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  • There is nothing bigger or older than the universe.

    沒有一個東西比宇宙更大或更老。

  • The questions I would like to talk about are:

    我想討論的問題是,

  • one, where did we come from?

    第一、我們從哪裡來?

  • How did the universe come into being?

    這個宇宙如何產生?

  • Are we alone in the universe?

    我們在宇宙中是孤單的嗎?

  • Is there alien life out there?

    宇宙有沒有任何的外星生物?

  • What is the future of the human race?

    人類的未來是什麼?

  • Up until the 1920s,

    直到一九二零年代,

  • everyone thought the universe was essentially static

    人們認為宇宙本質上是固定的,

  • and unchanging in time.

    不會隨著時間改變。

  • Then it was discovered that the universe was expanding.

    之後,人們發現宇宙是一直在膨脹的。

  • Distant galaxies were moving away from us.

    遠方的銀河正在漸漸地遠離我們。

  • This meant they must have been closer together in the past.

    這個行星比宇宙剛形成時更靠近,

  • If we extrapolate back,

    如果我們更近

  • we find we must have all been on top of each other

    從以宇宙的起源來看,

  • about 15 billion years ago.

    在一百五十億年前,

  • This was the Big Bang, the beginning of the universe.

    大爆炸是宇宙的開始,

  • But was there anything before the Big Bang?

    但在大爆炸之前,是否有宇宙呢?

  • If not, what created the universe?

    如果沒有,那到底是什麼創造了宇宙?

  • Why did the universe emerge from the Big Bang the way it did?

    為什麼宇宙是經由大爆炸而形成呢?

  • We used to think that the theory of the universe

    我們以前認為相關理論

  • could be divided into two parts.

    有兩部分,

  • First, there were the laws

    第一是

  • like Maxwell's equations and general relativity

    麥斯威爾的理論到相對論決定宇宙的演化

  • that determined the evolution of the universe,

    在太空中一個特定時間點內

  • given its state over all of space at one time.

    決定宇宙的狀態。

  • And second, there was no question

    第二是沒有任何

  • of the initial state of the universe.

    關於宇宙起源的疑問。

  • We have made good progress on the first part,

    我們在第一部份有一些進展,

  • and now have the knowledge of the laws of evolution

    在宇宙演化的部分

  • in all but the most extreme conditions.

    多了一些知識,

  • But until recently, we have had little idea

    但是,近來在第二個宇宙起源的發現

  • about the initial conditions for the universe.

    沒有很多進展。

  • However, this division into laws of evolution and initial conditions

    然而,這些關於宇宙演化的理論

  • depends on time and space being separate and distinct.

    是依據時間與空間是分開並獨立的假設。

  • Under extreme conditions, general relativity and quantum theory

    但在極端的條件下,相對論的變化以及量子理論時,

  • allow time to behave like another dimension of space.

    已經讓時間變成另一個影響太空的變量。

  • This removes the distinction between time and space,

    這個想法解除了原先時間與空間

  • and means the laws of evolution can also determine the initial state.

    是分開獨立的假設,這也使得宇宙演化的研究直接會影響到宇宙起源的探索。

  • The universe can spontaneously create itself out of nothing.

    宇宙可能會從完全沒有的狀態自發地產生。

  • Moreover, we can calculate a probability that the universe

    此外,我們可以計算宇宙創造的的

  • was created in different states.

    不同狀態的或然率。

  • These predictions are in excellent agreement

    這些預測可以由

  • with observations by the WMAP satellite

    Wmap衛星佐證,

  • of the cosmic microwave background,

    這些觀察數據可以取得

  • which is an imprint of the very early universe.

    宇宙早期形成的微波。

  • We think we have solved the mystery of creation.

    我們認為我們已經解決的宇宙發生的秘密。

  • Maybe we should patent the universe

    或許我們應該開始去尋找太空

  • and charge everyone royalties for their existence.

    是否有多樣的生物存在。

  • I now turn to the second big question:

    現在轉到第二個問題,

  • are we alone, or is there other life in the universe?

    我們是唯一在宇宙中的唯一生物嗎?

  • We believe that life arose spontaneously on the Earth,

    我們相信地球是自然地產生生物。

  • so it must be possible for life to appear on other suitable planets,

    所以,也有可能在其他適合生存的行星上也會有生物,

  • of which there seem to be a large number in the galaxy.

    而且這種星球在銀河裡應該很多。

  • But we don't know how life first appeared.

    但我們還不知道生命剛剛形成的形式。

  • We have two pieces of observational evidence

    我們有兩個可觀察的證據

  • on the probability of life appearing.

    可以參考。

  • The first is that we have fossils of algae

    第一是地球在

  • from 3.5 billion years ago.

    三十五億年前的化石。

  • The Earth was formed 4.6 billion years ago

    在四十六億年前的地球,

  • and was probably too hot for about the first half billion years.

    前五億年或許還因為太熱不適合生物生存。

  • So life appeared on Earth

    所以在地球剛開始的

  • within half a billion years of it being possible,

    五億年沒有生物生存的可能,

  • which is short compared to the 10-billion-year lifetime

    但到了地球產生的十億年時

  • of a planet of Earth type.

    可能有基本形式的生命開始,

  • This suggests that a probability of life appearing is reasonably high.

    當時生物存在的機率相對地高。

  • If it was very low, one would have expected it

    如果存在機率非常低,那也大概會在

  • to take most of the ten billion years available.

    後來的十億年發展出生物,

  • On the other hand, we don't seem to have been visited by aliens.

    另一方面,我們似乎沒有資訊顯示外星人來訪,

  • I am discounting the reports of UFOs.

    我手上沒有什麼飛碟資料,

  • Why would they appear only to cranks and weirdoes?

    為什麼他們只出現在特定人士面前?

  • If there is a government conspiracy to suppress the reports

    如果政府為保密而壓制這些外星人資訊,

  • and keep for itself the scientific knowledge the aliens bring,

    使得科學家沒有機會研究外星人相關知識,

  • it seems to have been a singularly ineffective policy so far.

    目前對我似乎也不會是個有效的政策。

  • Furthermore, despite an extensive search by the SETI project,

    再者,雖然有很多廣泛或相關的專案或研究,

  • we haven't heard any alien television quiz shows.

    我們也沒有在電視的秀中看到任何訊息。

  • This probably indicates that there are no alien civilizations

    在我們現有的研究發展下,我們在宇宙用無線電波

  • at our stage of development

    在光年距離做宇宙測試的現象,

  • within a radius of a few hundred light years.

    這似乎顯示我們並沒有任何外星人的文明,

  • Issuing an insurance policy

    我想對於要確認是否有外星人存在,

  • against abduction by aliens seems a pretty safe bet.

    我們的研究將是一個安全的背書。

  • This brings me to the last of the big questions:

    這帶我們進入最後一個大問題,

  • the future of the human race.

    人類的未來,

  • If we are the only intelligent beings in the galaxy,

    如果我們是銀河裡唯一高智慧生物,

  • we should make sure we survive and continue.

    我們應該確認是否能永續生存,

  • But we are entering an increasingly dangerous period of our history.

    但我們正進入一個正在逐漸危險的人類歷史時期,

  • Our population and our use of the finite resources of planet Earth

    我們的人口與我們使用這個地球行星的資源,

  • are growing exponentially, along with our technical ability

    是快速的成長以及我們高速的科技發展

  • to change the environment for good or ill.

    已經大量改變這個地球的生態,

  • But our genetic code

    但我們的基因解碼研究

  • still carries the selfish and aggressive instincts

    已經使我們有積極的進展,

  • that were of survival advantage in the past.

    使我們未來可以比過去生存的更好

  • It will be difficult enough to avoid disaster

    我們在未來一百年,

  • in the next hundred years,

    或未來幾百萬年,

  • let alone the next thousand or million.

    都將很難避免未來的災難。

  • Our only chance of long-term survival

    我們的唯一長期生存的機會,

  • is not to remain lurking on planet Earth,

    並不是去在地球重建另一個行星,

  • but to spread out into space.

    而是去擴散到太空去。

  • The answers to these big questions

    回答這些問題的答案是,

  • show that we have made remarkable progress in the last hundred years.

    顯現我們過去幾百年的努力的輝煌成就。

  • But if we want to continue beyond the next hundred years,

    我們要再用未來幾百年把力氣

  • our future is in space.

    用在太空研究上,

  • That is why I am in favor of manned --

    這是為什麼我會傾向

  • or should I say, personed -- space flight.

    研究人類的太空飛行。

  • All of my life I have sought to understand the universe

    我用我的一生去研究瞭解這個宇宙

  • and find answers to these questions.

    與替這些問題找答案,

  • I have been very lucky

    很幸運,

  • that my disability has not been a serious handicap.

    我的缺陷並沒會成為一個嚴重的殘障。

  • Indeed, it has probably given me more time than most people

    事實上,或許使我可以有更多時間與找到更多人

  • to pursue the quest for knowledge.

    來去追求我想要的知識

  • The ultimate goal is a complete theory of the universe,

    這個最終目標在宇宙的理論

  • and we are making good progress.

    正在進行好的發展。

  • Thank you for listening.

    謝謝您的聆聽!

  • Chris Anderson: Professor, if you had to guess either way,

    Chris Anderson: 教授如果你願意做個猜測的話,

  • do you now believe that it is more likely than not

    我想請問你相信在銀河裡面

  • that we are alone in the Milky Way,

    我們是否是唯一

  • as a civilization of our level of intelligence or higher?

    最高而有文明的高智商動物?

  • This answer took seven minutes, and really gave me an insight

    這個答案需要七分鐘,這整個TED的演講

  • into the incredible act of generosity this whole talk was for TED.

    真的讓我大開眼界。

  • Stephen Hawking: I think it quite likely that we are the only civilization

    Stephen Hawking: 我認為很可能我們是在幾百光年內

  • within several hundred light years;

    我們是唯一的文明,

  • otherwise we would have heard radio waves.

    否則我們應該會聽到無線電波,

  • The alternative is that civilizations don't last very long,

    其他的文明沒有維持很久

  • but destroy themselves.

    但可能自我毀滅過。

  • CA: Professor Hawking, thank you for that answer.

    Chris Anderson:教授,謝謝您的答案,

  • We will take it as a salutary warning, I think,

    我們會把你的意見

  • for the rest of our conference this week.

    當作我們在地球的的警訊。

  • Professor, we really thank you for the extraordinary effort you made

    也謝謝您把你思考的問題

  • to share your questions with us today.

    分享給我們。

  • Thank you very much indeed.

    真的非常感謝您。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

There is nothing bigger or older than the universe.

沒有一個東西比宇宙更大或更老。

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B1 中級 中文 TED 宇宙 生物 地球 太空 外星人

【TED】史蒂芬霍金斯-我們的宇宙如何開始? (Questioning the universe | Stephen Hawking)

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