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  • This is you.

    這是你

  • And these are your ancestors, a huge pyramid stretching into the past and balancing right

    而這些是你的祖先,一個巨型的金字塔連結著過去和

  • on your head.

    從你開始的左右平衡

  • How many ancestors do you have?

    你有多少祖先呢?

  • Well, you have two parents.

    你有一對父母親

  • Four grandparents.

    四位祖父母

  • And eight great-grandparents.

    以及八位曾祖父母

  • Four generations back, your direct ancestors total 30.

    連結四個世代以後,和你直接相連的祖先一共有 30 位

  • If we continue down this line, doubling every step, just 40 generations ago we’d find

    如果我們朝著這方向下去,每隔兩代,到了第40代以後我們會發現

  • a trillion ancestors, all living *at the same time*.

    一兆位祖先同時生活在一起

  • Which isridiculous.

    這…聽起來很不可思議

  • That's not only more people than have ever been alive, it's more stars than are in

    這不僅超越世界上人類生存的數目,這比銀河系上的星星

  • the Milky Way.

    還要多

  • Since our species came on the scene 200,000 years ago, there have been maybe 7 or 8 *thousand*

    我們人類是二十萬年前出現,所以可能經歷了七千或八千

  • generations of humans leading up toyou.

    個世代來到現在的你

  • So where are all your missing ancestors?

    那麼那些遺失的祖先去哪了呢?

  • Clearly, there’s been some inbreeding.

    很明顯的,有些是近親交配

  • [OPEN]

  • Were not talking banjo-playing, King-of-Spain, Cersei-Jaime inbreeding, but every family

    我們並不是要談論彈琵琶、西班牙國王或者是瑟曦潔米的亂倫,但每個

  • tree inevitably grows forks.

    家族樹無可避免由這種方式開枝散葉

  • Before Tinder, choices for mates were often limited to as far as you could walk.

    在有Tinder (交友軟體) 之前,選擇伴侶僅限於你行動的距離

  • Even people like Charles Darwin and Albert Einstein married their first cousins.

    連查爾斯達爾文和亞博愛因斯坦都和他們第一代的親戚結婚

  • Because so many people with shared ancestors have reproduced, our number of actual ancestors

    因為許多人有著相同的祖先,所以祖先的真實數字

  • is much smaller than what simple math tells us.

    遠小於我們算數告訴我們的

  • If we replace that with fancy math, factoring in how people moved and lived and paired up

    如果我們用這個取代數學邏輯,著重在人們遷徙居住並配對…

  • life expectancy, trade, geography, Genghis Khanwe find something interesting: every

    生活的預期,貿易,地理,成吉思汗…我們會發現有趣的事情:

  • human alive today shares a common ancestor in their family tree, and this person lived

    活在當今現代的人們有著共同的祖先在家族樹上,而這位祖先

  • only around 3,000 years ago.

    是距今三千年以前

  • That’s right, next time you get in a fight with a stranger on the internet, just remember

    這就對了,下次你在網路上和陌生人開始爭論時,要記得

  • that you share the same great great great great great (fast foward) great grandfather

    你們有著共同的曾曾曾曾曾(快轉) 曾祖父

  • or grandmother.

    或祖母

  • But we don’t know who that person was.

    但我們都不知道那位是誰

  • The math tells us they must have existed, but they didn’t leave fossils or artifacts.

    數學告訴我們他們一定存在,但他們並沒有留下化石或手工藝品

  • Or like, a note or something.

    或筆記之類的

  • Though, writing birthday cards for each of their 7.4 Billion great great great great

    然而,寫生日卡片給他們 74 億位的曾曾曾曾

  • great (fast forward) great grandchildren would have been nice gesture.

    曾(快轉)曾孫可能會是一個好的方法

  • But we all carry a record of our ancestors in our genes.

    但在我們的基因裡面有著我們祖先的影子

  • Because DNA is copied over and over, every so often a mistake is written in.

    而 DNA 是一直重覆複製,所以有些錯誤也會被一同移植過來

  • You know how when you make a copy of a copy, it’s doesn't come out as sharp?

    你知道每當你再複製一次,東西會變得更加模糊?

  • Like that, but since most of our DNA can be changed without affecting how things work,

    就是如此,由於我們大部分的 DNA 可以被改變而不影響事情的運作方式

  • many of these mutations slip through to the next generation.

    許多這些突變也會移轉到下一代

  • These genetic changes accumulate at a steady rate through time, so scientists can read

    這些基因的改變會隨著時間的過去累積成一固定比例,科學家可以

  • them like a molecular clock, and estimate how much time has passed.

    從這些數值做分子鐘的解讀,並去推算經歷多少時間

  • And which changes individuals share tell us how closely or distantly related they are.

    而這些個體的改變告訴我們的關係多近或相隔幾代

  • Humans *seem* really different, but on a DNA level were remarkably similar.

    人類「看似」非常不同,但在 DNA 我們其實是相同的

  • Groups of chimps in Central Africa, living right next to each other, show more genetic

    中非黑猩猩群,他們住在彼此隔壁,展現了許多基因

  • variation than we find in the entire human population.

    的變化遠比我們在全人類所發現

  • This genetic similarity tells us that our species is new, in the big scheme of things,

    在整個大體系中,基因上的相似告訴我們人類還是新的物種

  • and that at one point our population was small, maybe as few as 10,000 of us.

    而在某個層面上人類的數目算小,大概只有一萬個我們

  • To put that in perspective, that’s only a third of your average Bruce Springsteen

    從這個觀點來看,這只是平均布魯斯·斯普林斯汀演唱會人數的三分之一

  • crowd.

    而已

  • Sorry Boss.

  • Today, any two humans only differ by about 1 out of 1000 DNA base pairs.

    今日,任何兩個人只有千分之一的機率有不同的 DNA

  • But our genome is so big, that’s still millions of single letter differences, or SNPs, for

    但是我們基因組成是太大了,仍然是數以百萬計的單字母差異或,或 SNPs

  • single nucleotide polymorphism”.

    又稱「單核苷酸多態性」

  • We tend to see combinations of these changes, chunks of SNPs, associated with different

    我們想要把這些改變組合在一起,大部份的 SNPs,是關係著不同的

  • geographic locations.

    地理位置

  • Companies that test your DNA ancestry read thousands of these single letter changes in

    檢測 DNA 的公司會運用基因組中數千種單位改變來找出你的祖先

  • your genome, to make a sort of signature of your unique genetic variation.

    並根據結果訂出相關特徵,就是專屬你的基因變化

  • Then they compare your signature to thousands of reference individuals from various parts

    之後他們用你的特徵來配對數千個來自世界上不同區塊的參考個體

  • of the world, and do a bunch of fancy math to see which parts of your genome most likely

    並用高度技巧的數學來分析你的基因組

  • came from certain geographic areas.

    可能來自於地球上哪個地方

  • My genetic results: Pretty much look like this.

    我的基因結果:大概長得像這樣

  • My ancNewsprestors, on both sides of my family, are from Northern Europe and Scandinavia,

    我的祖先,由父母兩方開始,都來自北歐和斯坎維尼亞

  • which explains my last name, why I’m tall, why I don’t tan, and also why I carry more

    這就可以說明我的姓,為何我長的比較高,皮膚比較白和

  • Neanderthal DNA than 2/3rds of people.

    相較於其他三分之二的人,我擁有尼安德塔爾人的 DNA

  • Confused why I have Neanderthal DNA?

    疑惑我什麼擁有尼安德塔爾人的DNA?

  • You should watch our last video. I didn’t find any surprises, but many people learn

    你應該要看上一部影片。我並沒有感到驚訝,但許多人認識

  • about ancestry they didn’t know they had.

    這他們其實有這個血統而不自知

  • Where we come from isn’t always obvious on the outside, but DNA doesn’t lie.

    我們並不會輕易的從外在了解到我們來自何方,而 DNA 結果是最真實的

  • Before, using math, we identified an ancestor, not too long ago, that’s related to all

    以前我們可以運用數學,來分辨我們的祖先,在不久前,我們發現我們是有相關的

  • of us.

  • But that person’s genetic influence has been shuffled so much it’s invisible in

    但那基因影響已經隨著時間逐漸改組,至今在我們的 DNA 裡已經看不到了

  • our DNA today.

  • Is there someone whose genes have been passed on, unbroken, to today?

    有沒有誰的基因是經過時間更迭傳到今天呢?

  • Some leftover fingerprint from the mother of everyone alive?

    有任何殘留的指紋是從母親那邊遺留下來的呢?

  • There is.

    有的

  • You have a 47th chromosome.

    你的第47個染色體

  • It lives in mitochondria, the POWERHOUSE OF THE CELL! – so were doing that again?

    它住在線粒體。「細胞的動力!」,所以我們再來操作一次

  • Okmitochondria used to be free-swimming.

    好的,線粒體一直都自由自在的

  • They have their own genetic material.

    他們帶有自己的基因

  • Unlike your other 46 chromosomes, there’s no shuffling when it’s passed between generations.

    不像其他的46個染色體,並沒有轉移到下個世代

  • What’s more, all your mitochondria came from your mother’s egg, not your father’s

    況且,所有的線粒體都是來自於媽媽的卵子而不是爸爸的

  • sperm.

    精子

  • They trace an unbroken line of ancestors stretching back through every female in your family tree.

    他們可以延著這條線追溯到每位家族樹上的女性

  • By comparing the changes that have accumulated over the millennia, we find the most ancient

    在累積數千年後,比對這些改變,我們發現最原始

  • human mitochondrial DNA comes from Africa, where our species originated.

    人類的線粒體 DNA 是來自於非洲,這是所有物種的發源地

  • We can even trace it back to one woman, about 150,000 years ago.

    我們也可以追溯到第一位女性,大約十五萬年前

  • Other Homo sapiens females lived alongside her, but only her lineage lives on today,

    其他女性人種和她生活在一起,但只有他的血統遺留到至今

  • all other Homo sapiens lineages are extinct.

    而其他的人種血統都絕跡了

  • This is mitochondrial Eve.

    這就是線粒體的前世

  • And every single one of us, descend from her.

    而我們每一位都是她的後繼者

  • In the truest sense, we really are family.

    而事實上,我們都是一家人

  • Even if were just hundredth cousins or something.

    即使我們是很遠房的親戚

  • But our ancestry isn’t just branches stretching into the past, it’s also a tree that extends

    我們的祖先並不是只有過去的發展,也會連結到我們的未來

  • into the future.

  • Today we have more power to mold that future, down to the genetic level, than weve ever

    現在我們比以前有更多的能力去影響未來,可以深至基因階段

  • had before.

  • So what might our speciesfuture look like?

    那麼我們未來物種會長什麼樣子呢?

  • Next time.

    下次

  • Stay curious.

    持續保持著好奇心

  • This video is part of a special series were doing about the story of our species: Where

    這影片是我們最近在做敘述物種的特輯之一:

  • we came from, how were all connected, and where were going.

    我們從何而來?我們真的有關聯性?未來在哪裡?

  • If you haven’t already, check out part 1 and 2 to trace the fossils in our family tree

    如果你不了解,先看看第一和第二部影片有關追溯家族樹的化石

  • and learn why were the only humans left.

    和了解為什麼我們是唯一留下的人種

  • And be sure to subscribe so you don’t miss any of our videos.

    並要訂閱頻道以免沒看到我們的影片喔

This is you.

這是你

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影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 美國腔 祖先 基因 人類 物種 人種 家族

我們該不會全部都是親戚吧? (Are We All Related?)

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    韓澐 發佈於 2017 年 09 月 26 日
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