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  • Between 2008 and 2012,

    在2008到2012間

  • archaeologists excavated the rubble of an ancient hospital in England.

    考古學家挖開了英國一間古老醫院的磚瓦堆

  • In the process, they uncovered a number of skeletons.

    過程中,他們發現了幾具骨骸

  • One in particular belonged to a wealthy male

    一具是屬於一位富有的男性

  • who lived in the 11th or 12th century

    生於11或12世紀

  • and died of leprosy between the ages of 18 and 25.

    在18到25歲間死於麻瘋病

  • How do we know all this?

    我們是怎麼知道這些的呢?

  • Simply by examining some old, soil-caked bones?

    單純靠檢驗一些古老又腐爛成泥的骨頭嗎?

  • Even centuries after death,

    就算死了好幾世紀

  • skeletons carry unique features that tell us about their identities.

    骨骸仍記載了可以告訴我們身分的獨特特徵

  • And using modern tools and techniques, we can read those features as clues.

    藉由運用現代的工具和技術,我們可以將那些特徵視為線索

  • This is a branch of science known as biological anthropology.

    這個科學分支就是生物人類學

  • It allows researchers to piece together details about ancient individuals

    這讓研究者可以知道影響整個人口的古老個體,

  • and identify historical events that affected whole populations.

    以及用於鑑定的歷史事件等細節拼湊在一起

  • When researchers uncover a skeleton,

    當研究者發現一具骨骸

  • some of the first clues they gather, like age and gender,

    有些首要的線索便可以組合在一起,像是年齡和性別

  • lie in its morphology,

    藉由它的型態

  • which is the structure, appearance, and size of a skeleton.

    像結構、外觀和骨頭的尺寸

  • Bones, like the clavicle, stop growing at age 25,

    像是鎖骨在25歲時就會停止生長

  • so a skeleton with a clavicle that hasn't fully formed

    所以如果有個鎖骨還未完全長成

  • must be younger than that.

    那一定比25歲還年輕

  • Similarly, the plates in the cranium can continue fusing up to age 40,

    同樣地,頭蓋骨會持續接合起來直到40歲

  • and sometimes beyond.

    有時更晚

  • By combining these with some microscopic skeletal clues,

    結合這些骨頭上微小的線索

  • physical anthropologists can estimate an approximate age of death.

    物理人類學家就可以推算出大概的死亡年齡

  • Meanwhile, pelvic bones reveal gender.

    同時,骨盆會透露出性別

  • Biologically, female pelvises are wider, allowing women to give birth,

    在生物學上,為了生產,女性的骨盆較寬

  • where as males are narrower.

    而男性的則比較窄

  • Bones also betray the signs of ancient disease.

    骨頭也會透露出古代當時的疾病

  • Disorders like anemia leave their traces on the bones.

    像是貧血症在骨頭上會有痕跡

  • And the condition of teeth can reveal clues

    牙齒的狀況也會透露線索

  • to factors like diet and malnutrition,

    像是日常的飲食和營養失調

  • which sometimes correlate with wealth or poverty.

    這些有時跟貧富貴賤都有相關連

  • A protein called collagen can give us even more profound details.

    稱為膠原的蛋白質可以給我們更多詳盡的細節

  • The air we breathe,

    我們吸的空氣,

  • water we drink,

    喝的水

  • and food we eat

    以及吃的食物

  • leaves permanent traces in our bones and teeth

    裡面的化學混合物會在我們的骨頭和牙齒上留下永久的痕跡

  • in the form of chemical compounds.

    裡面的化學混合物會在我們的骨頭和牙齒上留下永久的痕跡

  • These compounds contain measurable quantities called isotopes.

    這些混合物包括可測量到的同位素

  • Stable isotopes in bone collagen and tooth enamel varies among mammals

    在哺乳類動物的骨頭膠原質及牙齒琺琅質中的同位素

  • depended on where they lived and what they ate.

    會根據他們的居住環境和攝取的食物而有所不同

  • So by analyzing these isotopes,

    所以藉由分析這些同位素

  • we can draw direct inferences regarding the diet and location of historic people.

    我們可以直接推斷出古時人們的日常飲食和位置

  • Not only that, but during life,

    不只飲食和位置,還包括生活期間

  • bones undergo a constant cycle of remodeling.

    骨頭會經歷不斷代謝重生的循環

  • So if someone moves from one place to another,

    所以如果某人移居到別的地方

  • bones synthesized after that move

    移居後,骨頭會合成

  • will also reflect the new isotopic signatures of the surrounding environment.

    反映出受到周圍環境所影響的新同位素

  • That means that skeletons can be used like migratory maps.

    那表示骨頭就像是一張遷徙地圖

  • For instance, between 1-650 AD,

    例如,西元1到650年

  • the great city of Teotihuacan in Mexico bustled with thousands of people.

    墨西哥的眾神之城 Teotihuacan,有上千個人口活躍其中

  • Researchers examined the isotope ratios in skeletons' tooth enamel,

    學者檢驗他們牙齒琺琅質中的同位素比例

  • which held details of their diets when they were young.

    那當中透露人們年輕時的飲食細節

  • They found evidence for significant migration into the city.

    他們發現了大量移居進城市的證據

  • A majority of the individuals were born elsewhere.

    大部分的人都是在別的地方出生

  • With further geological and skeletal analysis,

    藉由更多的地質以及骨骸分析

  • they may be able to map where those people came from.

    他們或許還可以畫出那些人們從哪裡遷徙來的地圖

  • That work in Teotihuacan is also an example of how bio-anthropologists

    人們在眾神之城的工作項目也提供生物人類學家

  • study skeletons in cemeteries and mass graves,

    研究墓地和亂葬崗中的骨骸範例

  • then analyze their similarities and differences.

    他們可以分析骨頭的相似和相異處

  • From that information, they can learn about cultural beliefs,

    他們可以從那些資訊當中了解文化信仰,

  • social norms,

    社交活動

  • wars,

    戰爭

  • and what caused their deaths.

    以及人的死因

  • Today, we use these tools to answer big questions about how forces,

    今天,我們運用這些工具去解釋一些重要的問題

  • like migration and disease,

    像是遷徙及疾病等外力

  • shape the modern world.

    如何形塑現代的社會

  • DNA analysis is even possible in some relatively well-preserved ancient remains.

    DNA分析也可能用在相對保存良好的古代遺骸

  • That's helping us understand how diseases like tuberculosis

    那可以幫助我們了解像是肺結核這類的疾病

  • have evolved over the centuries

    在超過好幾世紀的時間中是如何變化的

  • so we can build better treatments for people today.

    這樣我們就可以為現今的人們提供更好的治療

  • Ancient skeletons can tell us a surprisingly great deal about the past.

    古代的骨骸會告訴我們一些關於過去令人驚訝的事蹟

  • So if your remains are someday buried intact,

    所以如果你的骨骸哪一天被原封不動完整的保存了

  • what might archaeologists of the distant future learn from them?

    在遙遠的未來,考古學家會從中學到什麼呢?

Between 2008 and 2012,

在2008到2012間

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 骨頭 牙齒 移居 線索 混合物

【TED-Ed】從古代骨骸中我們學到什麼? (What can we learn from an ancient skeleton?)

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    羅月鳳 發佈於 2017 年 07 月 21 日
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