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  • This is a tomato plant, and this is an aphid slowly killing the tomato plant by sucking the juice out of its leaves.

    這是棵番茄樹,而這是隻蚜蟲,它不斷吸食樹葉上的汁液,以緩慢的速度殘害番茄樹。

  • The tomato is putting up a fight using both physical and chemical defenses to repel the attacking insects.

    番茄樹正用物理和化學的防禦機制抵抗並驅逐害蟲。

  • But that's not all.

    但不僅是如此而已。

  • The tomato is also releasing compounds that signal nearby tomato plants to release their own insect repellent.

    番茄樹也同時釋放化合物,警告鄰近的番茄樹釋放它們的驅蟲劑。

  • Plants are constantly under attack.

    植物不斷受到侵襲。

  • They face threats ranging from microscopic fungi and bacteria.

    它們面臨的威脅有渺小的真菌及細菌、

  • Small herbivores, like aphids, caterpillars, and grasshoppers.

    小型食草昆蟲例如:蚜蟲、毛毛蟲和蚱蜢。

  • Up to large herbivores, like tortoises, koalas, and elephants.

    甚至是大型食草昆蟲例如:陸龜、無尾熊和大象。

  • All are looking to devour plants to access the plentiful nutrients and water in their leaves, stems, fruits, and seeds.

    它們都想吞噬植物,從植物的葉、莖、果實和種子中吸收充足的養分和水分。

  • But plants are ready with a whole series of internal and external defenses that make them a much less appealing meal, or even a deadly one.

    然而植物本身具備的整套內外防禦機制,不僅讓它們變得沒有那麼可口,甚至在食用後還可能致命。

  • Plants' defenses start at their surface.

    植物的防禦機制從外面的表層開始。

  • The bark covering tree trunks is full of lignin, a rigid web of compounds that's tough to chew and highly impermeable to pathogens.

    樹幹上的樹皮有豐富的木質素,木質素是由難以咀嚼且極有效防止病原體滲透的聚合物組成。

  • Leaves are protected by a waxy cuticle that deters insects and microbes.

    樹葉受到蠟狀角質層保護,以抵禦昆蟲及微生物的侵擾。

  • Some plants go a step further with painful structures to warn would-be predators.

    某些植物採取更強硬的方式,用尖銳的外表警告潛在的掠食者。

  • Thorns, spines, and prickles discourage bigger herbivores.

    荊棘、樹刺和細刺阻礙了大型食草動物。

  • To deal with smaller pests, some plants' leaves have sharp hair-like structures called trichomes.

    為了應付體型較小的害蟲,某些植物葉片演化出毛髮般的結構,稱為毛狀體。

  • The kidney bean plant sports tiny hooks to stab the feet of bed bugs and other insects.

    腰豆樹用細小的鉤刺穿蟲虱以及其他昆蟲的腳。

  • In some species, trichomes also dispense chemical irritants.

    某些種類的植物,毛狀體會釋放化學刺激物質。

  • Stinging nettles release a mixture of histamine and other toxins that cause pain and inflammation when touched.

    蕁麻在被觸摸時會釋放組織胺和其他毒素的混合體,進而造成發炎疼痛反應。

  • For other plant species, the pain comes after an herbivore's first bite.

    而其他種類的植物所引起的疼痛,則會在草食性動物咬下第一口後才會發生。

  • Spinach, kiwi fruit, pineapple, fuchsia, and rhubarb all produce microscopic needle-shaped crystals called raphides.

    菠菜、奇異果、鳳梨、吊鐘花以及大黃,都能製造出稱作「針晶體」的微小針狀結晶物。

  • They can cause tiny wounds in the inside of animals' mouths, which create entry points for toxins.

    針晶體會在動物的口腔內造成數個小傷口,形成毒素的入口。

  • The mimosa plant has a strategy designed to prevent herbivores from taking a bite at all.

    含羞草有保護機制,能夠避免草食性動物的任何食用行為。

  • Specialized mechanoreceptor cells detect touch and shoot an electrical signal through the leaflet to its base causing cells there to release charged particles.

    專門的刺激感受細胞一旦偵測到外部觸碰,就會透過葉子傳輸電子訊號至根部,使細胞釋放帶電粒子。

  • The buildup of charge draws water out of these cells and they shrivel, pulling the leaflet closed.

    電荷的增加使水分排出細胞,細胞萎縮後使葉片蜷縮捲起。

  • The folding movement scares insects away and the shrunken leaves look less appealing to larger animals.

    蜷縮的動作會嚇走昆蟲,大型動物也比較不受萎縮的葉面所吸引。

  • If these external defenses are breached, the plant immune system springs into action.

    若外部防禦機制被攻破,植物的免疫系統就會啟動。

  • Plants don't have a separate immune system like animals.

    植物不像動物一樣有獨立的免疫系統。

  • Instead, every cell has the ability to detect and defend against invaders.

    取而代之的是,每個細胞都有能力偵測和抵禦入侵者。

  • Specialized receptors can recognize molecules that signal the presence of dangerous microbes or insects.

    特殊的受體可以辨識出分子,這個分子是危險的微生物或昆蟲出沒時所發出的信號。

  • In response, the immune system initiates a battery of defensive maneuvers.

    為了回應危險,免疫系統會啟動一系列的防禦機制。

  • To prevent more pathogens from making their way inside, the waxy cuticle thickens and cell walls get stronger.

    為了防止更多病原體入侵,蠟質角質層會變厚且細胞壁會變得更堅固。

  • Guard cells seal up pores in the leaves.

    保衛細胞封閉葉子上的氣孔。

  • And if microbes are devouring one section of the plant, those cells can self-destruct to quarantine the infection.

    如果微生物正在吞噬植物的任一部分,植物的細胞會自我毀滅以隔離感染。

  • Compounds toxic to microbes and insects are also produced, often tailor-made for a specific threat.

    同時也會製造對微生物和昆蟲有毒的化合物,通常是針對性地抵禦外部威脅。

  • Many of the plant molecules that humans have adopted as drugs, medicines, and seasonings evolved as part of plants' immune systems because they're antimicrobial, or insecticidal.

    許多人類用來製作藥品、醫療藥劑和調味料的植物分子,因為具有抗菌或殺菌的作用,而演化為植物免疫系統的一部分。

  • An area of a plant under attack can alert other regions using hormones, airborne compounds, or even electrical signals.

    植物的某個部位受到攻擊時,可以用賀爾蒙、空氣中的化合物或甚至是電信號,向其他部位發出警報。

  • When other parts of the plant detect these signals, they ramp up production of defensive compounds.

    植物的其他部分感應到這些信號時,會加速製造防禦性化合物。

  • And for some species, like tomatoes, this early warning system also alerts their neighbors.

    而其他物種如番茄,這種預警系統也會向它們的鄰居發出警報。

  • Some plants can even recruit allies to adopt a strong offense against their would-be attackers.

    有些植物甚至可以結成盟友,對潛在的入侵者發動強大的攻擊。

  • Cotton plants under siege by caterpillars release a specific cocktail of 10 to 12 chemicals into the air.

    被毛毛蟲攻擊的棉花會釋放 10 到 12 種化學混合物質至空中。

  • This mixture attracts parasitic wasps that lay eggs inside the caterpillars.

    這種混合物會吸引在毛毛蟲體內產卵的寄生黃蜂。

  • Plants may not be able to flee the scene of an attack, or fight off predators with teeth and claws, but with sturdy armor, a well-stocked chemical arsenal, a neighborhood watch, and cross-species alliances, a plant isn't always an easy meal.

    植物可能無法逃離突擊現場,也無法用牙齒和爪子擊退掠食者,但憑藉堅固的鎧甲、儲備充足的化學武器、鄰里的守望相助和跨物種聯盟,享受植物大餐可沒那麼容易!

This is a tomato plant, and this is an aphid slowly killing the tomato plant by sucking the juice out of its leaves.

這是棵番茄樹,而這是隻蚜蟲,它不斷吸食樹葉上的汁液,以緩慢的速度殘害番茄樹。

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C1 高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 植物 昆蟲 細胞 防禦 機制

【TED-Ed】自然驚奇解密:植物的自我防衛機制 (The amazing ways plants defend themselves - Valentin Hammoudi)

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    osmend 發佈於 2020 年 09 月 05 日
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