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  • Some languages have freakishly long words.

    某些語言總有一些又怪又長的單字

  • Hawaiian drivers licenses have literally chopped off people's... names.

    在夏威夷,汽車駕照上的姓名真的會被刪減一些

  • One ancient comedian spelled out this mystery meat dish.

    而很久以前有個喜劇演員拼出了這串神祕肉類料理的名字

  • And German words can get so hefty that even when they lost their longest one in 2013 it

    又或者是德語,字詞可以非常的長,即使在2013年最長的那串字已經不見了

  • hardly left a dent.

    也幾乎沒甚麼影響(德語還是有許多很長的字)

  • So what's going on in these words, and just how long can a word get?

    那麼這些字到底怎麼了,一個字究竟可以多長呢?

  • A couple years ago, I was living the life.

    幾年前,我正過著那種生活

  • Chained to a desk ten hours a day, working weekends, taking lunch breaks to go snorkel

    每天都被綁在辦公桌前十個小時有,假日則是工作,中午休息時間和

  • with turtles in the reef!

    海龜一起在有珊瑚礁的海域中潛水

  • Oh, did I not mention I was chained to a desk in Hawaii?

    噢,我沒提到說這是在夏威夷發生的事嗎?

  • So I had a good swim and I'm walking back.

    所以我游完泳就回來了

  • I must have zoned out on the scenery, singing with the birds or something because somewhere

    眼前的景色讓我放空,可能我正和小鳥一起唱歌或是什麼之類的

  • I took a wrong turn.

    原來是我走錯路了

  • And now I am face to face with the street sign that never quits.

    然後我面對著那路標上長到不行的文字

  • Seriously, those letters went on forever!

    我說真的,那根本是永無止境的長!

  • If you're a normal human in this situation, you know you're lost, you turn around and

    遇到這樣的狀況,你知道迷路了,只要是一般人都會轉身

  • you walk the other way.

    然後走另一邊過去

  • But language nerds?

    但是對於語言怪咖呢?

  • We drop our ice cream and sit there mesmerized by phonemes.

    我們會直接把手中的冰淇淋丟掉然後坐著,著迷於那些音位中

  • Auwe, you think a lone male goes wandering the streets licking an ice-cream cone?

    噢,你覺得一個孤單的男子會一邊舔著甜筒冰淇淋一邊到處閒晃嗎?

  • That is creepy.

    那很詭異

  • Nah, we eat shave ice.

    不,我們吃剉冰

  • The kicker though is if you pop open a Hawaiian dictionary you won't find these forever words.

    精彩的是如果翻開夏威夷字典,你找不到那些超級長的字

  • In fact, most terms will look downright short.

    事實上,多數的用語看起來很短

  • So where are the extra letters coming from?

    那多出來的字母是從哪來的呢?

  • Hang out with me long enough and you'll hear about Pacific Island taboos.

    跟我相處久了你就會聽說有關太平洋島嶼的一些禁忌了

  • In Hawaii, the word is "kapu".

    夏威夷語中叫做 "kapu"

  • Oh, and there are some intriguing kapu stories, but that's for later.

    噢,有些 kapu 故事真的是神秘又有趣,不過我們之後再聊吧

  • So keep "kapu" but now go and grab the sounds "ho'o", which my grammar book calls a causative.

    先記著 "kapu",但現在來看這個音 "ho'o" ,文法書中這叫做使役詞

  • Smash that onto "kapu" and you'll get "ho'okapu", maybe make something holy or cause to be taboo.

    和 "kapu" 結合在一起,你會得到"ho'okapu",有讓某種東西變神聖或者造成禁忌的意思

  • But these affixes only buy us a few characters and they give me grammatical headaches, so

    但這些前綴詞只能多增加一些字母而已,而且讓我對文法感到頭痛,

  • no big wins here.

    所以這根本沒什麼

  • Besides, most Hawaiian grammar is done with separate little words called particles.

    此外,多數夏威夷語的文法是拿拆開來的短詞語作運用,稱為小品詞

  • And if you thought dissecting word-beasts was a pain, here's your chance to tame a bunch

    如果你覺得這些拆開來看起來很兇狠的詞語讓你困擾,這裡有一些比較溫馴的詞語

  • of little scurrying word insects!

    你比較容易上手

  • So beautiful though.

    儘管如此,還是很有文法之美

  • What's better than taking your base word and growing it by sticking on some appendages?

    有什麼會比把一個詞加上其他的綴詞還要更好呢?

  • Adding another base word!

    再加上一個詞語!

  • This is called compounding, and it'll earn you some serious extra letters.

    這叫做複合詞,可以讓你有更多的字母

  • Watcha got?

    來看看有什麼

  • Got a brain?

    一個大腦?

  • How about a lightning brain!

    加上閃電如何! (變成電腦)

  • Dung?

    糞便?

  • Here's some Pele dung!

    加上火山! (變成硫磺)

  • Triggerfish?

    砲彈魚?

  • Why not a blunt-pig-snout-triggerfish!

    何不來個豬鼻砲彈魚!

  • Humuhumunukunukuāpua'a.

    Humuhumunukunukuāpua'a

  • Impressive word-building, Hawai'i.

    夏威夷語的造字法則真是令人讚嘆!

  • So then, is Hawaii home to the longest word ever?

    所以,世界上最長的詞語是夏威夷語嗎?

  • It is

    是....

  • not.

    才怪

  • What about German or Greek from earlier?

    還是稍早提到的德語和希臘文呢?

  • Same strategy: compound, compound, compound...

    一樣的法則: 複合,複合,複合詞....

  • No record-breakers there either, unfortunately.

    可惜都還是沒有打破紀錄

  • The award goes to... drummrrrolllll....

    這個獎要頒給.....來點鼓聲....

  • A master-compounder-extraordinaire, a 16th-century writer,

    16世紀的一名作家,精通複合詞的非凡大師

  • Tirumalāmbā.

    Tirumalāmbā

  • She used compounding in her Sanskrit masterwork in which there is an entire chapter devoted

    她傑出的梵文作品裡就使用了複合詞,有一整個章節

  • to basically just saying, "So this guy passed through a part of Tamil Nadu."

    只為了要敘述 "所以這個傢伙經過了坦米爾納杜邦的一小部分地區"

  • But she gushed over that region, I mean she really laid it on thick.

    但她真的把那地方讚美得天花亂墜,我是說,真的是講得太誇張了

  • One (just one!) of the litany of flowery Sanskrit words she used to describe the place contains

    其中一個她用來形容那個地方的華麗梵文詞藻,

  • dozens and dozens of compounds.

    包含了非常非常多的複合詞

  • And that is how a Sanskrit compound made the Guiness World Records for longest word.

    而那就是梵文的複合詞如何打破金氏世界紀錄中最長的字

  • Are we having a moment here?

    我們要在這裡停一下嗎?

  • Is that thought crossing your mind too, like, theoretically couldn't we just keep adding

    你心裡面是不是有個想法,理論上難道我們不能就這樣一直增加

  • and adding hyphenated compounds infinitely?

    帶有連字號的複合詞嗎?

  • Welp, you're right!

    痾,你說對了!

  • Kind of unfair then, huh?

    這樣很不公平,嗯?

  • If that's how we're playing this, fine.

    如果我們是按照這樣來,那沒問題

  • It's a hyphenated verbal arms race.

    這就只是文字上的軍備競賽而已

  • The thing about words like these is they don't really get used.

    這些字就是不太會被用到

  • Truth is, even with compounding, Hawaiian and German and even Sanskrit aren't winning

    事實上,即使加上了複合詞,夏威夷語和德語甚至是梵文都不是

  • any average word length awards.

    平均詞語長度最長獎的得主

  • Around the world, languages where people actually use long words in nearly every single sentence?

    在全世界,有個語言在每個句子中都出現很長的字?

  • Oh, they build words very differently.

    噢,他們造字的方式非常不同

  • I should come back to that sometime.

    我應該再找某個時間來談

  • Stick around and subscribe for language!

    先別急著走,為了語言按下訂閱吧!

Some languages have freakishly long words.

某些語言總有一些又怪又長的單字

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 複合詞 夏威夷語 梵文 詞語 德語 夏威夷

你知道英文裡面最長的單字是什麼嗎?! (The Longest Word in Any Language)

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    Mike NiKao-Kusata   發佈於 2017 年 08 月 08 日
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