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  • Bees are very busy little matchmakers.

    蜜蜂是忙碌的小小媒人。

  • Wingmen in every sense of the word.

    在世界的各個角落牽線搭橋。

  • You see, the bees' side of the whole "birds and the bees" business is to help plants find mates and reproduce.

    你看,蜜蜂在兩性關係的情事上就是幫助植物找尋配偶和繁殖。

  • In their work as pollinators, honeybees are integral to the production of nearly 1/3 of the food that we eat.

    作為傳粉者,我們所吃食物的有三分之一都離不開蜂蜜對生產的幫助。

  • And these bees, dutifully helping lonely plants have sex, aren't alone.

    而那些稱職地幫助孤獨的植物繁衍後代的蜜蜂並不是在孤軍奮戰。

  • But rather are part of a very complex network of matchmaking creatures, critical for the pollination of natural ecosystems and crops.

    反之,他們是屬於複雜的傳粉媒介網絡的一部分,對自然生態系統和作物的授粉至關重要。

  • Plants in many natural ecosystems need help to have sex.

    在不少自然生態系統中,植物的繁衍都需要幫助。

  • Like many of us, they're too busy to find a relationship.

    就如大多數的人,他們都太忙而沒時間找伴。

  • They have too much photosynthesis to do, and they can't find the time to evolve feet and walk to a singles bar.

    他們要行太多光合作用、也沒時機演化出腳,讓自己可以走到單身酒吧。

  • Those places are called meat markets for a reason, because plants can't walk.

    酒吧被稱為人肉市場其來有自,因為植物不能走動 (譯註:人肉市場即是性交易市場,因為植物不是「肉」,所以不得進入)。

  • So they need matchmaker pollinators to transport their pollen grains to flowers of the same plant species.

    所以他們需要傳粉媒人將花粉運送到同品種的花兒那。

  • And they pay these pollinators with food.

    而他們則給這些傳粉者食物做為報償。

  • Today, around 170,000 plant species receive pollination services from more than 200,000 pollinator species.

    現今有超過 20 萬的傳粉者提供約 17 萬種植物傳粉服務。

  • Pollinators include many species of bees, butterflies, moths, flies, wasps, beetles, even birds and bats,

    傳粉者包括多種品種的蜜蜂、蝴蝶、飛蛾、蒼蠅、黃蜂、 甲蟲、甚至小鳥和蝙蝠,

  • who together help pollinate many species of trees, shrubs and other flowering plants.

    他們齊心協力幫助各個種類的樹、灌木和開花植物授粉。

  • In return, flowering plants are an abundant and diverse food source for pollinators.

    而開花植物則替傳粉者提供豐富的食物來源作為回報。

  • For instance, fossil records suggest bees may have evolved from wasps that gave up hunting after they acquired a taste for nectar.

    舉個例,化石記錄顯示:蜜蜂可能是從嚐過花蜜的美味後而放棄獵食的黃蜂演化而來。

  • Plant pollinator networks are everywhere.

    植物傳粉者的網絡隨處可見。

  • Ecologists record these networks in the field by observing which pollinators visit which plants, or by analyzing the identity of pollen loads on their bodies.

    生態學家藉由觀察哪種傳粉者拜訪哪種植物,或分析傳粉者身上帶的花粉品種,在野外記錄這些網絡。

  • Networks, registered in these ways, contain from 20 to 800 species.

    以這種方法記載的網絡包含 20 到 800 種的物種在內。

  • These networks show a repeated structure, or architecture.

    這些網絡有著重覆的結構或架構。

  • Pollinators interact with plants in a very heterogeneous way.

    傳粉者與植物以各式各樣的方式互動。

  • Most plants are specialists, they have only one or a few matchmakers.

    大多數的植物都是狹適應型,他們只能接受一種或少數幾種媒人。

  • Meanwhile, only a few generalist plants hire a diverse team of matchmakers, getting visits from almost all the pollinators of the network.

    同時,只有少數幾種廣適應型植物能雇用多元化的媒人團隊,讓幾乎網絡內所有的傳粉者都能拜訪。

  • The same occurs with pollinators.

    這在傳粉者上亦然。

  • Most are specialists that feed on only a few plant species, while a few pollinators, including the honeybee usually, are generalists, busily feeding from and matchmaking for almost all the plant species in that ecosystem.

    大多數狹適應型的傳粉者只能以少數幾種植物為食,但也有幾種傳粉者是廣適應型,通常包括蜜蜂,他忙碌地幫生態系裡幾乎所有的植物作媒並從中取食。

  • What's interesting is that specialists and generalists across both plants and pollinators, sort themselves out in a particular pattern.

    有趣的是,狹適應型和廣適應型的植物及傳粉者,都有一套模式可以將自己跟對方區分開來。

  • Most pollinator networks, for which we have data, are nested.

    數據顯示,多數傳粉者網絡都是嵌套式的。

  • In a nested network, specialists tend to interact more with generalists than with other specialists.

    嵌套式網絡中,狹適型與廣適型間的互動多過與其他狹適型間的互動。

  • This is because if you're a specialist plant, and your only matchmaker also specializes on you as its only food source, you're each more vulnerable to extinction.

    因為如果你是一株狹適型的植物,而你唯一的媒人也只視你為唯一的食物來源,你們兩個都會更容易絕種。

  • So, you're better off specializing on a generalist pollinator that has other sources of food to ensure its persistence in bad years.

    所以你最好找一個廣適型的傳粉者,因為他還有其他的食物來源,以確保在荒年也能活下去。

  • The same goes if you're a specialist pollinator.

    這套理論也適用於狹適型的傳粉者。

  • You're better off in the long run specializing on a generalist plant that gets pollinated by other species in times when you're not around to help.

    以長遠之計,你最好專攻一種廣適型的植物,因為當你不在附近傳粉時,其他傳粉者也能幫你的植物傳粉。

  • Finally, in addition to nestedness, the networks are usually modular.

    最後,除了嵌套式,這種網絡通常是模組化的。

  • This means that the species in a network are compartmentalized into modules of plants and animals that interact more with each other than with species in other modules.

    這代表一個網絡內的物種會被劃分成幾個包含動植物的模組,他們與自己模組內的個體互動多,與其他模組的個體互動少。

  • Think of them like social cliques.

    把他們想成社會上的黨派就對了。

  • A plant or pollinator dying off will effect the species in its module.

    一株植物或一隻傳粉者的死亡會對其所屬模組的物種產生影響。

  • But those effects will be less severe on the rest of the network.

    但這些對外的影響就輕微得多。

  • Why's all that important?

    為什麼這很重要?

  • Because plant pollinator network structure affects the stability of ecosystems.

    因為植物傳粉者的網絡結構會影響到生態系統的穩定與否。

  • Heterogeneous distribution, nestedness and modularity enable networks to better prevent and respond to extinctions.

    異質分佈、嵌套性及模組性讓網絡更能夠預防、應對物種的滅絕。

  • That's critical because nature is never static.

    這很重要,因為大自然絕非靜態。

  • Some species may not show up every year.

    某些種類並非年年出現。

  • Plants flower at different times.

    植物在不同的時間開花。

  • Pollinators mature on varying schedules.

    傳粉者當然也有不同的成熟期。

  • Generalist pollinators have to adapt their preferences depending on who's flowering when.

    廣適應型傳粉者必須根據不同植物的花期,來調整他們的優先順序。

  • So from one flowering season to the next, the participants and patterns of matchmaking can drastically change.

    所以從這個花季到下一個花季,相親和作媒的模式會大大地改變。

  • With all those variables, you can understand the importance of generalist pollinators, like bees, to the stability of not only a crop harvest, but the entire network of plants and pollinators we see in nature, and rely on for life.

    有這麼多的變數,你就能瞭解廣適型傳粉者的重要性。像蜜蜂,他們不但對作物收成的穩定性很重要,對我們在大自然所見整個植物及傳粉者的網絡亦然,我們也是賴以維生。

  • Next time you see a bee fly by, remember that it belongs to a complex network of matchmakers critical to the love lives of plants all around you.

    下次你看到一隻蜜蜂飛過,別忘了他是一個複雜媒人圈的一員,對你身邊植物的愛情生活至關重要。

Bees are very busy little matchmakers.

蜜蜂是忙碌的小小媒人。

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B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 植物 網絡 模組 物種 品種

【環境教育】嗡嗡嗡!蜜蜂是如何幫助植物授粉的?(How bees help plants have sex - Fernanda S. Valdovinos)

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    小爸 發佈於 2019 年 06 月 11 日
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