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  • Alright, so, you probably don't realize

    好的,你們可能並不瞭解

  • that right now, you're actually looking at something quite rare.

    現在,大家正在看的其實是一個很稀有的動物

  • Because I am a millennial computer scientist book author

    我是千禧年電腦科學家書籍作者

  • standing on a TEDx stage,

    現在站在 TEDx 的講台上

  • and yet, I've never had a social media account.

    但是,我並沒有社群媒體帳號

  • How this happened was actually somewhat random.

    這樣的狀況其實是無意間發生的

  • Social media first came onto my radar when I was at college,

    社群媒體在我大學時期首次出現

  • my sophomore year of college,

    那時我大學二年級

  • just as when Facebook arrived at our campus.

    Facebook 出現在我們校園中

  • And at the time, which was right after the first dotcom bust,

    當時正逢第一次的網際網路泡沫

  • I had had a dorm room business, I'd had to shut it down in the bust,

    我原本在宿舍有個事業,但因為網際網路泡沫,我必須中斷我的工作

  • and then, suddenly, this other kid from Harvard, named Mark,

    然後,突然間,有個名為 Mark 的哈佛小子

  • had this product called Facebook and people being excited about it.

    發明了叫做 Facebook 的產品讓所有人為之瘋狂

  • So in sort of a fit of somewhat immature professional jealousy,

    於是,在某種不成熟的專業嫉妒之下

  • I said, "I'm not going to use this thing.

    我說:「我是不會使用這個東西的

  • I'm not gonna help this kid's business; whatever it's going to amount to."

    不管它怎麼發展,我是不會幫助這個小子的事業的」

  • Soon as I go along my life, I look up not long later,

    我過著自己的日子的不久後,我抬頭看看這個社會

  • and I see everyone I know is really hooked on this thing.

    我發現我認識的每個人都迷上 Facebook 了

  • And from the clarity you can get

    旁觀者清

  • when you have some objectivity, some perspective on it,

    當我帶有一些客觀意見、一些對事物的看法時

  • I realized this seems a little bit dangerous.

    我發現這其實有點危險

  • So I never signed up.

    所以我從沒申請過帳號

  • I've never had a social media account since.

    我從一開始就沒有社群媒體帳號

  • So I'm here for two reasons; I want to deliver two messages.

    所以我今天在這裡有兩個原因;我想傳達兩個訊息

  • The first message I want to deliver

    我想傳達的第一個訊息是

  • is that even though I've never had a social media account,

    即使我沒有社群媒體帳號

  • I'm OK, you don't have to worry.

    我依舊過得很好,大家不必擔心我

  • It turns out I still have friends,

    我還是有朋友

  • I still know what's going on in the world;

    我還是知道世界上發生了什麼事

  • as a computer scientist

    身為一名電腦科學家

  • I still collaborate with people all around the world,

    我還是可以和全世界的人們合作

  • I'm still regularly exposed serendipitously to interesting ideas,

    我還是經常可以不經意地吸收到很多有趣的想法

  • and I rarely describe myself as lacking entertainment options.

    而且,我的生活幾乎不會缺乏樂子

  • So I've been OK, but I'd go even farther and say

    所以我一直過得很好,但是我要進一步說

  • not only I am OK without social media but I think I'm actually better off.

    沒有社群媒體,我不只過得很好,我甚至認為自己過得更好

  • I think I'm happier, I think I find more sustainability in my life,

    我覺得自己更快樂,我的生活中有更多可以持續的樂趣

  • and I think I've been more successful professionally

    我覺得我在專業度上更成功

  • because I don't use social media.

    這些都歸因於我沒有使用社群媒體

  • So my second goal here on stage

    我站在這個講台上的第二個目的

  • is try to convince more of you to believe the same thing.

    就是試著說服在座的更多人,一起來相信這件事

  • Let's see if I could actually convince more of you

    就讓我們看看我是否真的能說服在座的各位

  • that you too would be better off if you quit social media.

    去相信退出社群媒體能讓你過得更好

  • So, if the theme of this TEDx event is "Future Trends,"

    所以,如果 TEDx 的主題是「未來的趨勢」

  • I guess, in other words, this would be my vision of the future;

    我猜想,換句話說,這會是我未來藍圖的其中之一

  • it would be one in which fewer people actually use social media.

    未來,只會有極少數人使用社群媒體

  • That's a big claim, I think I need to back it up.

    這是一個很大的主張,我想我需要替它背書

  • So I thought, what I would do

    所以我認為,我會做的是

  • is take the three most common objections I hear

    列出在我建議大家退出社群媒體時

  • when I suggest to people that they quit social media,

    最常聽到的 3 個反對意見

  • and then for each of these objections, I'll try to defuse the hype

    並針對每個反對意見去破解迷思

  • and see if I can actually push in some more reality.

    看看我是否能讓大家看得更實際一點

  • This is the first most common objection I hear.

    這是我最常聽到的一個反對意見

  • That's not a hermit,

    這不是隱士

  • that's actually a hipster web developer down from 8th Street. I'm not sure.

    這其實是第八街的文青網站開發人員,我不確定 (註:紐約街道都以數字命名)

  • Hipster or hermit? Sometimes it's hard to tell.

    文青或隱士?有時候其實很難界定

  • This first objection goes as follows,

    第一個反對意見如下:

  • "Cal, social media is one of the fundamental technologies

    「卡爾,社群媒體是 21 世紀的

  • of the 21st century.

    基本技術之一

  • To reject social media would be an act of extreme Luddism.

    拒絕社群媒體將會是極端排斥現代化的行為

  • It would be like riding to work on a horse or using a rotary phone.

    就像是騎馬上班或使用轉盤電話

  • I can't take such a big stance in my life."

    我無法在生活中表態這樣大的立場」

  • My reaction to that objection is I think that it's nonsense.

    我對這個反對意見的反應是,我認為這是無稽之談

  • Social media is not a fundamental technology.

    社群媒體並不是基本技術

  • It leverages some fundamental technologies,

    它運用了一些基本技術

  • but it's better understood as this:

    但它更適合被這樣理解:

  • Which is to say, it's a source of entertainment,

    也就是說,它是娛樂的來源

  • it's an entertainment product.

    它是娛樂的產物

  • The way that technologist Jaron Lanier puts it

    就像科技專家 Jaron Lanier 所說的

  • is that these companies offer you shiny treats

    這些公司提供你迷人的待遇

  • in exchange for minutes of your attention and bites of your personal data,

    來交換你幾分鐘的注意和個人資料

  • which can then be packaged up and sold.

    然後將這些東西打包出售

  • So to say that you don't use social media should not be a large social stance,

    所以說,不使用社群媒體並不是什麼重要的社會立場

  • it's just rejecting one form of entertainment for others.

    只不過是拒絕一種娛樂形式罷了

  • There should be no more controversial than saying,

    應該沒有比這幾句話更有爭議的說法了:

  • "I don't like newspapers, I like to get my news from magazines,"

    「我不喜歡報紙,我喜歡從雜誌上取得資訊」

  • or "I prefer to watch cable series, as I opposed to network television series."

    或「我比較喜歡看有線電視影集,而不是網路電視連續劇」

  • It's not a major political or social stance

    不使用這個產品並不代表

  • to say you don't use this product.

    任何重大的政治或社會立場

  • My use of the slot machine image up here also is not accidental

    我這邊使用老虎機圖片也不是偶然的

  • because if you look a little bit closer at these technologies,

    因為如果你仔細地些看這些科技

  • it's not just that they're a source of entertainment

    它們不僅僅是娛樂的來源

  • but they're a somewhat unsavory source of entertainment.

    它們也多多少少是令人不快的娛樂來源

  • We now know that many of the major social media companies

    我們現在知道,許多主要的社群媒體公司

  • hire individuals called "attention engineers"

    雇用了一些名為注意力工程師的人

  • who borrow principles from Las Vegas casino gambling,

    他們借鑒了拉斯維加斯賭場博弈的方法

  • among other places,

    在其他地方

  • to try to make these products as addictive as possible.

    盡可能地讓人們對這些產品上癮

  • That is the desired use case of these products:

    這就是這些產品期望被使用的狀況:

  • It's that you use it in an addictive fashion because that maximizes the profit

    藉由你上癮使用的方式,這些產品能夠透過

  • that can be extracted from your attention and data.

    你的注意力和資料數據,讓利潤最大化

  • So it's not a fundamental technology,

    所以,這並不是一種基本技術

  • it's just a source of entertainment, one among many,

    而是眾多娛樂來源的其中之一

  • and it's somewhat unsavory if you look a little bit closer.

    如果你夠仔細注意的話,會發現它其實某種程度上是令人不快的

  • Here's the second common objection I hear

    接下來要說的是我常聽到的第二個反對意見

  • when I suggest that people quit social media.

    當我建議大家戒除社群媒體時

  • The objection goes as follows,

    反對意見是這樣的

  • "Cal, I can't quit social media

    「卡爾,我沒辦法戒除社群媒體

  • because it is vital to my success in the 21st century economy.

    因為它對於我能在 21 世紀的經濟中成功是很重要的

  • If I do not have a well-cultivated social media brand,

    如果我沒有一個良好的社群媒體品牌

  • people won't know who I am, people won't be able to find me,

    大家不會知道我是誰,也不可能找得到我

  • opportunities won't come my way,

    我就沒有任何機會

  • and I will effectively disappear from the economy."

    我就會從整個經濟體中消失」

  • Again my reaction is once again:

    再次地,我的反應還是一樣的

  • This objection also is nonsense.

    這個反對意見也是無稽之談

  • I recently published this book

    我最近出版了一本書

  • that draws on multiple different strands of evidence

    借鑒了很多不同的證據

  • to make the point that, in a competitive 21st century economy,

    來突顯一個重點:在 21 世紀競爭強烈的經濟體中

  • what the market values

    市場所重視的

  • is the ability to produce things that are rare and are valuable.

    是生產稀有且有價值事物的能力

  • If you produce something that's rare and valuable,

    如果你生產一個稀有且有價值的事物

  • the market will value that.

    市場就會重視它

  • What the market dismisses, for the most part,

    大部分情形下,市場會拋棄的

  • are activities that are easy to replicate and produce a small amount of value.

    是易於複製且價值低廉的生產活動

  • Well, social media use is the epitome

    而社群媒體就是這樣的縮影

  • of an easy to replicate activity that doesn't produce a lot of value;

    是易於複製且價值低廉的生產活動

  • it's something that any six-year-old with a smartphone can do.

    是任何一個有智慧型手機的六歲小孩都做得到的事

  • By definition,

    從定義上來看

  • the market is not going to give a lot of value to those behaviors.

    這些行為不會為市場帶來很大的價值

  • It's instead going to reward the deep, concentrated work required

    相反地,市場會獎勵需要真正技能以生產價值

  • to build real skills and to apply those skills to produce things

    的專注及深層的工作

  • - like a craftsman -

    就像工匠一樣

  • that are rare and that are valuable.

    是很稀有且很有價值的

  • To put it another way: if you can write an elegant algorithm,

    換句話說:如果你可以寫出一個優雅的運算法

  • if you can write a legal brief that can change a case,

    如果你可以寫出一個改變案例結果的法律聲明

  • if you can write a thousand words of prose

    如果你可以寫出能吸引讀者一口氣讀到最後

  • that's going to fixate a reader right to the end;

    的千字的散文

  • if you can look at a sea of ambiguous data

    如果你可以運用統計學的方法

  • and apply statistics, and pull out insights

    從一堆模擬兩可的數據中提供一些

  • that could transform a business strategy,

    可以轉換企業策略的洞察

  • if you can do these type of activities which require deep work,

    如果你能夠做這些需要深度工作

  • that produce outcomes that are rare and valuable,

    並產生稀有且有價值的結果

  • people will find you.

    別人就會自己來找你

  • You will be able to write your own ticket.

    你可以自己開條件

  • You will be able to build the foundation of a meaningful and successful professional life,

    創造一個有意義且成功的職涯基礎

  • regardless of how many Instagram followers you have.

    而不在於你擁有多少 Instagram 粉絲

  • This is the third comment objection I hear

    以下要介紹我聽到的第三個反對意見

  • when I suggest to people that they quit social media;

    當我建議大家戒除社群媒體時

  • in some sense, I think it might be one of the most important.

    在某種意義上,我認為這可能是最重要的一個反對意見

  • This objection goes as follows,

    這個反對意見是這樣的

  • "Cal, maybe I agree, maybe you're right; it's not a fundamental technology.

    「卡爾,也許我同意你的說法,也許你是對的,社群媒體不是基礎技術

  • Maybe using social media is not at the core of my professional success.

    也許使用社群媒體並不是我工作成功的核心

  • But, you know what?

    但是,你知道嗎?

  • It's harmless, I have some fun on it - weird: Twitter's funny -

    它是沒有壞處的呀,我在社群媒體中獲得很多樂趣,很奇怪吧: Twitter 很有趣

  • I don't even use it that much, I'm a first adopter,

    我並沒有常常去看,我喜歡嘗試新鮮事物

  • it's kind of interesting to try it out,

    試試新鮮的東西挺有趣的

  • and maybe I might miss out something if I don't use it.

    如果我沒有看的話,我可能會錯過一些有趣的事物

  • What's the harm?"

    有什麼壞處?」

  • Again, I look back and I say: this objection also is nonsense.

    再一次,我仍會說:這個反對意見也是無稽之談

  • In this case, what it misses is what I think is a very important reality

    在這個情況下,社群媒體所沒有的是我認為非常重要的現實

  • that we need to talk about more frankly,

    我們必須更坦誠地說

  • which is that social media brings with it

    社群媒體所帶來的是

  • multiple, well-documented, and significant harms.

    多重的、記載詳實的、顯著的傷害

  • We actually have to confront these harms head-on

    事實上,我們必須正面地對抗這些傷害

  • when trying to make decisions

    當我們決定

  • about whether or not we embrace this technology

    是否擁抱這個科技

  • and let it into our lives.

    並讓它進入我們的生活時

  • One of these harms that we know this technology brings

    我們知道科技所帶來的其中一個傷害

  • has to do with your professional success.

    和你工作的成功有關

  • I just argued before that the ability to focus intensely,

    就像我稍早前說過的一樣,密集的專注力

  • to produce things that are rare and valuable,

    對於生產稀有且有價值的事物

  • to hone skills the market place value on,

    對於擁有市場所重視的技能來說

  • that this is what will matter in our economy.

    是影響經濟之重要的一環

  • But right before that,

    但是,就在這之前

  • I argued that social media tools are designed to be addictive.

    我認為社群媒體工具是被設計成令人成癮的

  • The actual designed desired-use case of these tools

    這些工具真正被設計的期望使用狀況

  • is that you fragment your attention as much as possible

    是儘可能地在你醒著的時候

  • throughout your waking hours;

    分散你的注意力

  • that's how these tools are designed to use.

    這就是設計這些工具的目的

  • We have a growing amount of research which tells us

    越來越多的研究顯示

  • that if you spend large portions of your day

    如果你白天花了大部分的時間

  • in a state of fragmented attention -

    處於注意力分散的狀態

  • so large portions of your day, it will constantly break up your attention

    那麼大部分的時間,你的注意力就很容易會被分散

  • to take a quick glance, to just check, - "I'm just quickly looking at Instagram" -

    快速瀏覽一下、看一下 - 「我只是很快的看一下 Instagram」之類的

  • that this can permanently reduce your capacity for concentration.

    這可能會使你的注意力永久地下降

  • In other words, you could permanently reduce your capacity

    換句話說,你可能會永遠降低你的能力

  • to do exactly the type of deep effort

    去執行那些需要深層努力的工作

  • that we're finding to be more and more necessary

    那些我們認為對於持續增長、有競爭力的經濟體來說

  • in an increasingly competitive economy.

    愈來愈重要的工作

  • So social media use is not harmless,

    所以社群媒體並不是沒有壞處的

  • it can actually have a significant negative impact

    它實際上會在你試圖在經濟中求生存時對你的能力

  • on your ability to thrive in the economy.

    產生顯著的負面衝擊

  • I'm especially worried about this when we look at the younger generation coming up,

    在看到現在年輕的這一輩時,我特別擔心這件事

  • which is the most saturated in this technology.

    因為科技在這一代是最為滲透的

  • If you lose your ability to sustain concentration,

    如果你失去了專注力

  • you're going to become less and less relevant to this economy.

    你將會和整個經濟體漸行漸遠

  • There's also psychological harms that are well documented

    對於社群媒體帶來的心理危害

  • that social media brings, that we do need to address.

    也被詳實記載著,我們不能忽視

  • We know from the research literature that the more you use social media,

    研究文獻顯示,當你越沉浸於社群媒體

  • the more likely you are to feel lonely or isolated.

    你越可能感覺孤單或受到孤立

  • We know that the constant exposure

    我們知道,常常看到

  • to your friends carefully curated, positive portrayals of their life

    自己朋友們精心規劃的、正面積極的生活時

  • can leave you to feel inadequate, and can increase rates of depression.

    會讓你感覺到自己的不足,並增加憂鬱的比率

  • And something I think we're going to be hearing more about in the near future

    而且,我覺得不久的將來,我們會聽到更多

  • is that there's a fundamental mismatch

    基礎上的不相稱:

  • between the way our brains are wired

    關於我們大腦接受刺激的方式

  • and this behavior of exposing yourself to stimuli

    及在整個清醒的時間將大腦

  • with intermittent rewards throughout all of your waking hours.

    暴露於間歇性刺激下的行為

  • It's one thing to spend a couple of hours at a slot machine in Las Vegas,

    讓我們舉個例子來說,你可以在拉斯維加斯玩幾個小時的吃角子老虎機

  • but if you bring one with you, and you pull that handle all day long,

    但是,如果你帶了一台回家,整天拉吃角子老虎機的把手

  • from when you wake up to when you go to bed: we're not wired from it.

    從你一醒來就開始拉,一直拉到要上床睡覺:腦子會告訴你,這不是個正常的行為

  • It short-circuits the brain,

    這樣的行為會讓你的大腦短路

  • and we're starting to find it has actual cognitive consequences,

    我們會發現這個行為有實際的認知後果

  • one of them being this sort of pervasive background hum of anxiety.

    其中一個就是吵雜不休的嗡嗡背景聲

  • The canary in the coal mine for this issue is actually college campuses.

    這個不祥的徵兆其實就發生在大學校園裡

  • If you talk to mental health experts on college campuses, they'll tell you

    如果你在大學校園裡和心理健康專家聊天,他們會告訴你

  • that along with the rise of ubiquitous smartphone use

    隨著校園裡學生無處不使用的智慧型手機

  • and social media use among the students on the campus,

    和社群媒體的興起

  • came an explosion of anxiety-related disorders on those campuses.

    校園中爆發了焦慮相關的心理疾病

  • That's the canary in the coal mine.

    這就是不祥的徵兆

  • This type of behavior is a mismatch for our brain wiring

    這種行為和大腦連線不相稱的問題

  • and can make you feel miserable.

    會讓你產生淒慘的感覺

  • So there's real cost to social media use;

    那麼,讓我們來談談使用社群媒體真正的代價:

  • which means when you're trying to decide, "Should I use this or not?",

    也就是說,當你試著決定「我是否應該使用社群媒體?」時

  • saying it's harmless is not enough.

    僅僅說社群媒體有害是不足以讓你做出決定的

  • You actually have to identify a significantly positive, clear benefit

    事實上你必須定義出遠遠超過這些潛在、完全顯明易見的害處

  • that can outweigh these potential, completely non-trivial harms.

    的一個顯著、正面、清楚的好處

  • People often ask,

    大家常常會問

  • "OK, but what is life like without social media?"

    「可以呀,但是沒有社群媒體的生活會像什麼?」

  • That can actually be a little bit scary to think about.

    用想的實際上有點可怕

  • What I've found from people I know who've gone through this process,

    根據經歷過這個過程的人們說

  • there can be a few weeks that are difficult

    前幾個禮忙確實不好過

  • that actually is like a true detox process.

    其實就像一個真正的戒毒過程

  • The first two weeks can be uncomfortable:

    前兩個禮拜會不舒服:

  • you feel a little bit anxious, you feel like you're missing a limb.

    你會覺得有點焦慮,就像你失去了一隻手或一隻腳一樣

  • But after that, things settle down,

    但是過了之後,一切都會好轉

  • and actually, life after social media can be quite positive.

    而且,沒有社群媒體的生活會非常的正面

  • There's two things I can report back from the world of no social media use.

    沒有社群媒體的世界會有這兩件事是我可以跟大家報告的

  • First, it can be quite productive.

    第一、會很有生產力

  • I'm a professor at a research institution, I've written five books,

    我是一個研究機構的教授,我寫了 5 本書

  • I rarely work past 5 pm on a weekday.

    我週間的下午 5 點過後幾乎不工作