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  • Okay, so I try to recycle.

    好的,我試著要做回收

  • I've got my grocery tote bag.

    我拿了我的托特購物袋

  • I even have solar panels on my roof.

    我甚至在屋頂裝了太陽能面板

  • But in the back of my mind, I can't help thinking:

    但在我腦海深處總忍不住要想:

  • Does any of this actually make a difference when it comes to climate change?

    這些真的對氣候變遷有所助益嗎?

  • If you read the headlines,

    如果你有讀新聞頭條

  • you quickly begin to see that climate change is a massive problem.

    你會發現氣候變遷是個很大的問題

  • So is my reusable bag really going to change the world?

    所以,我的環保袋真的能夠改變世界嗎?

  • But not everyone feels that way.

    並不是每個人都有這種疑慮

  • This is all of my trash from the past four years.

    這是我這四年來的垃圾

  • Oh, my god!

    哦,我的天啊!

  • This is Lauren Singer.

    這是 Lauren Singer

  • She runs a website where she gives tips and answers questions about living a zero-waste life.

    她經營一個提供「零廢棄物」生活點子並幫大家解決疑難雜症的網站

  • Okay, so you've got tiny little ends and bits and things

    好,你有這些又小又少的廢棄物

  • Yeah.

    是的

  • Are you really telling me that everything else that you use for four years

    你真的要告訴我你這四年所用的每樣東西都---

  • is

    是---

  • you've found some other use for?

    都能找到其他用途嗎?

  • Totally, is compostable, infinitely reusable, or 100% easily recyclable.

    絕對的,能變成堆肥,可無限再利用,或是能百分之百再生

  • You may look at the extremely eco-friendly way Lauren is living and find it inspiring.

    你可以看見 Lauren 過著非常環保的生活方式,這非常令人佩服

  • Or maybe, like me, you're totally skeptical.

    也或者,你和我一樣抱持懷疑的態度

  • But a lot of what she's doing is actually pretty simple.

    不過她所做的大部分都不難做到

  • When she wants coffee, she brings her own cup.

    當她想喝咖啡,她用她自己帶的杯子

  • Or let's say she wants to buy a pastry; she'll put it into a reusable cotton bag.

    或是當她想買糕點的時候,她會用可重複使用的棉袋

  • A safety razor instead of plastic ones.

    用安全剃刀而不是那種塑膠製的

  • There's all this disposable stuff in our lives that we're not even thinking about.

    我們生活中充斥著一大堆這種一次性的可拋式商品

  • And what Lauren's done is find some easy substitutes.

    而 Lauren 所做的只是找到簡單的替代品

  • Everything else ends up in the jar.

    所有東西最後都進到這個玻璃罐裡了

  • This is macaroni-and-cheese packaging,

    這是起司通心粉的包裝

  • and this was like, four years ago, right when I started.

    大概四年前我開始這樣做

  • That was, that was my weekend at Dad's house.

    那是一個周末,在我爸的房子裡

  • So these are

    這些是...

  • Oh, I know what these are.

    哦,我知道這些是什麼

  • Plastic straws.

    塑膠吸管

  • Hot chocolate.

    熱巧克力

  • This was a bad day, wasn't it, for you?

    那天對你來說應該很糟吧?

  • No, actually someone sent that to me in the mail.

    不會,事實上那是有人寄給我的

  • These aren't huge trash problems.

    這些不是太大的垃圾問題

  • The EPA isn't up in arms about plastic straws.

    環保局並沒有因為塑膠吸管而發愁

  • But you can see how these little bits of waste can really add up.

    但是你可以看見這些廢棄物是如何一點點累積起來

  • The United States is the No. 1 trash-producing country in the world.

    美國是世界上最會製造垃圾的國家

  • If every country lived like the US,

    如果每個國家都像美國這樣過生活

  • we'd need over four Earths to make all the stuff we consume.

    我們就需要四個地球來裝我們消耗出來的東西

  • Do you think little things make a big difference?

    你認為小事情就能做出大改變嗎?

  • Totally.

    絕對可以

  • If you reduce single-use coffee cups from your routine and you're a daily coffee drinker,

    如果你減少掉每天早上用來裝咖啡的那一個紙杯

  • that's 365 cups per year.

    一年就少用了365個紙杯

  • That's not an insignificant change.

    這絕不是個小改變

  • If every single person did that,

    如果每個人都這麼做

  • that's a massive shift toward a more sustainable future.

    就能朝向永續的未來邁近非常大的一步

  • And good policy can encourage this kind of shift.

    而好的政策可以鼓勵這種轉變

  • Take plastic bags.

    拿塑膠袋為例

  • Americans throw away about 100 billion a year.

    美國人每年丟掉大約一千億個塑膠袋

  • But California is trying to change this.

    但加州想要改變這件事情

  • Three communities have found that if you offer a plastic bag for free,

    有三個社區發現如果你提供一個免費的塑膠袋

  • 75 percent of people will take it.

    有 75% 的人會使用它

  • But if you charge 10 cents for a bag, only 16 percent take it.

    但如果每一個塑膠袋要收取十分錢的話,就只有 16% 的人會用

  • It's subtle, but this small fee makes people question whether they really need a bag.

    這看起來沒甚麼,但是收取這小小的費用會讓人們考慮自己是否確實需要一個塑膠袋

  • And it reminds people to bring their own.

    並且可以提醒大家自己帶一個

  • Communities across the country are beginning to adopt this policy,

    全國各地的社區都開始採用這項政策

  • and it could create a large-scale shift.

    就可以造成非常大規模的轉變

  • If New York City had a bag fee,

    如果紐約市收取使用塑膠袋的費用

  • we could save roughly 7 billion plastic bags a year.

    我們一年可以減少大約70億個塑膠袋的使用量

  • And without good policy,

    而缺少好的政策

  • it can be really hard to do the right thing.

    要想推動大家做對的事就變得很困難

  • Take recycling: in a place like Missoula, Montana, where I live,

    拿資源回收來講,在我住的蒙大拿州米蘇拉縣

  • you can't recycle glass because doing so, it turns out, costs my city too much.

    你不能回收玻璃因為這樣會造成整個城市過大的負擔

  • I think this is a fundamental flaw of governments and their relationship with businesses.

    我覺得這是政府與企業間關係上一個根本的缺陷

  • Businesses aren't held accountable for products that they're putting into the waste stream.

    企業沒有為他們所製造出來的大量廢棄物負起責任

  • So they're allowed to sell glass in Montana,

    他們可以在蒙大拿販售玻璃

  • where there's no adequate recycling,

    那裏並沒有適當的回收機制

  • and completely wipe their hands free

    而企業完全不必負責任

  • and not have to subsidize any infrastructure to adequately recycle their product.

    而且沒有任何配套措施來好好的回收他們的產品

  • So that responsibility for disposing of that product falls on you,

    所以處理廢棄品的責任就落在你們身上

  • as a resident and the government.

    身為當地居民以及其政府

  • That is completely unfair.

    這非常不公平

  • The funny thing is, we used to have a really great system for dealing with glass.

    好笑的是,我們原本有一套很棒的玻璃回收處理機制

  • After you were done with a bottle, you would just return it.

    也就是在瓶子裡的東西用完以後,你可以還回去

  • Companies would clean it and use it again and again.

    產品公司可以清洗乾淨然後重複使用

  • Around the 1950s, companies began experimenting with single-use bottles and cans.

    大約在 1950 年代,各家公司開始研究生產可拋棄式的瓶子和罐子

  • Lots of other things became single-use too.

    許多其他東西也都變成了可拋棄式的了

  • Like Don Draper here, people were just tossing their garbage wherever.

    然後人們就像廣告中一樣到處亂丟垃圾

  • And all this trash started to annoy people.

    這些隨處可見的垃圾開始使人們惱怒

  • Do you remember that very famous commercial?

    你還記得那個很有名的廣告嗎?

  • Of this Native American,

    一位美國的原住民

  • he's like, going down a river and there's all this waste, and tear goes down.

    在河邊看到了非常多的廢棄物,然後他流下了眼淚

  • People start pollution; people can stop it.

    人們汙染了這個環境,也可以停止這樣的傷害

  • And it's often credited for quote unquote "cleaning up America"

    而且我們常說要「清理美國」

  • because we were reminded that we need to pick up our trash.

    因為我們常常被提醒要隨手撿起垃圾

  • You see this commercial every Earth Day,

    每年地球日都會看到這個廣告

  • but it was actually funded by a group of companies,

    但這個廣告事實上正是由一堆公司贊助播出的

  • many of them from the can and bottle industry.

    多半都是製造瓶瓶罐罐的工業

  • They were worried that states would ban their single-use products

    他們擔心政府會立法禁止可拋棄式的產品

  • because people were getting sick of all the trash.

    因為大眾開始對這種廢棄物感到厭惡

  • So they created this incredible ad,

    所以他們製作了這個廣告

  • which is very powerful, which made us pick up trash,

    廣告本身非常震撼人心,希望能讓人們撿起垃圾

  • which is actually trash that they were creating

    而這些垃圾正是他們製造出來

  • and selling to us.

    然後賣給我們的

  • Yeah

    是啊

  • And profiting off of

    並從中獲利

  • It actually shifted.

    這真的被轉移了

  • That was the moment.

    就在那一刻

  • I'm not suggesting that you shouldn't pick up trash.

    我不是說我們不用撿起垃圾

  • But as far as I can tell,

    但是我必須說

  • it was the first moment where we shifted this responsibility

    當我們買這類產品的那一刻起,處理廢棄物的責任

  • from the person selling to the person buying.

    就從賣方移到買方身上了

  • That needs to change really quick.

    這真的需要儘快改變

  • And once it does, we won't even have to talk about providing adequate recycling systems

    而且一旦改變開始,我們甚至不用討論提供適當回收機制的問題了

  • because businesses will create products that are easily and conveniently recyclable

    因為企業就會開始生產可以輕鬆便利進行回收的產品

  • because it will make more economic sense for them

    因為那樣會更有經濟效益

  • if that burden is put on the business instead of the consumer and the government.

    如果將這個重擔回歸給企業而不是加諸在消費者以及政府身上

  • This gets to the heart of the matter.

    回到問題的根本核心上

  • Climate change is a giant problem.

    氣候變遷是一個非常嚴重的問題

  • We're not going to solve it without government and industry taking action.

    如果企業和政府不採取行動,我們不可能解決這個問題

  • We live in this complicated web of carbon emissions.

    我們居住在這個佈滿碳排放問題的複雜網絡之中

  • I mean, every single thing we do as individuals creates pollution.

    我是說,每一個人做的每件事都會製造汙染

  • It's overwhelming.

    這是非常嚴重的

  • But there's one simple policy that could make going green easier for all of us,

    但只要一個好的政策就很容易達成綠生活

  • and it could have an enormous impact: we could put a price on carbon.

    並且可以造成很大的衝擊:我們可以為碳排放標價

  • Right now, companies can emit as much pollution as they like.

    現在,企業可以隨心所欲地排放這些汙染源

  • We're basically treating our sky like a giant sewer.

    我們的天空就像個大型的排水溝

  • As long as it's free to pollute,

    只要還可以隨意地製造汙染

  • no one's going to stop doing it.

    誰都不會停下這種作法

  • You can't just go out there and find one source or one factory, one business,

    你不可能跑出去隨便找一個源頭,一家工廠,一間公司

  • and shut it down and clean up your air.

    然後把它關閉就可以讓空氣清新了

  • Everybody in a sense is part of the problem.

    在某種意義上,每個人對這個問題都有責任

  • If companies had to pay for the carbon they produce,

    如果企業必須為他們所排放的碳付錢

  • it would encourage better behavior.

    就可以鼓勵他們有更好的作為

  • This is what California did in 2006.

    這正是加州在 2006 年所做的事情

  • The state set a cap on carbon and other greenhouse gas emissions,

    這個州設置了碳排放的上限,還有其他造成溫室效應的廢氣排放限制

  • and they lowered it over the next few years.

    而且過去幾年這些氣體排放量都有減低

  • Companies could either reduce their pollution or pay for carbon allowances.

    公司可以選擇減少他們的碳排放或付錢

  • And so far, it's worked.

    而且到目前為止,成效很好

  • The state is on track to hit its 2020 goal

    加州正在為達成2020 年設定的目標而努力

  • and they are looking to cut emissions by another 40% by 2030.

    而且他們打算在 2030 年以前再減少 40% 的排放量

  • Now, California isn't perfect, but this is a huge reduction in emissions.

    加州目前還不夠完美,但是他們在減少碳排放上有顯著的成果

  • It's really larger than anything a person could achieve on their own.

    這真的比個人單憑一己之力所能完成的要大的多了

  • The fears that were raised by opponents have not come to pass.

    那些因反對聲浪所造成的恐懼還沒有完全消除

  • We've not seen an exodus of industries from California

    但我們並沒有看到加州的工業大批出走

  • or people unable to drive their cars.

    也沒有任何人無法駕駛車輛

  • And as the state cut emissions,

    而且加州在減少排放量後

  • California's economy has actually grown by 12%,

    其經濟成長了 12%

  • outpacing the national average.

    超過全國成長的平均值

  • Going green at this scale isn't an overnight process.

    這種環保的進程並非一蹴可成

  • People like Mary Nichols have spent decades fighting for better policies.

    像Mary Nichols這樣的人就 為了更好的政策奔走幾十年

  • We certainly have enjoyed a lot of political support from all sides.

    從各層面來看,我們確實享有政治上所給予的支持

  • I think that's largely just because the public in California has demanded that

    我想加州的成功大部分來自於大眾強烈要求

  • clean, healthy air is something that everybody ought to have access to.

    要有乾淨、健康的空氣,而這也應該是所有人應該享有的

  • So individual climate action does matter,

    所以每一個為氣候變遷所採取的行動都很重要

  • in the sense that it creates cultural change.

    這在某種意義上造成文化上的改變

  • When Lauren makes a video tutorial or shares one of her zero-waste tips on Instagram,

    當 Lauren 在 Instagram 上教導或分享她的零廢棄生活點子時

  • it has a social ripple effect.

    會有社會漣漪效應

  • Do you want everyone to live the lifestyle you're living?

    你希望每個人都跟你有一樣的生活方式嗎?

  • I would never tell anyone how to live their life.

    我不會告訴任何人該怎麼過他們的生活

  • But I'd like to show everyone that there are options.

    我只是想讓大家知道可以有其他的選擇

  • That the way that we're told we have to live in this hyper-consumeristic way

    我們一直以來過著這種過度消費的生活

  • isn't the only way we have to live in order to live in a modern world with modern luxuries.

    但不是我們擁有奢侈的現代生活的唯一途徑

  • Folks like Lauren really help build the bottom-up support you need for large-scale transformation.

    像 Lauren 這樣,可以建立起一種由下而上的支撐系統,正是大規模轉型所需要的

  • Look, climate policy can be complicated, and sometimes it can be boring.

    聽著, 氣候變遷的政策或許是複雜的,並且有時候也滿無趣的

  • But we need it to solve global warming.

    但我們需要這樣的政策來解決全球暖化問題

  • And to get better policies like a price on carbon,

    而且想要有像為碳排放付費這樣比較好的政策

  • you need to have public support.

    需要靠大家一起來支持

  • Because politicians and businesses won't take action

    因為政治人物和企業不會採取行動,除非人民能團結一致

  • unless people come together and demand it.

    並且提出強烈的要求

  • So you may not be able to fit all your trash into a Mason jar.

    你或許不能把你所有的垃圾裝進一個梅森瓶中

  • But psychologists have been developing "green nudges" that trick us into being more green.

    但是心理學家已經發展出所謂的「綠色力」來驅使我們進入更環保的生活方式

  • Want to know whether they are working their magic on you?

    想知道它們是否奏效嗎?

  • Visit climate.universityofcalifornia.edu to learn more.

    請上 climate.universityofcalifornia.edu 看看更多相關資訊

Okay, so I try to recycle.

好的,我試著要做回收

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 Vox 排放 廢棄物 回收 垃圾 塑膠袋

綠生活比你想像的簡單 (Going green shouldn't be this hard)

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    Janice Yeh 發佈於 2017 年 07 月 24 日
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