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  • When I was a child, I always wanted to be a superhero.

    在我童年的時候,我一直渴望成為一位超級英雄。

  • I wanted to save the world and then make everyone happy.

    我想拯救世界及令全部的人快樂。

  • But I knew that I'd need superpowers

    但我明白我需要超能力

  • to make my dreams come true.

    才可以夢想成真。

  • So I used to embark on these imaginary journeys

    因此我開始了幻想式的旅程

  • to find intergalactic objects from planet Krypton,

    去氪星球(超人國土)尋找一些銀河物體,

  • which was a lot of fun,

    這些旅程很好玩,

  • but didn't get much result.

    但當然沒有什麼成果。

  • When I grew up and realized

    當我長大後發覺到

  • that science fiction was not a good source for superpowers,

    科幻小說並不是尋找超能力的好地方,

  • I decided instead to embark on a journey of real science,

    我決定開始從真正旳科學旅程

  • to find a more useful truth.

    尋找一些較有用的真理。

  • I started my journey in California

    我從加州開始我的旅程

  • with a UC Berkley 30-year longitudinal study

    在柏克萊加州大學,,一個三十多年的縱貫性研究

  • that examined the photos of students

    在舊學生年冊裡

  • in an old yearbook

    觀察學生的照片,

  • and tried to measure their success and well-being

    嘗試計算他們一生中的

  • throughout their life.

    成就和幸福。

  • By measuring their student smiles,

    透過測量學生的微笑,

  • researchers were able to predict

    研究人員能夠預測

  • how fulfilling and long-lasting

    該學生的婚姻

  • a subject's marriage will be,

    是否滿足和是否長久,

  • how well she would score

    和該學生在標準化

  • on standardized tests of well-being

    幸福評量中的得分,

  • and how inspiring she would be to others.

    和該學生將帶給別人多少啟發。

  • In another yearbook, I stumbled upon Barry Obama's picture.

    在另一本年冊裡,我偶然發現了Barry Obama的照片。

  • When I first saw his picture,

    當我第一次看到他的照片,

  • I thought that these superpowers came from his super collar.

    我認為他的超能力是來自他的超大衣領。

  • But now I know it was all in his smile.

    但是現在我知道是來自他的笑容。

  • Another aha! moment

    另一個「 啊!」的時刻

  • came from a 2010 Wayne State University research project

    來自2010年韋恩州立大學的研究計畫

  • that looked into pre-1950s baseball cards

    探討五十年代前

  • of Major League players.

    美國職棒大聯盟的棒球卡。

  • The researchers found

    研究人員發現

  • that the span of a player's smile

    利用一個球員的笑容有多少燦爛

  • could actually predict the span of his life.

    便可以預測他的壽命。

  • Players who didn't smile in their pictures

    那些在他們的照片沒有笑容的球員

  • lived an average of only 72.9 years,

    平均壽命僅72.9歲,

  • where players with beaming smiles

    而那些有燦爛笑容的球員,

  • lived an average of almost 80 years.

    平均壽命近80歲。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • The good news is that we're actually born smiling.

    好消息是,我們實際上是微笑著誕生。

  • Using 3D ultrasound technology,

    使用3D超音波技術,

  • we can now see that developing babies appear to smile,

    現在我們可以看到,即使在子宮裡

  • even in the womb.

    成長中的嬰兒似乎都是微笑的。

  • When they're born,

    當嬰兒出生時,

  • babies continue to smile --

    他們繼續微笑--

  • initially, mostly in their sleep.

    初期大多是在睡眠中。

  • And even blind babies smile

    甚至失明的嬰兒

  • to the sound of the human voice.

    聽到人的聲音也會微笑。

  • Smiling is one of the most basic, biologically-uniform

    微笑是人類一種最基本,

  • expressions of all humans.

    最統一的表達方式。

  • In studies conducted in Papua New Guinea,

    在巴布亞新幾內亞的實驗中,

  • Paul Ekman,

    Paul Ekman,

  • the world's most renowned researcher on facial expressions,

    一位研究情緒和臉部表情的美國心理學權威,

  • found that even members of the Fore tribe,

    發現在Fore部落中的成員,

  • who were completely disconnected from Western culture,

    即使與西方文化完全隔絕,

  • and also known for their unusual cannibalism rituals,

    即使他們有眾所週知的不尋常的同類相食儀式,

  • attributed smiles to descriptions of situations

    他們和你我一樣,

  • the same way you and I would.

    也會在類似的情況微笑。

  • So from Papua New Guinea

    從巴布亞新幾內亞

  • to Hollywood

    到好萊塢

  • all the way to modern art in Beijing,

    到在北京現代藝術,

  • we smile often,

    我們總是帶著微笑,

  • and you smile to express joy

    我們用微笑來表達喜悅

  • and satisfaction.

    和滿足感。

  • How many people here in this room

    在這個房間裡,

  • smile more than 20 times per day?

    有多少人會每天微笑超過二十次?

  • Raise your hand if you do. Oh, wow.

    如果你會,請舉起你的手。哇。

  • Outside of this room,

    在這個房間外,

  • more than a third of us smile more than 20 times per day,

    超過三分之一的人每天會微笑超過二十次,

  • whereas less than 14 percent of us

    而微笑少於五次的

  • smile less than five.

    只有百分之十四以下。

  • In fact, those with the most amazing superpowers

    事實上,最有這種驚人超能力的

  • are actually children,

    是孩子們,

  • who smile as many as 400 times per day.

    他們每天微笑多達四百次。

  • Have you ever wondered why being around children

    你有沒有想過為什麼與時常笑的孩子

  • who smile so frequently

    待在一塊兒

  • makes you smile very often?

    也會讓你經常微笑?

  • A recent study at Uppsala University in Sweden

    最近在瑞典Uppsala大學的一項研究

  • found that it's very difficult to frown

    發現當看著人微笑時

  • when looking at someone who smiles.

    別人要皺眉是非常困難的。

  • You ask, why?

    你會問,為什麼?

  • Because smiling is evolutionarily contagious,

    因為微笑是在具有演化的傳染性,

  • and it suppresses the control

    它抑制了我們

  • we usually have on our facial muscles.

    平常對臉部肌肉的控制能力。

  • Mimicking a smile

    模仿一個微笑,

  • and experiencing it physically

    和實際體驗一個微笑

  • help us understand whether our smile is fake or real,

    能讓我們了解我們的微笑是真是假,

  • so we can understand the emotional state

    令我們可以理解微笑者的

  • of the smiler.

    情緒狀態。

  • In a recent mimicking study

    在法國Clermont-Ferrand大學

  • at the University of Clermont-Ferrand in France,

    最近一次模仿的研究,

  • subjects were asked to determine

    受試者被要求確定

  • whether a smile was real or fake

    微笑是真是假,

  • while holding a pencil in their mouth

    但他們亦要同時用口含住鉛筆

  • to repress smiling muscles.

    壓制微笑的肌肉。

  • Without the pencil, subjects were excellent judges,

    沒有鉛筆,受試者是優秀的評判員,

  • but with the pencil in their mouth --

    但是,當鉛筆在口裡,

  • when they could not mimic the smile they saw --

    當他們不能模仿看到的笑容,

  • their judgment was impaired.

    判斷能力馬上變差。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • In addition to theorizing on evolution in "The Origin of Species,"

    除了寫了進化理論的《 物種起源 》,

  • Charles Darwin also wrote

    Charles Darwin亦寫了

  • the facial feedback response theory.

    臉部反應的理論。

  • His theory states

    他的理論陳述

  • that the act of smiling itself

    微笑的舉動實際上

  • actually makes us feel better --

    使我們得到更好的感覺 --

  • rather than smiling being merely a result

    而不是單純為一個好的感覺

  • of feeling good.

    而微笑。

  • In his study,

    在他的研究裡,

  • Darwin actually cited a French neurologist, Guillaume Duchenne,

    Darwin列舉了法國神經學家,Guillaume Duchenne,

  • who used electric jolts to facial muscles

    他使用電能震動來刺激

  • to induce and stimulate smiles.

    臉部肌肉誘發微笑。

  • Please, don't try this at home.

    請你們不要在家裡嘗試。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • In a related German study,

    在德國一份相關的研究裡,

  • researchers used fMRI imaging

    研究人員使用功能性核磁共振攝影

  • to measure brain activity

    測量大腦活動,

  • before and after injecting Botox

    拍攝在注射抑制微笑肌肉的

  • to suppress smiling muscles.

    肉毒桿菌前與注射後的照片。

  • The finding supported Darwin's theory

    結果發現支持Darwin的理論,

  • by showing that facial feedback

    當我們臉部表情的反應是微笑時,

  • modifies the neural processing

    我們的神經處理系統會改變

  • of emotional content in the brain

    影響大腦的情感部分

  • in a way that helps us feel better when we smile.

    在某種程度上,令我們可以有更好的感覺。

  • Smiling stimulates our brain reward mechanism

    微笑刺激我們大腦獎勵的機能

  • in a way that even chocolate --

    就算是深受

  • a well-regarded pleasure inducer --

    眾人喜愛的巧克力

  • cannot match.

    都無法比擬。

  • British researchers found that one smile

    英國研究人員發現,

  • can generate the same level of brain stimulation

    一個微笑產生的大腦刺激可以等同於

  • as up to 2,000 bars of chocolate.

    二千塊巧克力糖的影響。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Wait. The same study found

    還有,同一項研究發現

  • that smiling is as stimulating

    微笑的刺激能力也等同於

  • as receiving up to 16,000 pounds Sterling in cash.

    獲得高達一萬六千英鎊現金的感覺。

  • That's like 25 grand a smile.

    一個微笑就像是二萬五千元。

  • It's not bad.

    這挺不錯的。

  • And think about it this way:

    試想:

  • 25,000 times 400 --

    二萬五千元乘以四百 (個微笑)--

  • quite a few kids out there

    外面有不少孩子

  • feel like Mark Zuckerberg every day.

    每天都有像Mark Zuckerberg的感覺(facebook創造者) 。

  • And, unlike lots of chocolate,

    而且,不像大量的巧克力,

  • lots of smiling can actually make you healthier.

    多些微笑實際上可以讓你更健康。

  • Smiling can help reduce the level

    微笑可以幫助降低

  • of stress-enhancing hormones

    會提升壓力的荷爾蒙,

  • like cortisol, adrenaline and dopamine,

    如皮質醇,腎上腺素和多巴胺,

  • increase the level of mood-enhancing hormones

    它們提高增強情緒的荷爾蒙

  • like endorphin

    如腦內啡

  • and reduce overall blood pressure.

    也能降低整體血壓。

  • And if that's not enough,

    如果這還不夠,

  • smiling can actually make you look good

    在別人眼中,

  • in the eyes of others.

    微笑是好看的。

  • A recent study at Penn State University

    在賓州州立大學最近的一項研究

  • found that when you smile,

    發現當你微笑時

  • you don't only appear to be more likable and courteous,

    你不僅顯得更可愛,有禮貌,

  • but you actually appear to be more competent.

    你實際上顯得更能幹。

  • So whenever you want to look great and competent,

    所以每當你想看起來非常能幹,

  • reduce your stress

    減低你的壓力

  • or improve your marriage,

    或改善你的婚姻,

  • or feel as if you just had a whole stack of high-quality chocolate --

    或想有吃了成堆高品質巧克力的感覺--

  • without incurring the caloric cost --

    又不想產生熱量 --

  • or as if you found 25 grand in a pocket

    或像在一件舊外套的口袋裡

  • of an old jacket you hadn't worn for ages,

    找到二萬五千元的感覺,

  • or whenever you want to tap into a superpower

    又或者當你想擁有那種

  • that will help you and everyone around you

    能幫助你和你周圍的人活得

  • live a longer, healthier, happier life,

    更長久,更健康,更幸福的超能力,

  • smile.

    請微笑。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

When I was a child, I always wanted to be a superhero.

在我童年的時候,我一直渴望成為一位超級英雄。

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【TED】Ron Gutman:微笑隱藏的力量 (The hidden power of smiling | Ron Gutman)

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