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  • One of these is not a hamburger.

    這兩個,其中一個不是真正的漢堡

  • This one was created in a lab.

    這個是在實驗室中製作出來的

  • It's called the Impossible Burger, and it's 100% made from plants.

    這叫做「不可能的漢堡」,並且是百分之百由植物做成的

  • But unlike your typical veggie burger,

    但與典型的素食漢堡不同,

  • this is bloody and red, and it cooks and tastes like an actual beef patty.

    這個漢堡的肉餅不但血紅,煮起來跟嚐起來也都跟真的牛肉餅一樣

  • And several US chefs have already put it on their menus.

    不少美國的主廚都已將這種漢堡放入他們的菜單之中

  • But the big difference between this and a veggie burger:

    不過這種漢堡和素食漢堡之間有個決定性的差異

  • scientists made it using neuroscience.

    「不可能的漢堡」是科學家藉由神經科學製造出來的

  • They started with one pretty profound question.

    他們先想到了一個很重要的問題

  • What makes meat, meat?

    是什麼讓肉嚐起來像肉?

  • Celeste Holz-Schietinger is a flavor scientist.

    Celeste Holz-Schietinger 是一位香料科學家

  • How do you get your brain to actually eat a food and say "yum,"

    Celeste:你要如何讓大腦在吞下食物時覺得「好吃」,

  • and associate it with actually eating meat, even though this actually hasn't come from an animal.

    並認為你所吃下的是真正的肉,儘管它根本不是來自動物?

  • This is crucial.

    這很重要

  • The Impossible Burger scientists aren't just making a vegetarian patty that you can eat instead of a burger.

    「不可能的漢堡」的科學家並不只是在做替代漢堡的素食肉餅

  • They want the Impossible Burger to be the same exact experience as eating a beef burger.

    他們希望「不可能的漢堡」吃起來能夠跟真正的牛肉漢堡一模一樣

  • Richard Brown is a neuroscientist at Impossible Foods.

    Richard Brown 是一位製作「不可能的食物」的神經科學家

  • A hamburger will send all sorts of information to our sensory organs,

    Richard:漢堡會送出各種訊息給我們的感覺器官

  • your ears, nose, your eyes, and tongue.

    耳朵、鼻子、眼睛、還有舌頭

  • It's only when those sensory organs send information to the brain,

    唯有在感覺器官送出訊息給大腦,

  • and they get integrated that we can ever become aware of the fact that we're experiencing "hamburger".

    並且在訊息統合之後,我們才會意識到我們正在吃的東西是「漢堡」

  • The goal is to create that same sensory experience,

    「不可能的漢堡」目標是要創造一模一樣的感官體驗,

  • so the brain can't tell the difference,

    讓大腦無法分別其中的差異,

  • which takes us back to this question:

    這又將我們帶回這個問題:

  • "What makes meat, meat?"

    是什麼讓肉嚐起來像肉?

  • To answer that, scientists here are literally breaking down a beef patty molecule by molecule.

    為了回答這個問題,這些科學家實際將牛肉餅分解成分子

  • And there are trillions of them.

    而這些分子有上兆個

  • This machine isolates every single aroma molecule in a burger.

    這台機器會分離漢堡中的每個氣味分子

  • Flavor scientists sit here, sniff, and then jot down what they smell.

    香料科學家會坐在這、用鼻子聞、然後記下他們聞到的味道

  • Celeste: Floral rose,

    Celeste:玫瑰香氣、

  • apricot,

    杏仁、

  • foot,

    腳味、

  • cheesy,

    起司味、

  • macaroni and cheese,

    起司通心粉、

  • old people,

    老人味、

  • crackers,

    餅乾、

  • some rotting garbage, something you don't want.

    還有腐壞的垃圾,你不會想要的東西

  • But at the right combination, that gives you the experience,

    但是在正確的組合下,就會創造出相同的感官經驗,

  • and send a signal to your brain to say, "Yes, I'm eating meat, and mmm, this is tasty."

    並且寄送給訊息給大腦表達「對,我正在吃肉,而且這很好吃」

  • And one molecule is essential to that flavor.

    要創造這樣的口味,有一種分子是不可或缺的

  • It's called "heme," and it looks and tastes like blood.

    它叫做血紅素,並且它看起來、嚐起來都像血

  • In cows, that's the catalyst, the driver for all of the aroma compounds that make meat.

    在牛的體內,這就是催化劑,是所有嚐起來像肉的香料化合物的驅動者

  • It's also responsible for the color.

    它同時也為肉的顏色負責

  • It is bright red in color, and upon cooking, it turns brown.

    血紅素是亮紅色,且一旦經過料理,就會轉為咖啡色

  • Turns out, you can extract heme from soy plants.

    科學家發現,血紅素能夠從大豆作物中提取

  • Over five years, scientists honed in on other natural ingredients that create the same sensory experience as a hamburger,

    五年來,科學家專注於研究能夠創造與漢堡相同的感官經驗的其他天然成分

  • like wheat proteins for the fleshy texture of beef,

    像是擁有牛肉般豐滿觸感的小麥蛋白

  • potato proteins for a crispy exterior when seared,

    能夠創造出鍋煎一般酥脆表皮的馬鈴薯蛋白

  • yam and xanthan gums to hold the ingredients together,

    將所有成分結合在一起的山芋及黃原膠,

  • and flakes of coconut oil that melt on a grill, then sizzle like beef fat.

    以及會在烤架上融化、並且如牛肉脂肪般發出嘶嘶聲的薄片椰子油

  • When you mix those together, it looks and feels like raw beef,

    當你將這些成份混合,看起來及感覺起來便會像生牛肉,

  • and that's when a sensory experience starts to kick in.

    而這也是感官經驗開始奏效的時候

  • This is the moment when scientists hope the brain won't be able to tell the difference between a beef burger and the Impossible Burger.

    就是在這一刻,科學家們希望大腦會無法判斷出牛肉漢堡跟「不可能的漢堡」之間的差異

  • The Impossible Food scientists are are still tweaking that sensory experience, trying to make a better burger.

    「不可能的食物」的科學家仍然在調整這種感官經驗,試著想做出更好的漢堡

  • Their goal is to supply 1,000 restaurants by the end of this year.

    他們的目標是在今年年底前供應「不可能的漢堡」給一千間餐廳

One of these is not a hamburger.

這兩個,其中一個不是真正的漢堡

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 漢堡 科學家 感官 牛肉 大腦 分子

吃起來跟真的一樣!不可能的漢堡是怎麼做出來的? (The science behind the Impossible Burger)

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    Crystal Wu   發佈於 2017 年 09 月 10 日
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