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  • I would like to share with you this morning

    今天早晨我想要與各位分享

  • some stories about the ocean

    一些關於海洋的故事

  • through my work as a still photographer

    透過我身為一名靜態攝影師的工作

  • for National Geographic magazine.

    為國家地理雜誌拍攝照片

  • I guess I became an underwater photographer

    我想我會成為一名海面下的攝影師

  • and a photojournalist

    以及一位攝影記者

  • because I fell in love with the sea as a child.

    是因為當我還是個小男孩時我就愛上了大海

  • And I wanted to tell stories

    而我想要告訴大家

  • about all the amazing things I was seeing underwater,

    在海面下所見到的那些驚奇的故事

  • incredible wildlife and interesting behaviors.

    令人感到震撼的生命以及牠們有趣的行為

  • And after even 30 years of doing this,

    即使在從事三十年這樣的職業

  • after 30 years of exploring the ocean,

    以及探索海洋超過三十年的時間

  • I never cease to be amazed

    在大海中所遭遇的各種事物

  • at the extraordinary encounters that I have while I'm at sea.

    永遠能為我帶來驚奇

  • But more and more frequently these days

    然而這些日子,當我越加頻繁地接觸時

  • I'm seeing terrible things underwater as well,

    我也發現了海面下那些令人感到恐懼的事情

  • things that I don't think most people realize.

    一些我認為多數人都不了解的事

  • And I've been compelled to turn my camera towards these issues

    因此我將照相機鎖定這些議題

  • to tell a more complete story.

    來告訴大家一個更完整的故事

  • I want people to see what's happening underwater,

    我想要人們看見海面下發生的事

  • both the horror and the magic.

    包括恐怖的、不可思議的

  • The first story that I did for National Geographic,

    第一個故事是我為國家地理雜誌所拍攝

  • where I recognized the ability to include

    在那裡我體認到自己有能力

  • environmental issues within a natural history coverage,

    可以在自然歷史的封面故事下加入環境議題

  • was a story I proposed on harp seals.

    我拍攝的對象是海豹

  • The story I wanted to do initially

    而現在我想拍攝的故事,原本

  • was just a small focus to look at the few weeks each year

    只是個小焦點,一年拍攝幾個星期而已

  • where these animals migrate down from the Canadian arctic

    這段期間,海豹由加拿大極地遷徙而下

  • to the Gulf of St. Lawrence in Canada

    至加拿大聖羅倫斯海灣

  • to engage in courtship, mating and to have their pups.

    致力於求偶、交配以及產下牠們的小海豹

  • And all of this is played out against

    所有的這一切生物行為

  • the backdrop of transient pack ice

    皆在以風及潮汐為漂泊動力的

  • that moves with wind and tide.

    冰層上面進行

  • And because I'm an underwater photographer,

    因為我是一名海面下的攝影師

  • I wanted to do this story from both above and below,

    我想要從海面上及海面下取材來拍攝這個故事

  • to make pictures like this that show one of these little pups

    如同照片中這些小海豹的其中一隻

  • making its very first swim in the icy 29-degree water.

    正在華氏29度的冰冷海水中,進行牠第一次的游泳 (攝氏-1.7度)

  • But as I got more involved in the story,

    但是當我更深入這個主題

  • I realized that there were two big environmental issues I couldn't ignore.

    我瞭解到有兩個重大的環境議題是我不能忽視的

  • The first was that these animals continue to be hunted,

    第一個是這些動物持續地被獵殺

  • killed with hakapiks at about eight, 15 days old.

    在大約八到十五天時被棘棒殺死

  • It actually is the largest marine mammal

    這實際上也是在這星球上最大的

  • slaughter on the planet,

    海洋哺乳類動物大屠殺

  • with hundreds of thousands of these seals being killed every year.

    每年都有成千上萬的海豹被屠殺

  • But as disturbing as that is,

    但是更令人感到不安的是

  • I think the bigger problem for harp seals

    我認為對加拿大海豹所遭遇最大的問題是

  • is the loss of sea ice due to global warming.

    由於全球暖化,海面上的冰層正逐年減少

  • This is an aerial picture that I made that shows

    這是一張我所拍攝的航空照片

  • the Gulf of St. Lawrence during harp seal season.

    照片為在海豹繁殖季節時聖羅倫斯海灣的冰層

  • And even though we see a lot of ice in this picture,

    雖然我們在這張照片中看到了很多的冰層

  • there's a lot of water as well, which wasn't there historically.

    然而冰層與冰層間也夾雜著很多海水,這些海水在歷史上是不曾存在的

  • And the ice that is there is quite thin.

    而且照片中的冰層非常薄

  • The problem is that these pups need a stable platform of solid ice

    問題是小海豹們需要一穩定的固體冰面

  • in order to nurse from their moms.

    來從母海豹那得到哺育

  • They only need 12 days from the moment they're born until they're on their own.

    從牠們出生到可以自己生活,只需要十二天的時間

  • But if they don't get 12 days,

    但如果小海豹沒有得到這12天的時間

  • they can fall into the ocean and die.

    牠們會跌入海洋而死亡

  • This is a photo that I made showing

    這是一張我拍攝的照片

  • one of these pups that's only about five or seven days old --

    其中一隻小海豹年僅約5或7天

  • still has a little bit of the umbilical cord on its belly --

    肚子上仍有一些臍帶的痕跡

  • that has fallen in because of the thin ice,

    因為冰層太薄而跌入海洋中

  • and the mother is frantically trying to push it up to breathe

    小海豹的母親極盡所能地想要將小海豹推至海面上呼吸

  • and to get it back to stable purchase.

    讓牠能回到穩固的冰面上

  • This problem has continued to grow each year since I was there.

    從我在那拍攝照片開始,這個問題一年比一年嚴重

  • I read that last year the pup mortality rate

    我閱讀了小海豹過去一年的死亡率報告

  • was 100 percent in parts of the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

    在部分聖羅倫斯海灣區域,小海豹的死亡率為百分之百

  • So, clearly, this species has a lot of problems going forward.

    因此,很明顯地,這個物種面臨許多問題

  • This ended up becoming a cover story at National Geographic.

    這張照片最後也成為了國家地理雜誌的封面報導

  • And it received quite a bit of attention.

    受到了眾多關注

  • And with that, I saw the potential to begin

    藉由這則報導,我看到了開始

  • doing other stories about ocean problems.

    拍攝其他與海洋問題相關報導的可能性

  • So I proposed a story on the global fish crisis,

    因此我拍攝了一則以全球魚類危機為主題的報導

  • in part because I had personally witnessed

    部分原因是因為親眼所見

  • a lot of degradation in the ocean over the last 30 years,

    過去的三十年中,這類問題在海洋中的惡化過程

  • but also because I read a scientific paper

    但也是因為我讀到了一篇科學文獻

  • that stated that 90 percent of the big fish in the ocean

    指出有90%在海洋中的大型魚類

  • have disappeared in the last 50 or 60 years.

    在過去的50或60年間已然消失無蹤

  • These are the tuna, the billfish and the sharks.

    這些是鮪魚、梭魚以及鯊魚

  • When I read that, I was blown away by those numbers.

    當我讀到這裡時,我被那些數字震懾住了

  • I thought this was going to be headline news in every media outlet,

    我想這項研究應該會成為各個媒體出口的頭條新聞了吧

  • but it really wasn't, so I wanted to do a story

    但實際上卻沒有,因此我想要報導這個故事

  • that was a very different kind of underwater story.

    一個不同於一般海底主題的報導

  • I wanted it to be more like war photography,

    我想要這主題成為更類似戰爭攝影的報導

  • where I was making harder-hitting pictures

    其中我拍攝了一些難得一見、更為轟動的照片

  • that showed readers what was happening

    以讓讀者清楚了解

  • to marine wildlife around the planet.

    這個星球上海洋野生動物正遭遇的問題

  • The first component of the story that I thought was essential, however,

    這篇報導我認為讀者必須了解的第一件事

  • was to give readers a sense of appreciation

    是讀者必須對我們所食用的海洋生物

  • for the ocean animals that they were eating.

    心存感激

  • You know, I think people go into a restaurant,

    你知道嗎,我認為人們走進餐廳用餐

  • and somebody orders a steak, and we all know where steak comes from,

    某人可能點了牛排,至少我們都知道牛排是從哪裡來

  • and somebody orders a chicken, and we know what a chicken is,

    某人點了雞肉,而我們也都瞭解雞是怎樣的

  • but when they're eating bluefin sushi,

    但當人們在吃黑鮪魚壽司時

  • do they have any sense of the magnificent animal that they're consuming?

    是否了解他們所食用的生物是多麼宏偉而壯觀呢?

  • These are the lions and tigers of the sea.

    這些偉大的生物是海中的獅子和老虎,是海中生物之王

  • In reality, these animals have no terrestrial counterpart;

    事實上,這些生物在陸地上是沒有可以相對應的

  • they're unique in the world.

    牠們在這世界上是獨一無二的

  • These are animals that can practically swim

    照片中是那些實際上可由

  • from the equator to the poles

    赤道游到北極的生物

  • and can crisscross entire oceans in the course of a year.

    並且可以在一年之間來回穿越整個海洋的

  • If we weren't so efficient at catching them, because they grow their entire life,

    如果不是人類大量的捕食,牠們是可以發展自己生活的

  • would have 30-year-old bluefin out there that weigh a ton.

    就可能會有成長至30歲的黑鮪魚,並且重達一噸

  • But the truth is we're way too efficient at catching them,

    事實是人類太過量的捕捉

  • and their stocks have collapsed worldwide.

    導致黑鮪魚在世界上的存活量大跌

  • This is the daily auction at the Tsukiji Fish Market

    這是在Tsukiji魚市場每日的拍賣情形

  • that I photographed a couple years ago.

    照片拍攝於幾年前

  • And every single day these tuna, bluefin like this,

    每一天這些黑鮪魚以及藍鰭魚

  • are stacked up like cordwood,

    就像木材一樣被堆放在

  • just warehouse after warehouse.

    一間又一間的倉庫

  • As I wandered around and made these pictures,

    當我遊走在倉庫間拍攝這些照片時

  • it sort of occurred to me that the ocean's not a grocery store, you know.

    我忽然覺得海洋並不是一個雜貨店

  • We can't keep taking without expecting

    我們並不能夠

  • serious consequences as a result.

    毫不顧慮後果地取用

  • I also, with the story, wanted to show readers

    藉由這篇報導,我也想要告訴各位讀者

  • how fish are caught, some of the methods that are used to catch fish,

    魚類是如何被各種方式所捕捉

  • like a bottom trawler, which is one of the most common methods in the world.

    例如海底的漁船拖網,是最常見的捕魚方式之一

  • This was a small net that was being used in Mexico to catch shrimp,

    這是一張墨西哥用來補抓蝦子的小網

  • but the way it works is essentially the same everywhere in the world.

    但是它在世界各地的用法本質上都是一樣的

  • You have a large net in the middle

    一張大網在中間

  • with two steel doors on either end.

    兩端有兩道不銹鋼門

  • And as this assembly is towed through the water,

    當此項配件在水裡進行拖曳

  • the doors meet resistance with the ocean,

    門在海洋中遇到阻力

  • and it opens the mouth of the net,

    網子則會因此而開啟

  • and they place floats at the top and a lead line on the bottom.

    網子的頂端會放置浮標,底部則是一條鉛線

  • And this just drags over the bottom, in this case to catch shrimp.

    透過這張網的鉛線在海底進行拖曳來捕蝦

  • But as you can imagine, it's catching everything else in its path as well.

    但正如你所想像,網子在捕蝦的同時也網入了各式各樣的東西

  • And it's destroying that precious benthic community on the bottom,

    並摧毀了海底珍貴的生物群落

  • things like sponges and corals,

    例如海綿以及珊瑚

  • that critical habitat for other animals.

    對那些海底生物而言即為十分重要的棲地

  • This photograph I made of the fisherman

    這張照片是我拍攝一個漁夫

  • holding the shrimp that he caught after towing his nets for one hour.

    握著撒網一小時所抓到的蝦子

  • So he had a handful of shrimp, maybe seven or eight shrimp,

    照片中他拿著一把蝦子,可能有七或八隻蝦

  • and all those other animals on the deck of the boat are bycatch.

    以及甲板上那些不小心被一起捕捉來的生物

  • These are animals that died in the process,

    這些被一起捕捉來的生物正瀕臨死亡

  • but have no commercial value.

    但是卻沒有任何商業價值

  • So this is the true cost of a shrimp dinner,

    所以這才是那頓蝦子晚餐的真正花費

  • maybe seven or eight shrimp

    裡頭可能只有七或八隻蝦

  • and 10 pounds of other animals that had to die in the process.

    卻有十磅或更多的生物必須因為那些蝦子而瀕臨死亡

  • And to make that point even more visual, I swam under the shrimp boat

    為了使這一點更加逼真,我游到了漁船的下方

  • and made this picture of the guy shoveling

    並且拍到了這張漁夫

  • this bycatch into the sea as trash

    正把捕捉到的如同垃圾的生物從船上鏟出

  • and photographed this cascade of death,

    這張照片就是死掉的生物形成的小瀑布

  • you know, animals like guitarfish, bat rays,

    你知道嗎,這些生物如犁頭鰩、蝙蝠魟

  • flounder, pufferfish, that only an hour before,

    比目魚以及河豚,一小時前

  • were on the bottom of the ocean, alive,

    在海底下還是活生生的

  • but now being thrown back as trash.

    現在卻像垃圾一樣被丟回海底

  • I also wanted to focus on the shark fishing industry

    我同時也想將焦點放在捕鯊業

  • because, currently on planet Earth,

    因為目前在地球上

  • we're killing over 100 million sharks

    我們每一年

  • every single year.

    屠殺了超過一億隻的鯊魚

  • But before I went out to photograph this component,

    但是當我想要拍攝這個部份時

  • I sort of wrestled with the notion of how do you make a picture of a dead shark

    我忽然陷入將如何拍攝一隻死鯊魚

  • that will resonate with readers

    才能引起讀者們迴響的沉思中

  • You know, I think there's still a lot of people out there who think

    你知道嗎,我想仍然有一些人會認為

  • the only good shark is a dead shark.

    一隻死掉的鯊魚才是一隻好鯊魚

  • But this one morning I jumped in and found this thresher

    然而某一個早晨,我跳進水中,發現這隻

  • that had just recently died in the gill net.

    剛死在刺網中的長尾鮫

  • And with its huge pectoral fins and eyes still very visible,

    牠巨大的胸鰭以及眼睛尚清晰可見

  • it struck me as sort of a crucifixion, if you will.

    如果你親眼所見,定會像是看到牠被釘十字架般的震驚

  • This ended up being the lead picture

    這張照片最終成為了

  • in the global fishery story in National Geographic.

    國家地理雜誌關於全球漁業報導的主要照片

  • And I hope that it helped readers to take notice

    我希望能幫助讀者們注意到

  • of this problem of 100 million sharks.

    這一億隻鯊魚艱難的處境

  • And because I love sharks -- I'm somewhat obsessed with sharks --

    並且因為我熱愛鯊魚,為牠們著迷

  • I wanted to do another, more celebratory, story about sharks,

    我也想為大家呈現較為令人喜悅的關於鯊魚的報導

  • as a way of talking about the need for shark conservation.

    作為探討鯊魚保育的重要性

  • So I went to the Bahamas

    因此我去了一趟巴哈馬群島

  • because there're very few places in the world

    因為那裏是全球少數幾個

  • where sharks are doing well these days,

    鯊魚保育做得很好的地方

  • but the Bahamas seem to be a place where stocks were reasonably healthy,

    巴哈馬群島的鯊魚存量似乎保育良好

  • largely due to the fact that the government there

    也許是因為政府

  • had outlawed longlining several years ago.

    幾年前已明文規定捕獵鯊魚是不合法的

  • And I wanted to show several species

    並且我想要為大家呈現一些

  • that we hadn't shown much in the magazine and worked in a number of locations.

    雜誌上未展示太多的,我工作地點的照片

  • One of the locations was this place called Tiger Beach,

    其中一個地點是一個叫做老虎灘的地方

  • in the northern Bahamas where tiger sharks

    位於巴哈馬群島的北方

  • aggregate in shallow water.

    在那裏有集結成群的老虎鯊

  • This is a low-altitude photograph that I made

    這則是在低海拔地區所拍攝的照片

  • showing our dive boat with about a dozen of these big old tiger sharks

    照片中為被這些年邁的大型老虎鯊所包圍的潛水艇

  • sort of just swimming around behind.

    就好像牠們游在我們周遭以及後方一樣

  • But the one thing I definitely didn't want to do with this coverage

    但是我絕對不希望這張封面照片

  • was to continue to portray sharks as something like monsters.

    使鯊魚一直被描述成如同野獸一般

  • I didn't want them to be overly threatening or scary.

    我不希望這些老虎鯊是極具威脅性及令人驚懼的

  • And with this photograph of a beautiful

    這張照片是一隻美麗的

  • 15-feet, probably 14-feet, I guess,

    15呎長...也許14呎長的

  • female tiger shark,

    母虎鯊

  • I sort of think I got to that goal,

    就像覺得自己達成目的一般

  • where she was swimming with these little barjacks off her nose,

    當牠在水中游曳時,有一些平線若鰺游過牠的鼻側

  • and my strobe created a shadow on her face.

    我的閃光燈在牠臉上造成了一道陰影

  • And I think it's a gentler picture, a little less threatening,

    我認為這是一張較為溫和的照片,也較不具威脅性

  • a little more respectful of the species.

    對這個物種也有較多尊重

  • I also searched on this story

    我也檢閱了一些關於

  • for the elusive great hammerhead,

    這隻虛幻的大頭槌鯊的報導

  • an animal that really hadn't been photographed much

    一隻直到在七或十年前

  • until maybe about seven or 10 years ago.

    才開始有一些相關照片拍攝的生物

  • It's a very solitary creature.

    槌頭鯊事實上是一隻非常神秘的生物

  • But this is an animal that's considered data deficient by science

    無論是在佛羅里達或是巴哈馬群島

  • in both Florida and in the Bahamas.

    科學上的數據皆十分缺乏

  • You know, we know almost nothing about them.

    我們對牠們幾乎一無所知

  • We don't know where they migrate to or from,

    我們不知道他們遷入或是遷出的地點

  • where they mate, where they have their pups,

    也不知道牠們在哪交配,生下小槌頭鯊

  • and yet, hammerhead populations in the Atlantic

    然而,在大西洋的槌頭鯊族群在過去的20至30年間

  • have declined about 80 percent in the last 20 to 30 years.

    數量卻減少了大約百分之八十

  • You know, we're losing them faster than we can possibly find them.

    你知道嗎,我們失去牠們的速度遠比我們能找到牠們的要快

  • This is the oceanic whitetip shark,

    這是一隻白鰭鯊

  • an animal that is considered the fourth most dangerous species,

    如果你留意相關的列表

  • if you pay attention to such lists.

    白鰭鯊被認為是四種最危險的物種之一

  • But it's an animal that's about 98 percent in decline

    在大多數牠們活動的範圍內

  • throughout most of its range.

    其消逝率亦達98%

  • Because this is a pelagic animal and it lives out in the deeper water,

    因為牠們是一種生活在遠洋及深海中的生物

  • and because we weren't working on the bottom,

    並且因為我們不是在海底工作

  • I brought along a shark cage here,

    我帶了一只鯊魚籠至海底

  • and my friend, shark biologist Wes Pratt is inside the cage.

    而我的朋友,鯊魚生物學家,維斯-普瑞特則在籠子內

  • You'll see that the photographer, of course, was not inside the cage here,

    你所看到的這張照片,攝影師當然沒有在籠內

  • so clearly the biologist is a little smarter than the photographer I guess.

    我想很明顯地,我的朋友比攝影師要來得聰明一些

  • And lastly with this story,

    在這則報導的最後

  • I also wanted to focus on baby sharks, shark nurseries.

    我想要針對鯊魚寶寶的哺育進行報導

  • And I went to the island of Bimini, in the Bahamas,

    因此我去到了巴哈馬群島中的Bimini島

  • to work with lemon shark pups.

    與小檸檬鯊一起工作

  • This is a photo of a lemon shark pup,

    這是一張小檸檬鯊的照片

  • and it shows these animals where they live for the first two to three years of their lives

    顯示牠們在紅樹林保護區裡

  • in these protective mangroves.

    度過一生中第一個二至三年

  • This is a very sort of un-shark-like photograph.

    這是一張非常不同於一般鯊魚的照片

  • It's not what you typically might think of as a shark picture.

    不是你所能想像到的鯊魚

  • But, you know, here we see a shark that's maybe 10 or 11 inches long

    但是,你知道嗎,在這裡我們看到一隻可能有10或11吋長的鯊魚

  • swimming in about a foot of water.

    游在只有一呎深的水中

  • But this is crucial habitat and it's where they spend the first two, three years of their lives,

    然而這對鯊魚而言是非常重要的棲地,也是牠們出生後要待上二至三年的地方

  • until they're big enough to go out on the rest of the reef.

    直到牠們成長至能夠游出暗礁外的其他地方生活為止

  • After I left Bimini, I actually learned

    在我離開Bimini,我才知道

  • that this habitat was being bulldozed

    這個棲地正被挖土機夷平

  • to create a new golf course and resort.

    以打造一個全新的高爾夫球場以及度假勝地

  • And other recent stories have looked at

    如果你願意,讓我們來看看一些最近其他的報導

  • single, flagship species, if you will,

    關注於單一的旗艦物種

  • that are at risk in the ocean

    在海洋中所面臨的風險

  • as a way of talking about other threats.

    作為說明其他威脅的一種方式

  • One such story I did documented the leatherback sea