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  • Have you ever wondered what happens to a painkiller, like ibuprofen,

    你有沒有想過,在你吞了布洛芬這類的止痛藥之後

  • after you swallow it?

    在你的身體裡發生了什麼事?

  • Medicine that slides down your throat can help treat a headache,

    藥物物滑入你的喉嚨有助於治療頭痛

  • a sore back,

    背痛

  • or a throbbing sprained ankle.

    或扭傷疼痛的腳踝

  • But how does it get where it needs to go in the first place?

    但是藥物如何到達身體所需要的地方發揮功用呢?

  • The answer is that it hitches a ride in your circulatory blood stream,

    答案是藥物透過血液在你的身體中繞了一圈

  • cycling through your body in a race to do its job before it's snared by organs

    在被其他用來中和的器官和分子吸收之前,藉由繞行身體

  • and molecules designed to neutralize

    來發揮它的功能

  • and expel foreign substances.

    並且排除外來物質

  • This process starts in your digestive system.

    這個過程從消化系統開始

  • Say you swallow an ibuprofen tablet for a sore ankle.

    當你因為腳踝痠疼吞下一顆布洛芬藥丸時

  • Within minutes, the tablet starts disintegrating in the acidic fluids of your stomach.

    不到幾分鐘,這顆藥丸開始在胃酸中分解

  • The dissolved ibuprofen travels into the small intestine

    布洛芬錠溶解的的部分進入小腸

  • and then across the intestinal wall into a network of blood vessels.

    然後穿過小腸壁進入血管網路

  • These blood vessels feed into a vein,

    這些血管通往靜脈

  • which carries the blood, and anything in it, to the liver.

    將血液和其中攜帶的物質帶到肝臟

  • The next step is to make it through the liver.

    下一步是通過肝臟

  • As the blood and the drug molecules in it travel through liver blood vessels,

    當血液和當中的藥物分子進入肝臟時

  • enzymes attempt to react with the ibuprofen molecules

    酶試圖要中和

  • to neutralize them.

    布洛芬分子

  • The damaged ibuprofen molecules, called metabolites,

    受損的布洛芬分子被稱為代謝物

  • may no longer be effective as painkillers.

    可能已無法發揮止痛藥的功能

  • At this stage, most of the ibuprofen makes it through the liver unscathed.

    這個時候,大部分的布洛芬都毫髮無傷地通過了肝臟

  • It continues its journey out of the liver,

    繼續離開肝臟

  • through veins,

    通過靜脈

  • into the body's circulatory system.

    進入身體的循環系統

  • Half an hour after you swallow the pill,

    在你吞下藥丸半小時後

  • some of the dose has already made it into the circulatory blood stream.

    有些劑量已經進入循環血液當中

  • This blood loop travels through every limb and organ,

    血液的迴路通過四肢及各個器官

  • including the heart, brain, kidneys, and back through the liver.

    包含心臟、腦、腎,並且回到肝臟

  • When ibuprofen molecules encounter a location

    當布洛芬分子遇到

  • where the body's pain response is in full swing,

    身體疼痛反應劇烈的地方時

  • they bind to specific target molecules that are a part of that reaction.

    它們就會和該部位部分特定標靶分子結合

  • Painkillers, like ibuprofen, block the production of compounds

    像布洛芬這類的止痛藥,會阻止

  • that help the body transmit pain signals.

    身體產生疼痛信號的化合物產生

  • As more drug molecules accumulate,

    當更多藥物分子聚集後

  • the pain-cancelling affect increases,

    疼痛逐漸減輕

  • reaching a maximum within about one or two hours.

    藥物發揮最大效能大約要 1 至 2 小時

  • Then the body starts efficiently eliminating ibuprofen,

    然後身體就會開始有效率地減少普洛芬

  • with the blood dose decreasing by half every two hours on average.

    平均每 2 小時減少其存在血液中劑量的一半

  • When the ibuprofen molecules detach from their targets,

    當普洛芬分子與標靶物分離時

  • the systemic blood stream carries them away again.

    血液系統會再次將它們帶走

  • Back in the liver, another small fraction of the total amount of the drug

    回到肝臟,藥物總量的另一小部分

  • gets transformed into metabolites,

    會轉化為代謝物

  • which are eventually filtered out by the kidneys in the urine.

    最後透過腎臟,由尿液排出

  • The loop from liver to body to kidneys continues at a rate

    由肝臟經過身體到腎臟的迴路持續以

  • of about one blood cycle per minute,

    每分鐘一次血液循環的速率進行著

  • with a little more of the drug neutralized and filtered out in each cycle.

    每次循環,就會有多一些的藥物被中和及濾出

  • These basic steps are the same for any drug that you take orally,

    任何口服藥物基本上都是透過這些相同的基本步驟

  • but the speed of the process

    但是全程的速度

  • and the amount of medicine that makes it into your blood stream

    和藥物進入血液的量

  • varies based on drug,

    會因藥物、

  • person,

    人,

  • and how it gets into the body.

    以及藥物進入身體的方式而異

  • The dosing instructions on medicine labels can help,

    藥物標籤上的劑量說明是有幫助的

  • but they're averages based on a sample population

    但是這僅是基於樣品人口的平均值

  • that doesn't represent every consumer.

    並不是每個人都適用

  • And getting the dose right is important.

    使用正確的劑量是很重要的

  • If it's too low, the medicine won't do its job.

    如果劑量過低,藥物就無法發揮作用

  • If it's too high, the drug and its metabolites can be toxic.

    如果劑量過高,它的代謝物可能會是有毒的

  • That's true of any drug.

    任何藥物都是這樣

  • One of the hardest groups of patients to get the right dosage for are children.

    最難獲得正確劑量使用的就是兒童

  • That's because how they process medicine changes quickly, as do their bodies.

    因為兒童對藥物的反應過程改變得很快,他們的身體也變得很快

  • For instance, the level of liver enzymes that neutralize medication

    舉例來說,中和藥物的肝酶平均值

  • highly fluctuates during infancy and childhood.

    在嬰兒和孩童時期變化很大

  • And that's just one of many complicating factors.

    但是這只是眾多複雜因素之一

  • Genetics,

    遣傳、

  • age,

    年齡、

  • diet,

    飲食、

  • disease,

    疾病,

  • and even pregnancy influence the body's efficiency of processing medicine.

    甚至懷孕都會影響身體對藥物反應過程的效率

  • Some day, routine DNA tests may be able to dial in the precise dose of medicine

    有時候,一般的 DNA 測試也許能夠依據肝臟效能和其他因素

  • personalized to your liver efficiency and other factors,

    調整個人化的精確劑量

  • but in the meantime,

    但是同時

  • your best bet is reading the label

    你最好還是閱讀藥物標籤

  • or consulting your doctor or pharmacist,

    或諮詢醫師或藥劑師

  • and taking the recommended amounts with the recommended timing.

    並在適合的時間服用適當的劑量

Have you ever wondered what happens to a painkiller, like ibuprofen,

你有沒有想過,在你吞了布洛芬這類的止痛藥之後

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 藥物 肝臟 劑量 血液 身體

【TED-Ed】把藥吞進身體然後呢?來看看你吃過的藥是怎麼讓身體吸收的! (How does your body process medicine? -Celine Valery)

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    Anita Lin 發佈於 2017 年 09 月 30 日
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