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  • Design is a slippery and elusive phenomenon,

    「設計」是一閃即逝的靈光乍現。

  • which has meant different things at different times.

    它在不同的時空, 有不同的含義。

  • But all truly inspiring design projects have one thing in common:

    但所有真正激勵人心的設計, 都有一個共同點:

  • they began with a dream.

    它們源自夢想。

  • And the bolder the dream,

    越是大膽的夢想,

  • the greater the design feat that will be required to achieve it.

    越需要優秀的設計來成就它。

  • And this is why the greatest designers are almost always

    這也是為什麼 最了不起的設計家總是那些

  • the biggest dreamers and rebels and renegades.

    懷著雄心的夢想家, 叛逆份子與叛徒。

  • This has been the case throughout history,

    縱觀歷史也是如此,

  • all the way back to the year 300 BC,

    可以回溯到公元前 300 年。

  • when a 13-year-old became the king

    當時一位十三歲的少年

  • of a remote, very poor and very small Asian country.

    在一個遙遠、貧困的 亞洲小國登基為王。

  • He dreamt of acquiring land, riches and power

    他夢想用武力征服領土、 財富以及權力。

  • through military conquest.

    而他的設計本領,

  • And his design skills --

    雖然聽起來有點不可思議,

  • improbable though it sounds --

    但正是助他達成目標的基礎。

  • would be essential in enabling him to do so.

    在當時,

  • At the time,

    所有的武器是以各不相同的規格, 手工打造而成。

  • all weapons were made by hand to different specifications.

    當一個弓箭手在戰場上 用盡自己所有的箭,

  • So if an archer ran out of arrows during a battle,

    他不見得能拿其它人的箭來發射。

  • they wouldn't necessarily be able to fire another archer's arrows

    這讓他們在戰鬥時缺乏效率,

  • from their bow.

    而且脆弱。

  • This of course meant that they would be less effective in combat

    嬴政解決了這個問題。

  • and very vulnerable, too.

    他堅持所有的弓與箭 都設計得一模一樣,

  • Ying solved this problem

    以利交互使用,

  • by insisting that all bows and arrows were designed identically,

    且用相同的方式處理 匕首、斧頭、長矛和盾牌,

  • so they were interchangeable.

    以及其它的武器裝備。

  • And he did the same for daggers, axes, spears, shields

    他裝備精良的軍隊 贏了一場又一場的戰役。

  • and every other form of weaponry.

    十五年內,

  • His formidably equipped army won batter after battle,

    他的小王國成功征服了

  • and within 15 years,

    鄰近所有比它強大而富有的國家,

  • his tiny kingdom had succeeded in conquering

    並建立了大秦帝國。

  • all its larger, richer, more powerful neighbors,

    在當時,沒有人

  • to found the mighty Chinese Empire.

    會想到用「設計家」來稱呼嬴政。

  • Now, no one, of course,

    那是當然。

  • would have thought of describing Ying Zheng as a designer at the time --

    然而,他自然而然地使用設計,

  • why would they?

    加上極致的創造力,

  • And yet he used design unknowingly and instinctively

    去達成他的目標。

  • but with tremendous ingenuity

    另一位不可多得的設計家也是如此。

  • to achieve his ends.

    相同地,他並非使用暴力 來達到他的目的。

  • And so did another equally improbable, accidental designer,

    這是愛德華.蒂奇, 著名的英國海盜「黑鬍子」。

  • who was also not above using violence to get what he wanted.

    那是海盜的黃金時代,

  • This was Edward Teach, better known as the British pirate, Blackbeard.

    盜賊橫行在公海上。

  • This was the golden age of piracy,

    當殖民地貿易蒸蒸日上,

  • where pirates like Teach were terrorizing the high seas.

    海盜也獲利豐厚。

  • Colonial trade was flourishing,

    像是蒂奇這樣更精明的海盜, 知道若要劫掠最多的贓物,

  • and piracy was highly profitable.

    他們需要殘酷而猛烈地攻擊敵人,

  • And the smarter pirates like him realized that to maximize their spoils,

    迫使對方迅速投降。

  • they needed to attack their enemies so brutally

    換句話說,

  • that they would surrender on sight.

    他們可以不費彈藥地攻下船隻,

  • So in other words,

    不損一兵一卒。

  • they could take the ships without wasting ammunition,

    為此愛德華.蒂奇 重新打造自己成「黑鬍子」,

  • or incurring casualties.

    扮演一個冷血的惡魔。

  • So Edward Teach redesigned himself as Blackbeard

    他穿著厚重外套和大帽子, 以突顯他的身高,

  • by playing the part of a merciless brute.

    並蓄起濃密的黑鬍子 來掩蓋他的臉。

  • He wore heavy jackets and big hats to accentuate his height.

    他把手槍斜背在雙肩上。

  • He grew the bushy black beard that obscured his face.

    他甚至把火柴裝在帽緣,

  • He slung braces of pistols on either shoulder.

    每當他的船隻準備攻擊, 就點燃火柴,發出兇狠的嘶鳴。

  • He even attached matches to the brim of his hat and set them alight,

    如同當時的其它海盜,

  • so they sizzled menacingly whenever his ship was poised to attack.

    他升起的旗幟上, 有令人毛骨悚然的符號:

  • And like many pirates of that era,

    是骷髏頭與一對交叉的人骨。

  • he flew a flag that bore the macabre symbols

    由於數百年來這些圖案 在不同的文化中都代表死亡。

  • of a human skull and a pair of crossed bones,

    因此人們能在瞬間 明白它們的含義,

  • because those motifs had signified death in so many cultures for centuries,

    即便是在沒有法律 與文字的公海上也一樣:

  • that their meaning was instantly recognizable,

    「束手投降,以免遭於難。」

  • even in the lawless, illiterate world of the high seas:

    而他明智的受害者 皆在對峙之初就放棄扺抗。

  • surrender or you'll suffer.

    這樣說來,

  • So of course, all his sensible victims surrendered on sight.

    很容易明白為什麼 愛德華.蒂奇和他的海盜,

  • Put like that,

    可以被視為現代傳播設計的先行者,

  • it's easy to see why Edward Teach and his fellow pirates

    而他們致命的符號...

  • could be seen as pioneers of modern communications design,

    (笑聲)

  • and why their deadly symbol --

    還有喔,

  • (Laughter)

    他們致命的符號, 這個骷髏頭的圖案,

  • there's more --

    是現代商標的先驅,

  • why their deadly symbol of the skull and crossbones

    就像我身後的這些巨大的紅色字母,

  • was a precursor of today's logos,

    當然它們表達的訊息差很多。

  • rather like the big red letters standing behind me,

    (笑聲)

  • but of course with a different message.

    此外,設計也被用在高尚的一方。

  • (Laughter)

    另一位同樣才華橫溢、 難以多得的設計家,

  • Yet design was also used to nobler ends

    是十九世紀的英國護士 佛羅倫斯.南丁格爾。

  • by an equally brilliant and equally improbable designer,

    她的使命是為眾人 提供良好的醫療服務。

  • the 19th-century British nurse, Florence Nightingale.

    南丁格爾生於一個 富有的英國大家庭。

  • Her mission was to provide decent healthcare for everyone.

    她自願在克里米亞戰爭 投入軍醫工作時,

  • Nightingale was born into a rather grand, very wealthy British family,

    家人都感到非常震驚。

  • who were horrified when she volunteered to work in military hospitals

    抵達之後,她迅速意識到

  • during the Crimean War.

    在骯髒惡臭的病房裡 受到感染的致死人數,

  • Once there, she swiftly realized

    高於在戰鬥中遭受的創傷。

  • that more patients were dying of infections that they caught there,

    因此她發起運動

  • in the filthy, fetid wards,

    去設計建造更乾淨明亮、 空氣流通的診所。

  • than they were of battle wounds.

    回到英國後,

  • So she campaigned for cleaner, lighter, airier clinics

    她參與了另一項運動,

  • to be designed and built.

    這次是推動平民醫院。

  • Back in Britain,

    她堅持這些醫院也要 符合相同的設計與準則。

  • she mounted another campaign,

    這樣的「南丁格爾病房」

  • this time for civilian hospitals,

    在接下來幾十年 成為醫院設計的主流。

  • and insisted that the same design principles were applied to them.

    而其中的一些元素 一直延用到今日。

  • The Nightingale ward, as it is called,

    但在那之後,

  • dominated hospital design for decades to come,

    在工業時代, 設計僅被視為一項工具,

  • and elements of it are still used today.

    主要用在規格化與專業化。

  • But by then,

    它被限制了特定功能,

  • design was seen as a tool of the Industrial Age.

    通常用在追求商業目標,

  • It was formalized and professionalized,

    而非出於直覺的應用,

  • but it was restricted to specific roles

    像是南丁格爾、黑鬍子, 或是秦始王曾經做到的。

  • and generally applied in pursuit of commercial goals

    到了二十世紀,

  • rather than being used intuitively,

    這個商業思潮是如此強勢,

  • as Florence Nightingale, Blackbeard and Ying Zheng had done.

    任何偏離它的設計者

  • By the 20th century,

    皆冒著被視為怪人 或破壞分子的風險。

  • this commercial ethos was so powerful,

    他們之中,有一位是我的偶像,

  • that any designers who deviated from it

    那就是天才洋溢的 拉士羅.摩荷里.那基。

  • risked being seen as cranks or subversives.

    他是匈牙利的藝術家與設計師,

  • Now among them is one of my great design heroes,

    他的創新對日用科技的衝擊

  • the brilliantszló Moholy-Nagy.

    是如此深遠,

  • He was the Hungarian artist and designer

    直至今日仍影響著 我們手機和電腦螢幕上的

  • whose experiments with the impact of technology on daily life

    數位影像設計。

  • were so powerful

    在1920年代的德國, 他徹底改變了包浩斯設計學院。

  • that they still influence the design of the digital images

    但數年後,當他推展 芝加哥分校遇到困難時,

  • we see on our phone and computer screens.

    他以前的同事卻避他唯恐不及。

  • He radicalized the Bauhaus Design School in 1920s Germany,

    摩荷里的構想 大膽敏銳一如以往,

  • and yet some of his former colleagues shunned him

    但他的設計方式卻太實驗性,

  • when he struggled to open a new Bauhaus in Chicago years later.

    而他堅持將此視為一種態度,

  • Moholy's ideas were as bold and incisive as ever,

    而非逢迎時勢的職業。

  • but his approach to design was too experimental,

    遺憾的是,相同的事也發生在

  • as was his insistence on seeing it, as he put it,

    另一位不守常規的設計家 理查.巴克敏斯特.富勒身上。

  • as an attitude, not a profession to be in tune with the times.

    他也是一位才華洋溢的設計夢想家

  • And sadly, the same applied

    與運動人士。

  • to another design maverick: Richard Buckminster Fuller.

    他全心投入去設計 一個永續發展的社會,

  • He was yet another brilliant design visionary

    以如此前瞻性的思維方式,

  • and design activist,

    在1920年代,他便開始提倡 設計中環境保護的重要性

  • who was completely committed to designing a sustainable society

    任憑他的貢獻與努力,

  • in such a forward-thinking way

    如今在設計界, 他仍常常被視為怪胎。

  • that he started talking about the importance of environmentalism

    無可否認地,

  • in design in the 1920s.

    他的某些實驗失敗了,

  • Now he, despite his efforts,

    像是從未起飛的飛行車。

  • was routinely mocked as a crank by many in the design establishment,

    然而,他所設計的球形穹頂,

  • and admittedly,

    利用當地取材搭建的緊急庇護所,

  • some of his experiments failed,

    使用零碎的木頭、金屬、塑膠,

  • like the flying car that never got off the ground.

    或樹木,毛毯、塑膠帆布建造,

  • And yet, the geodesic dome,

    幾乎當時能用的材料他都使用,

  • his design formula to build an emergency shelter

    是數一數二的人道主義設計。

  • from scraps of wood, metal, plastic,

    它提供的急需避難所,

  • bits of tree, old blankets, plastic sheeting --

    在那之後救助了 許許多多遭遇困境的人。

  • just about anything that's available at the time --

    是巴克與摩荷里 這些顛覆性的設計家,

  • is one of the greatest feats of humanitarian design,

    他們大膽無畏的氣魄

  • and has provided sorely needed refuge

    把我帶進設計的領域。

  • to many, many people in desperate circumstances

    我的第一份工作是 新聞記者和國外特派員。

  • ever since.

    我報導政治,經濟和商業活動。

  • Now, it was the courage and verve of radical designers

    我可以選擇以上任何一項主題來做,

  • like Bucky and Moholy

    但我選擇了設計,

  • that drew me to design.

    因為我相信這是我們改善人們生活的

  • I began my career as a news journalist and foreign correspondent.

    最有力工具之一。

  • I wrote about politics, economics and corporate affairs,

    謝謝你們,各位 TED 設計界同僚。

  • and I could have chosen to specialize in any of those fields.

    (掌聲)

  • But I picked design,

    我欽佩這些專業設計師

  • because I believe it's one of the most powerful tools at our disposal

    非凡且無限的成就。

  • to improve our quality of life.

    同時我也相信,

  • Thank you, fellow TED design buffs.

    設計的效益更來自於

  • (Applause)

    足智多謀、特立獨行的叛逆份子

  • And greatly as I admire the achievements of professional designers,

    他們的創意以及橫向思維。

  • which have been extraordinary and immense,

    而我們正生活在這個 非凡的設計時代。

  • I also believe

    因為在此前, 這兩個陣營從未如此接近過。

  • that design benefits hugely from the originality,

    也因為在數位科技中, 即使是一個簡單的進步,

  • the lateral thinking

    也能讓設計者更獨立地運作,

  • and the resourcefulness of its rebels and renegades.

    無論是否從事商業活動,

  • And we're living at a remarkable moment in design,

    他們可追求更野心勃勃 以及兼容並蓄的目標。

  • because this is a time when the two camps are coming closer together.

    理論上,

  • Because even very basic advances in digital technology

    如群聚集資、雲端計算 與社交媒體這些基本平台

  • have enabled them to operate increasingly independently,

    正給於專業設計師更多的自由,

  • in or out of a commercial context,

    而那些即興的創作家 也能得到更多資源,

  • to pursue ever more ambitious and eclectic objectives.

    或者可能,

  • So in theory,

    他們的概念更容易得到回應。

  • basic platforms like crowdfunding, cloud computing, social media

    有些我最喜愛的例子發生在非洲。

  • are giving greater freedom to professional designers

    在那裡,一些新生代的設計師

  • and giving more resources for the improvisational ones,

    正打造驚人的物聯網科技,

  • and hopefully,

    去完成南丁格爾 改善醫療保健的夢想。

  • a more receptive response to their ideas.

    在這些國家,取得行動電話

  • Now, some of my favorite examples of this are in Africa,

    比乾淨的飲水還要容易。

  • where a new generation of designers

    其中一位設計師是亞瑟.贊。

  • are developing incredible Internet of Things technologies

    他是喀麥隆籍的年輕設計工程師。

  • to fulfill Florence Nightingale's dream of improving healthcare

    他將平版電腦 改造成 Cardiopad,

  • in countries where more people now have access to cell phones

    一個可遠端監測心臟的儀器。

  • than to clean, running water.

    它可用來檢測在偏鄉地區的病患。

  • And among them is Arthur Zang.

    數據資料會透過電信網路

  • He's a young, Cameroonian design engineer

    送往遠在百哩之外, 設備精良的醫院

  • who has a adapted a tablet computer into the Cardiopad,

    加以分析。

  • a mobile heart-monitoring device.

    如果專家發現任何的問題,

  • It can be used to monitor the hearts of patients in remote, rural areas.

    他們會建議適合的療程。

  • The data is then sent on a cellular network

    這自然節省了病患許多的時間,

  • to well-equipped hospitals hundreds of miles away

    免於長途跋涉、秏費金錢, 且經常徒勞無功地往返醫院,

  • for analysis.

    讓這些病患更可能地

  • And if any problems are spotted by the specialists there,

    得到真正的檢測。

  • a suitable course of treatment is recommended.

    亞瑟.贊八年前 開始 Cardiopad 的工作,

  • And this of course saves many patients

    當時是他大學的最後一年。

  • from making long, arduous, expensive and often pointless journeys

    但他沒能在常規的管道取得資源,

  • to those hospitals,

    支持他發展這個計劃。

  • and makes it much, much likelier

    他把這個想法發佈在 Facebook 上,

  • that their hearts will actually be checked.

    有位喀麥隆政府的官員 看到了這個訊息,

  • Arthur Zang started working on the Cardiopad eight years ago,

    便安排政府的補助金給他。

  • in his final year at university.

    如今他不只打造了 Cardiopad,

  • But he failed to persuade any conventional sources

    也開發了其它行動醫療的裝置 來治療不同的症狀。

  • to give him investment to get the project off the ground.

    不只他,

  • He posted the idea on Facebook,

    世上還有許多其它 鼓舞人心且進取的設計家,

  • where a Cameroonian government official saw it

    正進行各自非凡的計劃。

  • and managed to secure a government grant for him.

    在結束前,我要介紹其中幾位,

  • He's now developing not only the Cardiopad,

    一個是 Peek Vision,

  • but other mobile medical devices to treat different conditions.

    他們是肯亞的一群醫生及設計師,

  • And he isn't alone,

    自行開發了

  • because there are many other inspiring and enterprising designers

    一套可攜式的眼睛檢查模組。

  • who are also pursuing extraordinary projects of their own.

    然後是加百列.馬亞,

  • And I'm going to finish by looking at just a few of them.

    他正設計一種新的表達方式,

  • One is Peek Vision.

    可讓我們更精確描述 變動中了性別認同,

  • This is a group of doctors and designers in Kenya,

    擺脫對刻版印象的依賴。

  • who've developed an Internet of Things technology of their own,

    這些設計師以及其它許多人 正追逐他們的夢想。

  • as a portable eye examination kit.

    讓他們的新發明自由發展,

  • Then there's Gabriel Maher,

    輔以專業設計師的紀律,

  • who is developing a new design language

    與那些叛逆者的足智多謀,

  • to enable us to articulate the subtleties of our changing gender identities,

    我們都將由此受益。

  • without recourse to traditional stereotypes.

    謝謝你們。

  • All of these designers and many more are pursuing their dreams,

    (鼓掌)

  • by the making the most of their newfound freedom,

  • with the discipline of professional designers

  • and the resourcefulness of rebels and renegades.

  • And we all stand to benefit.

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

Design is a slippery and elusive phenomenon,

「設計」是一閃即逝的靈光乍現。

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B1 中級 中文 英國腔 TED 設計 海盜 設計師 叛逆 愛德華

TED】Alice Rawsthorn:海盜、護士和其他反叛設計師 (Pirates, nurses and other rebel designers | Alice Rawsthorn) (【TED】Alice Rawsthorn: Pirates, nurses and other rebel designers (Pirates, nurses and other rebel designers | Alice Rawsthorn))

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    Leo Kuo 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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