 10 英尺左右

  • At this distance, 5 degrees is enough to keep the moon’s shadow off of Earth and the Earth’s

    在這個距離上,5 度足以在大部份的時候使月球的影子照不到地球,

  • shadow off the moon most months.

    地球的影子也照不到月球

  • So why do we ever get eclipses?

    那什麼時候月食才會發生?

  • Because there are two points where the moon’s orbit crosses the sun’s plane, called nodes.

    因為月球的軌道有兩個點與太陽運行的平面相交,稱為節點

  • And as the Earth moves along its annual orbit, those points line up with the sun about twice a year.

    而當地球沿著自己的軌道運行,這些節點與太陽每年約交會兩次

  • As the moon passes between the sun and Earth at that time, we get a solar eclipse.

    當月球運行在交會點的時候剛好在太陽和地球之間,就會發生日食

  • When it’s behind Earth at that time, we get a lunar eclipse.

    而當它運行到地球背面時,就會發生月食

  • There are a ton of orbital quirks that make predicting eclipses really complicated, but

    有很多不同種的說法,讓預測月蝕變得很複雜

  • in general well have a few solar and a few lunar eclipses

    但總的來說,我們每年都會看到幾次

  • of some sort every year.

    日食和月食

  • But youre more likely to see a total lunar eclipse in your lifetime than a total solar one.

    但相較於日全食而言,在你的一生中,你更有機會看到月全食

  • The totality of a lunar eclipse can last well over an hour and it’s viewable for anyone

    月全食從開始到結束可持續一個多小時,而且任何身處在地球黑夜半邊的人

  • on the night side of earth.

    都可以看見月全食

  • The moon often turns red during a total lunar eclipse because our planet’s atmosphere

    在月全食期間月球通常會變成紅色,因為地球的大氣層會將

  • scatters the shorter bluer wavelengths of light, while the longer, redder wavelengths

    太陽波長較短的藍色光散射掉,而波長較長的紅色光

  • pass through.

    則會通過而射到月球上

  • Or to put it another way, a total lunar eclipse projects all of the world’s sunsets and

    或者可以這麼說,月全食將全世界所有的日出和日落

  • sunrises onto the moon.

    都映射到月球上

  • Total solar eclipses seem much more rare because totality lasts just a few minutes, and although

    日全食似乎更為罕見,因為總體持續時間只有幾分鐘

  • Earth gets a total solar eclipse every 18 months on average, each one is only viewable

    雖然地球上平均每 18 個月會有一次日全食

  • by less than half a percent of Earth’s surface.

    但只有在少於地球表面積 0.5% 的地方可以有機會看到

  • Eclipse chasers travel all over the world to put themselves in the path of the shadow.

    日、月食追逐者為了要能在陰影地帶,會跑遍全世界

  • In a total solar eclipse, the moon precisely covers the sun from the vantage point of some

    日全食的發生,是從地球上某個點的有利位置看過去

  • place on Earth.

    月亮剛好精準地覆蓋住整個太陽

  • This is possible because by coincidence, the sun and the moon appear to be about the same

    這是可能的,因為巧合的是,太陽和月亮在我們的天空中

  • size in our sky.

    看起來剛好一樣大

  • While the sun is 400 times bigger than the moon, it’s also about 400 times farther away.

    雖然太陽比月球大 400 倍,但太陽到地球的距離也差不多是月球的 400 倍,所以看起來會一樣大

  • But this alignment isn’t constant.

    但是地球、月亮、太陽成一直線並不是恆定的

  • the moon has an elliptical orbit.

    月亮有一個橢圓形的軌道

  • Its size varies about 12% throughout a month.

    軌道的大小在一個月內約會有 12% 的變化

  • When it’s closer to us, we can get total solar eclipses, but less than 30% of solar

    當月亮比較靠近地球時,就可以看到日全食

  • eclipses are total.

    但是機率不到 30%

  • More often, we get partial eclipses, where the alignment is a bit off, or annular eclipses,

    更常看到的是日偏食,也就是地球、月亮、太陽不在一直線的時候,或者是日環食

  • where the moon is too far away to fully block the sun, leaving a ring of sunlight around

    就是月球遠距地球太遠而無法完全遮住太陽,而在月球周圍

  • the moon.

    產生一圈陽光

  • In the far future, earth will only get annular and partial solar eclipses because our moon

    在很久的將來,地球上只能看到日偏食或日環食

  • is moving further away.

    因為月球正在逐漸遠離地球

  • We know that because Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong left mirrors on the moon in 1969.

    我們會知道,是因為 1969 年美國太空人尼爾. 阿姆斯壯和巴茲. 艾德林在月球上放置了幾面鏡子

  • Astronomers bounce lasers off those mirrors to measure the moon’s distance.

    天文學家會對這些鏡子發射雷射光,並從這些鏡子反射的雷射光來測量月球的距離

  • And that’s how they found out that the moon is moving away from Earth by more than 3 cm

    這就是他們如何發現月球正在以每年 3 公分的速率

  • per year.

    遠離地球

  • So in a billion years or so, whatever creatures live here will witness Earth’s very last

    因此再過十億年左右,生活在這裡的所有生物都將見證地球上最後一次的

  • total solar eclipse.

    日全食

  • We can see on the Radio One screen, a fantastic total solar eclipse taken from the pictures

    「我們在 Radio One 螢幕上可以看到,從雲層上方的景象中捕捉到

  • above the clouds.”

    一個美妙的日全食畫面。」

  • " This is just fantastic.”

    「真是太壯觀了。」

  • A lot of early civilizations feared eclipses.

    許多古老的文明害怕日、月食的發生

  • They were often seen as an attack on the sun or moon by the forces of darkness.

    他們把這種現象視為是來自黑暗勢力的攻擊

  • But now that we understand our place in space, eclipses are an occasion for awe,

    但是現在我們明白了地球在宇宙中的位置,日、月食的發生是一個我們對造物者

  • and for gratitude.

    敬畏和感恩的時刻

  • All over the galaxy rocks are casting shadows on other rocks.

    整個銀河系的星球都在其他星球上投射出陰影

  • But only here, as far as we know, is there someone to notice them.

    但就我們所知,只有在這裡 (地球) 的人注意到這個現象的存在

A solar eclipse happens when the moon’s shadow falls somewhere on the surface of Earth

當月球的陰影遮住地球表面某處時,就發生日食

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日全食為什麼會有這麼大的影響? (Why a total solar eclipse is such a big deal)

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