Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • This is a man-made forest.

    這是一片人造森林。

  • It can spread over acres and acres of area,

    它的面積可以大到數英畝,

  • or it could fit in a small space --

    或小到 --

  • as small as your house garden.

    就像你家的花園那麼小。

  • Each of these forests is just two years old.

    這些森林都僅有兩年之久。

  • I have a forest in the backyard of my own house.

    在我自家的後院也有一片森林,

  • It attracts a lot of biodiversity.

    它帶來了可觀的生物多樣性。

  • (Bird call)

    (鳥鳴)

  • I wake up to this every morning,

    我每天早上聽著這個聲音起床,

  • like a Disney princess.

    像個迪士尼的公主一樣,

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I am an entrepreneur

    我是一個企業家,

  • who facilitates the making of these forests professionally.

    我用專業的方式幫助營造這些森林。

  • We have helped factories,

    我們幫助過工廠,

  • farms,

    農場,

  • schools,

    學校,

  • homes,

    家庭,

  • resorts,

    度假勝地,

  • apartment buildings,

    公寓,

  • public parks

    公園,

  • and even a zoo

    甚至動物園,

  • to have one of such forests.

    讓他們擁有這樣一片森林。

  • A forest is not an isolated piece of land where animals live together.

    森林並不是一片只有動物群居 但與世隔絕的土地,

  • A forest can be an integral part of our urban existence.

    森林可以與我們的城市融為一體。

  • A forest, for me,

    森林,對我而言,

  • is a place so dense with trees that you just can't walk into it.

    是一個有著茂密樹木的地方, 樹木多到你沒有辦法走進去。

  • It doesn't matter how big or small they are.

    面積的大小並不重要。

  • Most of the world we live in today was forest.

    現今,絕大部分我們生活 居住的地方都曾經是森林。

  • This was before human intervention.

    這是在人類干預自然以前。

  • Then we built up our cities on those forests,

    之後,我們在森林上建造了我們的城市,

  • like São Paulo,

    比如聖保羅,

  • forgetting that we belong to nature as well,

    忘記了就像地球上其他 八百四十萬個物種一樣,

  • as much as 8.4 million other species on the planet.

    我們也同屬自然。

  • Our habitat stopped being our natural habitat.

    我們的棲息地不再是我們的自然棲息地。

  • But not anymore for some of us.

    但是對於我們中的一些人,這種情況在改變。

  • A few others and I today make these forests professionally --

    我和一些人現在以專業的方式建造森林 --

  • anywhere and everywhere.

    在世界各地的任何地方。

  • I'm an industrial engineer.

    我是一個工業工程師,

  • I specialize in making cars.

    我專門從事汽車製造,

  • In my previous job at Toyota,

    當我以前在豐田工作的時候,

  • I learned how to convert natural resources into products.

    我學會了如何把自然資源變成產品。

  • To give you an example,

    舉例來說,

  • we would drip the sap out of a rubber tree,

    我們收集橡膠樹中流出的汁液,

  • convert it into raw rubber

    轉變成生橡膠,

  • and make a tire out of it -- the product.

    然後做成了輪胎這項產品。

  • But these products can never become a natural resource again.

    但是這些產品永遠都不能再變回自然資源了。

  • We separate the elements from nature

    我們從大自然中分離出各種元素,

  • and convert them into an irreversible state.

    將它們轉變成一種不可逆的狀態。

  • That's industrial production.

    那就是工業生產。

  • Nature, on the other hand, works in a totally opposite way.

    這與大自然的運作方式, 有著天壤之別。

  • The natural system produces by bringing elements together,

    大自然的系統是透過一個一個的原子,

  • atom by atom.

    把各種元素匯集起來而製成產品。

  • All the natural products become a natural resource again.

    所有大自然的產品又會成為自然資源。

  • This is something which I learned

    這是當我在自家後院 創造那一小片森林的時候,

  • when I made a forest in the backyard of my own house.

    所學到的東西。

  • And this was the first time I worked with nature,

    這是我第一次順應自然與其同工,

  • rather than against it.

    而不是違背自然而行。

  • Since then,

    從那以後,

  • we have made 75 such forests in 25 cities across the world.

    我已經在全世界25個城市 創造了75片這樣的森林。

  • Every time we work at a new place,

    我們每到一個新的地方工作時,

  • we find that every single element needed to make a forest

    便會發現創造森林所需的每個元素,

  • is available right around us.

    就在我們身邊。

  • All we have to do is to bring these elements together

    我們需要做的就是把這些元素放在一起,

  • and let nature take over.

    然後,讓大自然展現它的鬼斧神工。

  • To make a forest we start with soil.

    要創造一片森林,我們從土壤開始。

  • We touch, feel and even taste it

    我們觸摸、感受、甚至品嚐土壤,

  • to identify what properties it lacks.

    從而確定它缺少什麼特質。

  • If the soil is made up of small particles it becomes compact --

    如果土壤是由小顆粒組成的,它會變得密實--

  • so compact, that water cannot seep in.

    特別密實,以至於水都不能滲入。

  • We mix some local biomass available around,

    我們把當地可用的生物量混合在一起,

  • which can help soil become more porous.

    這可以幫助土壤變得更疏鬆多孔。

  • Water can now seep in.

    水這時就可以滲入了。

  • If the soil doesn't have the capacity to hold water,

    如果土壤沒有涵水能力,

  • we will mix some more biomass --

    我們就混入更多的生物量 -

  • some water-absorbent material like peat or bagasse,

    一些吸水的生物量,比如泥碳和甘蔗渣,

  • so soil can hold this water and it stays moist.

    然後土壤就可以留住水分 並且保持濕潤了。

  • To grow, plants need water, sunlight and nutrition.

    植物需要水、陽光和養份才能生長。

  • What if the soil doesn't have any nutrition in it?

    如果土壤裡沒有養份怎麼辦?

  • We don't just add nutrition directly to the soil.

    我們不是簡單地把養份直接加到土壤裡。

  • That would be the industrial way.

    那是工業的方法。

  • It goes against nature.

    它是違背自然的。

  • We instead add microorganisms to the soil.

    相反地,我們把微生物加到土壤裡。

  • They produce the nutrients in the soil naturally.

    它們會自然地在土壤中製造養份。

  • They feed on the biomass we have mixed in the soil,

    它們以我們混到土壤中的生物量為食,

  • so all they have to do is eat and multiply.

    它們所需做的就是進食和繁衍。

  • And as their number grows,

    隨著它們數量的增加,

  • the soil starts breathing again.

    土壤又開始呼吸了。

  • It becomes alive.

    它恢復了生命力。

  • We survey the native tree species of the place.

    我們調查當地的土生樹種。

  • How do we decide what's native or not?

    我們如何確定樹種是不是土生的?

  • Well, whatever existed before human intervention is native.

    任何存在於人類干預自然以前的植物 都是土生的。

  • That's the simple rule.

    這是一個簡單的法則。

  • We survey a national park

    我們勘查了一個國家公園

  • to find the last remains of a natural forest.

    找到最後一片自然森林的殘跡。

  • We survey the sacred groves,

    我們調查了神聖的樹林,

  • or sacred forests around old temples.

    或是古老寺廟旁邊神聖的森林。

  • And if we don't find anything at all,

    如果我們什麼都沒有找到,

  • we go to museums

    我們就去博物館

  • to see the seeds or wood of trees existing there a long time ago.

    去看種子或者很久以前就在那裡的樹木木材。

  • We research old paintings, poems and literature from the place,

    我們研究那個地方的古畫、詩歌和文學作品,

  • to identify the tree species belonging there.

    來確定屬於那裡的樹種。

  • Once we know our trees,

    一旦我們了解了樹種,

  • we divide them in four different layers:

    我們就把它們分成四層:

  • shrub layer, sub-tree layer, tree layer and canopy layer.

    灌木層,亞喬木層,喬木層和樹冠層。

  • We fix the ratios of each layer,

    我們確定每一層的比例,

  • and then we decide the percentage of each tree species in the mix.

    然後我們確定混合森林中 每一個樹種的百分比。

  • If we are making a fruit forest,

    如果我們要創造一片果樹森林。

  • we increase the percentage of fruit-bearing trees.

    我們就增加果樹的百分比。

  • It could be a flowering forest,

    它可以是一片鮮花盛開的森林,

  • a forest that attracts a lot of birds or bees,

    一片吸引了很多鳥和蜜蜂的森林,

  • or it could simply be a native, wild evergreen forest.

    或者它只是一片土生的、野生的長青森林。

  • We collect the seeds and germinate saplings out of them.

    我們收集種子,使其發芽長成幼樹。

  • We make sure that trees belonging to the same layer

    我們確保屬於同一層的樹木

  • are not planted next to each other,

    不會彼此種在一起,

  • or they will fight for the same vertical space when they grow tall.

    否則,當它們生長的時候, 它們會爭奪相同高度的空間。

  • We plant the saplings close to each other.

    我們把幼樹一棵挨著一棵地種植。

  • On the surface, we spread a thick layer of mulch,

    在土壤上,我們鋪一層厚厚的護根物,

  • so when it's hot outside the soil stays moist.

    所以當外面的天氣很熱的時候, 土壤仍然可以保持濕潤。

  • When it's cold,

    當天氣很冷的時候,

  • frost formation happens only on the mulch,

    霜凍只在護根物上形成,

  • so soil can still breathe while it's freezing outside.

    所以當外面很冷的時候,土壤仍然可以呼吸。

  • The soil is very soft --

    土壤很柔軟 --

  • so soft, that roots can penetrate into it easily,

    非常柔軟, 所以樹根可以很容易地扎根深入土壤,

  • rapidly.

    而且非常迅速。

  • Initially, the forest doesn't seem like it's growing,

    最初,森林似乎沒有生長的動靜,

  • but it's growing under the surface.

    但是在土壤下面,它正生長著。

  • In the first three months,

    在前三個月裡,

  • roots reach a depth of one meter.

    樹根可以達到一米深。

  • These roots form a mesh,

    這些樹根形成一個網,

  • tightly holding the soil.

    緊緊地抓牢著土壤。

  • Microbes and fungi live throughout this network of roots.

    微生物和真菌生活在樹根形成的這個網裡。

  • So if some nutrition is not available in the vicinity of a tree,

    所以假如樹木無法獲取某些養份,

  • these microbes are going to get the nutrition to the tree.

    這些微生物就會把養份供應給樹木。

  • Whenever it rains,

    每當下雨的時候,

  • magically,

    就像變魔術一樣,

  • mushrooms appear overnight.

    蘑菇一夜之間就長出來了。

  • And this means the soil below has a healthy fungal network.

    這意味著土壤下面有一個健康的真菌網。

  • Once these roots are established,

    根系一旦成形穩固,

  • forest starts growing on the surface.

    森林就開始在地面上生長了。

  • As the forest grows we keep watering it --

    隨著森林生長,我們不停地給它澆水 -

  • for the next two to three years, we water the forest.

    在接下來的兩年到三年裡,我們持續地澆水。

  • We want to keep all the water and soil nutrition only for our trees,

    我們想讓樹林充分得到 所有的水份和土壤養份,

  • so we remove the weeds growing on the ground.

    所以我們除掉地上的雜草。

  • As this forest grows, it blocks the sunlight.

    當森林不斷地生長,它會擋住陽光。

  • Eventually, the forest becomes so dense

    最終,森林變得很茂密

  • that sunlight can't reach the ground anymore.

    以至於陽光不能照射到地面。

  • Weeds cannot grow now, because they need sunlight as well.

    雜草這個時候就不能生長了, 因為它們也需要陽光。

  • At this stage,

    在這個階段,

  • every single drop of water that falls into the forest

    每一滴落入森林的水珠

  • doesn't evaporate back into the atmosphere.

    都不會蒸發回大氣中。

  • This dense forest condenses the moist air

    這片茂密的森林凝聚了濕氣

  • and retains its moisture.

    並且保持它的濕度。

  • We gradually reduce and eventually stop watering the forest.

    我們漸漸減少澆灌森林, 最終停止澆灌。

  • And even without watering,

    即使沒有澆灌,

  • the forest floor stays moist and sometimes even dark.

    林地也可以保持濕潤、甚至成深色的沃土。

  • Now, when a single leaf falls on this forest floor,

    現在,當一片葉子落在林地上時,

  • it immediately starts decaying.

    它立刻開始腐爛。

  • This decayed biomass forms humus,

    這腐爛的生物量形成腐殖質,

  • which is food for the forest.

    成為供給森林所需的養分。

  • As the forest grows,

    隨著森林不斷生長,

  • more leaves fall on the surface --

    更多的葉子落在地上 --

  • it means more humus is produced,

    這意味著更多的腐殖質產生,

  • it means more food so the forest can grow still bigger.

    也意謂著更多的食物, 可以讓森林不斷地茁壯生長,

  • And this forest keeps growing exponentially.

    而且是迅速地生長。

  • Once established,

    一旦植林成功,

  • these forests are going to regenerate themselves again and again --

    這些森林就可以一遍遍地自我繁衍--

  • probably forever.

    也許能永續進行。

  • In a natural forest like this,

    在這樣的自然森林裡,

  • no management is the best management.

    沒有管理就是最好的管理。

  • It's a tiny jungle party.

    這是一個小型的叢林派對。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • This forest grows as a collective.

    這片森林是群聚生長而成的。

  • If the same trees --

    如果同樣的樹木--

  • same species --

    同樣的樹種 --

  • would have been planted independently,

    被獨立種植,

  • it wouldn't grow so fast.

    它就不會長得這麼快了。

  • And this is how we create a 100-year-old forest

    這就是我們僅在十年內,

  • in just 10 years.

    就能創造出百歲森林的方法。

  • Thank you very much.

    非常感謝。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

This is a man-made forest.

這是一片人造森林。

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 TED 森林 土壤 生長 自然 樹木

【TED】Shubhendu Sharma:如何在後院種植森林(How to grow a forest in your backyard | Shubhendu Sharma)。 (【TED】Shubhendu Sharma: How to grow a forest in your backyard (How to grow a forest in your backyard | Shubhendu Sharma))

  • 1626 90
    Josie Tan 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字