Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • Take a look at the water in this glass.

    看看杯子裡的水

  • Refreshing, hydrating, and invaluable to your survival.

    既乾淨、滋潤又珍貴,能維持人類基本生存

  • Before you take a sip, though,

    不過,在你啜飲之前,

  • how do you know that the water inside is free from disease-causing organisms

    你怎麼判定水裡面有沒有有害的有機物質

  • and pollutants?

    或者是汙染物

  • One out of ten people in the world can't actually be sure

    世界上有十分之一的人口,沒有辦法完全確保

  • that their water is clean and safe to drink.

    他們的飲用水夠純淨和安全

  • Why is that?

    為什麼會這樣呢?

  • Inadequate sanitation,

    公共衛生設施不足、

  • poor protection of drinking water sources,

    並未妥善保護飲用水的水源、

  • and improper hygiene

    抑或不當的衛生觀念

  • often lead to sewage and feces-contaminated water

    都有可能導致水源混濁或是遭受汙染

  • That's the ideal breeding ground for dangerous bacteria,

    遭受汙染後,就成了孳生細菌、

  • viruses,

    病毒、

  • and parasites.

    和寄生蟲的溫床

  • And the effects of these pathogens are staggering.

    這些病原體的影響非常長遠

  • Diarrheal disease from unsafe water is one of the leading causes of death

    因不乾淨的水源而造成的致命疾病 - 痢疾

  • around the world for children under five.

    是世界上許多五歲以下孩童的主要死因

  • And according to a U.N. report from 2010,

    根據聯合國在2010年的報告

  • microbial water-borne illnesses killed more people per year than war.

    每年飲用含有微生物的水而死亡的人口,比戰爭死亡的人多很多

  • Proper treatment processes, though, can address these threats.

    然而,其實只要水源經過適當處理,死亡風險就會大幅降低

  • They usually have three parts:

    常見的治療方法有三種:

  • sedimentation,

    沉澱、

  • filtration,

    過濾、

  • and disinfection.

    還有消毒

  • Once water has been collected in a treatment facility,

    只要水資源一進入淨水設備,

  • it's ready for cleaning.

    就代表可以淨化它們了

  • The first step, sedimentation, just takes time.

    首先,沉澱所需要的就是時間

  • The water sits undisturbed, allowing heavier particles to sink to the bottom.

    水源不能受到擾動,才能讓較重的粒子沉到底部

  • Often, though, particles are just too small

    不過粒子通常過於細小

  • to be removed by sedimentation alone

    沒辦法只透過沉澱去除

  • and need to be filtered.

    所以接下來就需要過濾

  • Gravity pulls the water downward through layers of sand

    重力協助水通過層層砂石

  • that catch leftover particles in their pores,

    過濾殘餘的粒子

  • prepping the water for its final treatment,

    讓水準備進入淨化的最後一個步驟,

  • a dose of disinfectant.

    徹底殺菌

  • Chemicals, primarily forms of chlorine and ozone,

    化學藥劑,大多由氯和臭氧組成,

  • are mixed in to kill off any pathogens

    經混合後用以殺死病原體

  • and to disinfect pipes and storage systems.

    同時為水管和儲水系統消毒

  • Chlorine is highly effective in destroying water's living organisms,

    氯可以有效消滅水中的有機物質,

  • but its use remains government-regulated

    但是氯的使用仍受到政府規範

  • because it has potentially harmful chemical byproducts.

    因為它含有潛在的有害化學物質

  • And if an imbalance of chlorine occurs during the disinfection process,

    因此,假設氯含量在消毒的過程中失衡,

  • it can trigger other chemical reactions.

    就會引起其他的化學作用

  • For example, levels of chlorine byproducts,

    舉例來說,氯的副產品之一,

  • like trihalomethanes, could skyrocket, leading to pipe corrosion

    像是三鹵甲烷,可能會突然著火,導致水管腐蝕

  • and the release of iron, copper, and lead into drinking water.

    並讓銅鐵等金屬物質跑到飲用水中

  • Water contamination from these and other sources

    上述為水污染的原因之一,另外

  • including leaching,

    滲漏、

  • chemical spills,

    化學物流出、

  • and runoffs,

    或是逕流,

  • has been linked to long-term health effects,

    也會對健康帶來長期的危害

  • like cancer,

    像是癌症、

  • cardiovascular and neurological diseases,

    心血管和神經相關的病症、

  • and miscarriage.

    或是流產

  • Unfortunately, analyzing the exact risks

    令人遺憾的是,實際預測

  • of chemically contaminated water is difficult.

    化學汙染水的風險很困難

  • So while it's clear that disinfectants make us safer

    所以儘管我們知道飲用水在經消毒後可以讓人喝得更安心,

  • by removing disease-causing pathogens,

    因為病原體會被去除,

  • experts have yet to determine the full scope

    但專家尚未有精確的儀器可以測量

  • of how the chemical cocktail in our drinking water

    飲用水中的雞尾酒化學物質

  • really impacts human health.

    是否真的影響人類健康

  • So how can you tell whether the water you have access to,

    那麼應該如何判別你飲用的水,

  • whether from a tap or otherwise,

    不管是來自水龍頭或是其他水源,

  • is drinkable?

    都是可以飲用的?

  • Firstly, too much turbidity,

    首先,水質混濁的時候

  • trace organic compounds,

    可以看見有機化合物的痕跡,

  • or high-density heavy metals like arsenic, chromium, or lead,

    而密度較大的重金屬像是砷、鉻或鉛也可以用肉眼看出

  • mean that the water is unsuitable for consumption.

    看見這些浮動的化合物,代表水源不適合飲用

  • A lot of contaminants, like lead or arsenic,

    很多像是鉛或是砷的汙染物

  • won't be obvious without tests,

    未經檢驗不易察覺

  • but some clues, like cloudiness,

    不過還是有線索可循,像是色澤朦朧陰暗、

  • brown or yellow coloration,

    帶點棕黃的顏色、

  • a foul odor,

    散發惡臭味、

  • or an excessive chlorine smell

    或是有刺鼻的氯味,

  • can indicate the need to investigate further.

    這類的水源就要接受進一步的檢驗

  • Water testing kits can go a step further

    水源測試可以更詳細檢查

  • and confirm the presence of many different contaminants and chemicals.

    並且確認水質裡含有什麼污染物和化合物

  • With many types of contamination,

    如果水中含有多種汙染物

  • there are ways of treating water where it's used instead of close to its source.

    應該要先從使用地區開始著手處理,而非從水源下手

  • Point-of-use treatment has actually been around for thousands of years.

    點狀淨水已經運作好幾千年

  • Ancient Egyptians boiled away many organic contaminants with the sun's heat.

    古埃及人運用太陽的溫度將水煮沸,以去除有機汙染物

  • And in Ancient Greece, Hippocrates designed a bag

    古希臘名醫希波克拉底設計了一個袋子

  • that trapped bad tasting sediments from water.

    可以過濾水中的沉積物

  • Today, point-of-use processes usually involve ionization

    現今點狀處理的技術包含電離,

  • to lower mineral content.

    好減少金屬

  • They also use adsorption filtration,

    他們也會使用抽離過濾,

  • where a porous material called activated carbon

    運用滲透性材質 ─ 活性碳

  • strains the water to remove contaminants and chemical byproducts.

    擠出水源,來移除汙染物和化學副產品

  • While it's not always an effective long-term solution,

    儘管這終究非長久之計,

  • point-of-use treatment is portable, easy to install, and adaptable.

    點狀淨化方便攜帶,裝設簡易,可塑性高

  • And in regions where large-scale systems are unavailable,

    在大型系統難以設置的地區,

  • or where water has been contaminated further along its journey,

    或是水源在運送過程中受到汙染時,

  • these systems can mean the difference between life and death.

    點狀設施就可以派上用場拯救生命

  • Clean water remains a precious and often scarce commodity.

    乾淨的水資源非常珍貴稀有,卻是日常所需

  • There are nearly 800 million of us who still don't have regular access to it.

    世界上卻有大約 8 億人口仍然難以觸及乾淨水源

  • The good news is that continued developments in water treatment,

    好消息是,隨著水質淨化的方法日新月異,

  • both on a large and small scale,

    不管大規模或小規模的地區

  • can alleviate a lot of unsafe conditions.

    都有機會解除汙水警報

  • Implementing proper systems where they're needed

    在需要之處裝設合宜的處理系統

  • and paying careful attention to the ones already in place

    同時定期關注與檢驗已設置的系統

  • will fulfill one of the most basic of our human needs.

    可以完成人類最基本的需求之一

Take a look at the water in this glass.

看看杯子裡的水

字幕與單字
已審核 字幕已審核

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 飲用水 過濾 化學 淨化 消毒

【TED-Ed】什麼時候水能安全飲用? (When is water safe to drink? - Mia Nacamulli)

  • 14699 1411
    汪摳 發佈於 2017 年 09 月 25 日
影片單字