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  • As an Australian Canadian

    身為澳洲加拿大人,

  • the Fahrenheit temperature scale has always seemed a bit arbitrary to me.

    華氏溫度 似乎有點隨意。

  • I mean why does water freezes at 32 degrees?

    我的意思是為什麼水 在 32度 凍結。

  • Why that integer and what exactly does 0 represent?

    為什麼是這個整數,而 0 又代表什麼?

  • According to many sources

    根據許多來源,

  • the Fahrenheit scale was defined by setting 0 degrees

    華氏溫度 的定義是讓 0度

  • equal to the temperature of the ice salt and water mixture

    等於 鹽冰和水混合物 的溫度

  • And a hundred degrees being roughly equal to human body temperature.

    100度 大約等於人體溫度。

  • But that isn't true.

    但這是不對的。

  • The real story is much more interesting and scientific.

    事實更加有趣而且科學

  • August 14th, 1701 was almost certainly the worst day

    1701年 8月14日, 幾乎是最糟糕的一天

  • in the life of 15 year-old Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit.

    加布里埃爾·華倫海特(華氏) 在15歲時,

  • On that day, both of his parents died suddenly from mushroom poisoning.

    那一天,他的父母突然因為 蘑菇中毒 死亡。

  • And he was sent from Poland where he lived

    他從 波蘭 (他的家鄉)

  • to Amsterdam to become an apprentice bookkeeper.

    去到 阿姆斯特丹 成為一個學徒簿記員。

  • But Fahrenheit couldn't stand his apprenticeship and

    可是華氏不能承受

  • ran away so many times that his employer put out a warrant for his arrest.

    不停逃跑 使得他的雇主 發出了逮捕令。

  • Traveling from city to city around Europe,

    在歐洲旅行,

  • he became fascinated with scientific instruments

    他迷上了科學儀器,

  • and in particular, thermometers.

    特別是溫度計。

  • In 1708, possibly seeking help with the warrant,

    在 1708年, 或許是由於逮捕令 而尋求幫助,

  • Fahrenheit met with the mayor of Copenhagen,

    華氏會見了 哥本哈根市長,

  • who happened to be the famous astronomer Olemer.

    也就是著名的天文學家 Ole Rømer。

  • mer is known for observing the eclipses of Jupiter's moons

    Rømer 以觀察 木星月亮的月食 而聞名,

  • and realizing that variations in the timing of those eclipses

    並發現這些月食時間的變化

  • was caused by the time it took light to reach Earth.

    是因為 光到達地球的時間 而異。

  • In other words, he found a way

    換句話說,他找到了一種準確測量光速的辦法。

  • to accurately measure the finite speed of light.

    但是,與這個故事更有關聯的是,

  • But, more pertinent to this story,

    在1702年,Rømer 因為腿斷了不能离家。

  • in 1702, Rømer was housebound after breaking his leg.

    為了打發時間,他設計了一個 全新的溫度標準

  • And to pass the time, he devised a brand-new temperature scale

    水的冰點 是 7.5度

  • with the freezing point of water at 7.5 degrees

    而體溫是 22.5度。

  • and body temperature at 22.5 degrees.

    現在,這可能是奇怪的 直到你認為 Rømer 想要讓

  • Now, this might seem odd until you consider thatmer wanted

    水的沸點為 60度。

  • the boiling point of water to be 60 degrees.

    作為一個天文學家,他習慣把事物分成 60 份。

  • As an astronomer, he had experience dividing things by 60.

    以這個標準

  • So if you take this scale,

    分成一半, 分成一半, 再分成一半

  • divide it in half, in half again and in half once more,

    你會發現水的冰點在八分之一

  • you find the freezing point of water one eighth up the scale,

    人類的體溫在 八分之三

  • and human body temperature three eighth up the scale.

    在 1708年 的會面時,

  • So at their meeting in 1708

    華氏 知道了 Rømer 的溫標並使用,

  • Fahrenheit learned ofmer's temperature scale and adopted it as his own,

    做了些調整,因為他認為它

  • adjusting it slightly because he found it

    "因為小數點而 不夠方便和優美。"

  • "inconvenient and inelegant on account of fractional numbers".

    所以他把他們調成了 8 和 24。

  • So he scaled them up to 8 and 24.

    這就是原始的 華氏溫標。

  • And this is the original Fahrenheit scale.

    他用這個溫標做了些溫度計

  • He produced thermometers for some time using this scale.

    但是後來,

  • But then at some later point,

    華氏把溫標乘上 4,

  • Fahrenheit multiplied all numbers on the scale by 4

    設置冰點到現在熟悉的32度和 體溫至96度。

  • setting freezing point to the now-familiar 32 and body temperature to 96.

    不清楚為什麼他這樣做。

  • It's unclear exactly why he did this.

    他可能只是想要更精確的測量。

  • He may just have wanted finer precision in his measurements.

    但我認為有他有更好的理由。

  • But I think there was a better reason.

    華氏 是一個優秀的儀器製造商。

  • You see, Fahrenheit was an excellent instrument maker.

    他的溫度計非常準確

  • His thermometers agreed with each other precisely

    在每個人都不知道的時候,

  • at a time when that was unheard of.

    他率先在溫度計使用水銀,

  • He pioneered the use of mercury as a measuring liquid,

    優點是它的沸點高於酒精

  • which has the benefit of a much higher boiling point than the alcohol

    被用於大多數其他的溫度計。

  • used in most other thermometers at the time.

    因為這些成就,

  • And for these accomplishments

    他被引進了 英國皇家學會。

  • he was inducted into the British Royal Society.

    我們知道他讀了牛頓,波义耳和胡克的作品,

  • And we know that he read the works of Newton, Boyle, and Hook,

    在那裡他會有這個想法

  • in which he would have come across the idea

    溫度的提升可對應

  • that one degree increase in temperature could correspond to

    液體的體積的提升。

  • a specific fractional increase in the volume of the measuring liquid.

    今天,華氏 溫度升高一度

  • And today, a one degree Fahrenheit increase in temperature

    正好增加水銀體積 一萬分之一。

  • increases the volume of mercury by exactly one part in 10,000.

    這只是一個巧合嗎?

  • Is this just a coincidence?

    好吧,我們可能永遠不會知道 因為

  • Well, we'll probably never know for sure because

    作為儀器製造商,華氏對他的方法非常保密。

  • as an instrument maker Fahrenheit was very secretive about his methods.

    但我認為這數據強烈建議 這種情況。

  • But I think the data strongly suggest that this was the case.

    所以 0度在 華氏和 Rømer 的溫標代表什麼?

  • So, what exactly did zero represent on the scales of Fahrenheit, andmer?

    根據許多來源,它是鹽冰和水混合物 的溫度。

  • By many accounts, it's the temperature of salt ice and water mixture.

    唯一的問題是這些混合物有不同的描述

  • The only problem is there are different descriptions of these mixtures

    而且他們都沒有達到它們應有的溫度。

  • And none of them actually produces the temperature they're supposed to.

    更有可能,我認為他們在冬天選擇了最冷的溫度,

  • More likely, I think they picked the coldest temperature in winter

    把它設置為零,

  • set that as zero

    然後用冰和鹽水洗滌 校準成新的溫度計。

  • and later used ice and brine to calibrate new thermometers.

    在那個時候,華氏溫度計 是最好的溫度計。

  • In his day, the Fahrenheit thermometer was the best you could get.

    但現在,他的只用在 開曼群島,

  • But now his scale is only used regularly in the Cayman Islands,

    巴哈馬,伯利茲......哦,和美國。

  • Bahamas, Belizeoh, and the United States of America.

    也許這是時候 我們使用全球都在用的溫標 -

  • So maybe it's time we all adopted the global scale of temperature:

    攝氏,順便說一下, 不是由攝氏發明的。

  • Celsius, which by the way, wasn't invented by Celsius at all.

    嘿! 這期有點不一樣。

  • Hey! So that was something a little bit different.

    這視頻是由 Marcello Ascani 做的動畫。

  • This video was animated by Marcello Ascani.

    我有在影片描述 加了他的頻道鏈接。

  • I've got a link to his channel in the description.

    你知道,我變得迷上了溫度標度

  • You know, I became really fascinated with temperature scale

    在我看到原本的 攝氏溫度計。

  • after I saw the original Celsius thermometer.

    你可以在這裡看到視頻。

  • You can see that video here.

    此視頻由 Patreon 的觀眾

  • Now, this video was supported in part by viewers like you on Patreon,

    和 audible.com 支持,

  • and by audible.com,

    - 有声书 的领先提供商 有成千上万的标题

  • a leading provider of audiobooks with hundreds of thousands of titles in

    所有領域的文學,

  • all areas of literature,

    包括小說,非小說 和期刊。

  • including fiction nonfiction and periodicals.

    這個頻道的觀眾

  • And for viewers of this channel,

    Audible 提供30天免費試用

  • Audible offers a free 30-day trial

    在那裡你可以下載書。

  • where you can download any book of your choosing.

    只要到 audible.com/veritasium.

  • Just go to audible.com/veritasium.

    我有一本書要推薦給你,

  • And I have a book that I would recommend to you.

    叫做 The Structure of Scientific Revolutions 作者: Thomas S. Kuhn.

  • It is called The Structure of Scientific Revolutions by Thomas S. Kuhn.

    這是科學歷史和哲學的經典。

  • This is a classic in the history and philosophy of science.

    它會讓你以不同的方式來看科學

  • And it'll make you see science in a different way

    因為它顯示了 科學不只是一個過程

  • because it shows us that science is not just one process

    而是有不同革命

  • but there are actually revolutions that take place

    和大發現。

  • when big discoveries are made.

    這真的改變了我對科學的思考

  • And that really changed my thinking about science

    - 在我在十年前看這本書時。

  • when I first read this book ten years ago.

    所以你可以到 audible.com/veritasium

  • So you can check it out by going to audible.com/veritasium

    免費下載 並嘗試 Audible 的服務。

  • downloaded for free and try out the Audible service.

    我要感謝 Audible 的支持 和感謝你的收看。

  • I want to thank Audible for supporting me and I want to thank you for watching.

As an Australian Canadian

身為澳洲加拿大人,

字幕與單字

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 華氏 溫度計 體溫 混合物 科學 攝氏

什麼華氏度? (What the Fahrenheit?!)

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