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  • I'm a journalist,

    我是一名記者,

  • so I like to look for the untold stories,

    所以我喜歡發掘故事,

  • the lives that quietly play out under the scream of headlines.

    和那些聳動標題下的人生百態。

  • I've also been going about the business of putting down roots,

    我同時也想定下來,

  • choosing a partner, making babies.

    找個好伴、生下孩子。

  • So for the last few years,

    所以過去幾年,

  • I've been trying to understand

    我一直試著去了解

  • what constitutes the 21st-century good life,

    21 世紀的美好生活如何組成。

  • both because I'm fascinated by the moral and philosophical implications,

    我想知道背後的道德和哲學意涵,

  • but also because I'm in desperate need of answers myself.

    也迫切想為自己的人生找答案。

  • We live in tenuous times.

    我們身處在不安的時代。

  • In fact, for the first time in American history,

    事實上,美國史上第一次,

  • the majority of parents do not think that their kids will be better off

    多數家長不認為下一代會更好。

  • than they were.

    無論貧富、男女皆然。

  • This is true of rich and poor, men and women.

    你們有些人可能聽過會覺得沮喪。

  • Now, some of you might hear this and feel sad.

    畢竟美國人深信

  • After all, America is deeply invested

    經濟向上流動的概念:

  • in this idea of economic transcendence,

    每一個世代都會青出於藍,

  • that every generation kind of leapfrogs the one before it,

    賺更多、花更多、各方面更加富足。

  • earning more, buying more, being more.

    我們把這種夢想出口全球,

  • We've exported this dream all over the world,

    巴西、中國甚至肯亞的孩子

  • so kids in Brazil and China and even Kenya

    懷抱著這種憧憬和渴求長大。

  • inherit our insatiable expectation

    但當我第一次看到這份民調,

  • for more.

    我其實沒有很沮喪。

  • But when I read this historic poll for the first time,

    反而是一種啟發:

  • it didn't actually make me feel sad.

    「更好」的標準是什麼?

  • It felt like a provocation.

    「更好」是找到一份鐵飯碗,

  • "Better off" -- based on whose standards?

    然後下半輩子衣食無虞嗎?

  • Is "better off" finding a secure job

    早就不是這麼回事了。

  • that you can count on for the rest of your life?

    美國人平均每 4.7 年換一份工作,

  • Those are nearly extinct.

    而且預計到了 2020 年,

  • People move jobs, on average, every 4.7 years,

    將近半數的美國人會從事自由業。

  • and it's estimated that by 2020,

    所以「更好」從數字看得出來嗎?

  • nearly half of Americans will be freelancers.

    是賺越多錢越好嗎?

  • OK, so is better off just a number?

    若單看收入多寡,我們沒有比較好。

  • Is it about earning as much as you possibly can?

    人均所得中位數扣除通膨因素,

  • By that singular measurement, we are failing.

    從 2000 年就沒有成長。

  • Median per capita income has been flat since about 2000,

    「更好」是要我們住在 有白色藩籬圍著的大房子?

  • adjusted for inflation.

    誰還住那種房子。

  • All right, so is better off getting a big house with a white picket fence?

    將近五百萬人 在金融海嘯後無家可歸,

  • Less of us are doing that.

    更多人從買房的迷思中清醒,

  • Nearly five million people lost their homes in the Great Recession,

    或者是從鼓吹買房的陷阱中清醒。

  • and even more of us sobered up about the lengths we were willing to go --

    擁房率降至 1995 年以來最低。

  • or be tricked into going, in many predatory cases --

    所以就業率不穩定,

  • to hold that deed.

    我們賺不到什麼錢,

  • Home-ownership rates are at their lowest since 1995.

    也沒有住在漂亮的大房子裡。

  • All right, so we're not finding steady employment,

    這簡直就是美國夢的終結。

  • we're not earning as much money,

    可是,

  • and we're not living in big fancy houses.

    這些是衡量國家強盛,

  • Toll the funeral bells

    或是生活品質的最好指標嗎?

  • for everything that made America great.

    我認為再創造的精神 才是美國強盛的原因。

  • But,

    金融海嘯之後,

  • are those the best measurements of a country's greatness,

    越來越多美國人 在重新定義「更好」的意義。

  • of a life well lived?

    結果發現社群和創意,

  • What I think makes America great is its spirit of reinvention.

    遠比幾塊錢、幾分錢重要。

  • In the wake of the Great Recession,

    我把話說清楚:

  • more and more Americans are redefining what "better off" really means.

    14.8% 的美國人貧困缺錢,

  • Turns out, it has more to do with community and creativity

    這不用多解釋。

  • than dollars and cents.

    然後我們都需要政策保障

  • Now, let me be very clear:

    不受雇主或金融機構剝削。

  • the 14.8 percent of Americans living in poverty need money,

    這也不經意點出了貧富差距

  • plain and simple.

    在道德上的不合情理。

  • And all of us need policies that protect us from exploitation

    可是,

  • by employers and financial institutions.

    我們的討論常常到此為止。

  • Nothing that follows is meant to suggest that the gap between rich and poor

    我們把貧窮說成一種單一經驗;

  • is anything but profoundly immoral.

    只把窮人當成受害者。

  • But,

    我從研究和報導的過程中學到,

  • too often we let the conversation stop there.

    那些最弱勢的人

  • We talk about poverty as if it were a monolithic experience;

    往往更能駕馭

  • about the poor as if they were solely victims.

    美好生活的藝術。

  • Part of what I've learned in my research and reporting

    若說需求是發明之母,

  • is that the art of living well

    那麼我相信,

  • is often practiced most masterfully

    衰退就是覺醒之父。

  • by the most vulnerable.

    它將最關鍵的問題擺在我們眼前,

  • Now, if necessity is the mother of invention,

    那些安逸時我們懶得回答的問題。

  • I've come to believe

    我們該如何工作?

  • that recession can be the father of consciousness.

    我們該如何生活?

  • It confronts us with profound questions,

    我們所有人,無論察覺與否,

  • questions we might be too lazy or distracted to ask

    都在尋找這些問題的答案,

  • in times of relative comfort.

    就像先人在耳邊不斷耳語。

  • How should we work?

    我曾祖父是住在底特律的酒鬼,

  • How should we live?

    他三不五時會去工廠打個工。

  • All of us, whether we realize it or not,

    聽起來很不可置信,

  • seek answers to these questions,

    他有 21 個小孩,

  • with our ancestors kind of whispering in our ears.

    都是跟同一個女人生的,我曾祖母,

  • My great-grandfather was a drunk in Detroit,

    她 47 歲時卵巢癌過世。

  • who sometimes managed to hold down a factory job.

    我現在在懷第二胎,

  • He had, as unbelievable as it might sound,

    還是完全無法了解她經歷的過程。

  • 21 children,

    如果你仔細算,其中有六對雙胞胎。

  • with one woman, my great-grandmother,

    所以我爺爺,他們其中一個兒子,

  • who died at 47 years old of ovarian cancer.

    變成四海為家的業務員,

  • Now, I'm pregnant with my second child,

    過著揮金如土的生活。

  • and I cannot even fathom what she must have gone through.

    所以我爸小時候一開門 外面就是討債的,

  • And if you're trying to do the math -- there were six sets of twins.

    他都要假裝爸媽不在家。

  • So my grandfather, their son,

    他還從車庫找鉗子自己拆牙套,

  • became a traveling salesman,

    因為我爺爺說他沒錢 給我爸看牙醫。

  • and he lived boom and bust.

    所以我爸,毫不意外,

  • So my dad grew up answering the door for debt collectors

    當上處裡破產的律師。

  • and pretending his parents weren't home.

    這應該不能寫進小說吧?

  • He actually took his braces off himself with pliers in the garage,

    他很在意要打下穩固的基礎

  • when his father admitted he didn't have money

    給我哥和我。

  • to go back to the orthodontist.

    我的疑問來自數個世代的掙扎。

  • So my dad, unsurprisingly,

    我父母確保我健全長大,

  • became a bankruptcy lawyer.

    能夠去質疑、冒險、大膽嘗試。

  • Couldn't write this in a novel, right?

    諷刺的是,我的這些反思

  • He was obsessed with providing a secure foundation

    來自他們提供的穩定生活,

  • for my brother and I.

    讓我有餘裕去思索生活的價值,

  • So I ask these questions by way of a few generations of struggle.

    至少是 21 世紀被定義的傳統價值。

  • My parents made sure that I grew up on a kind of steady ground

    讓我們來看第一個問題:

  • that allows one to question and risk and leap.

    我們該如何工作?

  • And ironically, and probably sometimes to their frustration,

    去學學自己的媽媽。

  • it is their steadfast commitment to security

    沒錯,我們花了數十年,

  • that allows me to question its value,

    想把女性塞進男性創造的職場。

  • or at least its value as we've historically defined it

    很多女人為了適應犧牲良多,

  • in the 21st century.

    但更多人不得不鋌而走險,

  • So let's dig into this first question:

    為了幾分錢絞盡腦汁,

  • How should we work?

    吃足苦頭放下身段,

  • We should work like our mothers.

    只為了最愛的家人。

  • That's right -- we've spent decades

    我媽說那叫「但是又何奈」。

  • trying to fit women into a work world built for company men.

    成長顧問說這叫「多元化發展」。

  • And many have done backbends to fit in,

    不管你怎麼說,

  • but others have carved a more unconventional path,

    越來越多男性選擇這種生活方式。

  • creating a patchwork of meaning and money

    他們聽見需求的呼喚, 同時想當好父親和好兒子。

  • with enough flexibility to do what they need to do

    藝術家安漢米爾頓曾說:

  • for those that they love.

    「勞動讓你有所察覺。」

  • My mom called it "just making it work."

    換句話說,你的職業

  • Today I hear life coaches call it "a portfolio career."

    就是你所了解的世界。

  • Whatever you call it,

    如果這是真的,至少我是這麼相信,

  • more and more men are craving these whole, if not harried, lives.

    曾經過度對小朋友、

  • They're waking up to their desire and duty to be present fathers and sons.

    病患和年長者付出的女性,

  • Now, artist Ann Hamilton has said,

    如今反而大大受益於

  • "Labor is a way of knowing."

    這個最根本的一項認知:

  • Labor is a way of knowing.

    體認到人類現在的處境。

  • In other words, what we work on

    在這個轉捩點上,

  • is what we understand about the world.

    男人等於某種程度賭上了

  • If this is true, and I think it is,

    全人類的存續。

  • then women who have disproportionately cared for the little ones

    習以為常的朝九晚五不再適合。

  • and the sick ones and the aging ones,

    照表操課、職業階層都不重要了。

  • have disproportionately benefited

    每天都有產業興起或衰落。

  • from the most profound kind of knowing there is:

    一切都說不準了。

  • knowing the human condition.

    所以不要再問小孩:

  • By prioritizing care,

    「你以後長大要做什麼?」

  • men are, in a sense, staking their claim

    而要開始問: 「你以後長大要怎麼做?」

  • to the full range of human existence.

    以後的職業選擇千變萬化。

  • Now, this means the nine-to-five no longer works for anyone.

    唯一不變的是他們本身。

  • Punch clocks are becoming obsolete, as are career ladders.

    他們越了解自己的才華,

  • Whole industries are being born and dying every day.

    去找到相輔相成的對象,

  • It's all nonlinear from here.

    才會過得越好。

  • So we need to stop asking kids,

    眼前的挑戰是重建社會安全網,

  • "What do you want to be when you grow up?"

    去配合日益脆弱的經濟體。

  • and start asking them, "How do you want to be when you grow up?"

    我們需要更靈活的健保。

  • Their work will constantly change.

    我們需要能涵蓋自身風險,

  • The common denominator is them.

    以及保障保戶無虞的保單設計。

  • So the more they understand their gifts

    我們要認真考慮全面的基本工資。

  • and create crews of ideal collaborators,

    我們要重新設計勞工組織。

  • the better off they will be.

    創造出一個符合

  • The challenge ahead is to reinvent the social safety net

    21 世紀價值的勞動環境,

  • to fit this increasingly fragmented economy.

    只想養家餬口的觀念早就落伍了,

  • We need portable health benefits.

    不信去問你媽。

  • We need policies that reflect that everyone deserves to be vulnerable

    至於第二個問題:

  • or care for vulnerable others,

    我們該怎麼生活?

  • without becoming destitute.

    我們應該過得像飄洋過海的先人。

  • We need to seriously consider a universal basic income.

    當初他們來到美洲大陸,

  • We need to reinvent labor organizing.

    共享住所、生存技巧、照護幼兒,

  • The promise of a work world that is structured to actually fit

    盡力餵飽每一張嘴,

  • our 21st century values,

    無論資源有多匱乏。

  • not some archaic idea about bringing home the bacon,

    但後來成功卻變成自掃門前雪,

  • is long overdue --

    不斷追尋美國夢的經典象徵:

  • just ask your mother.

    白色藩籬的大房子。

  • Now, how about the second question:

    時至今日,院子的白色藩籬

  • How should we live?

    還是給人成功、穩健的形象。

  • We should live

    但當你把這些表象拋開,

  • like our immigrant ancestors.

    發現藩籬只是人際交流的阻礙。

  • When they came to America,

    許多美國人抗拒白色藩籬,

  • they often shared apartments, survival tactics, child care --

    和那種高度封閉的私人生活,

  • always knew how to fill one more belly,

    想要重新繫起人群,

  • no matter how small the food available.

    進而增進相互的依賴。

  • But they were told that success meant leaving the village behind

    舉例來說,有五千萬人

  • and pursuing that iconic symbol of the American Dream,

    是住在多代同堂的家裡。

  • the white picket fence.

    金融海嘯時的人數更多,

  • And even today, we see a white picket fence

    但大家其實很喜歡這種生活模式。

  • and we think success, self-possession.

    三分之二多代同堂的人說

  • But when you strip away the sentimentality,

    家人之間的感情更好了。

  • what it really does is divides us.

    有些人跟家人以外的人一起住,

  • Many Americans are rejecting the white picket fence

    互相提供健康和經濟的援助。

  • and the kind of highly privatized life that happened within it,

    「CoAbode」是一個線上平台,

  • and reclaiming village life,

    讓單親媽媽們互相找伴租屋,

  • reclaiming interdependence instead.

    已經累積五萬名用戶。

  • Fifty million of us, for example,

    65 歲以上的人特別傾向

  • live in intergenerational households.

    去找這樣的另類住宿方案。

  • This number exploded with the Great Recession,

    他們了解自己的生活品質

  • but it turns out people actually like living this way.

    仰賴一定程度的獨處和合作。

  • Two-thirds of those who are living with multiple generations under one roof

    但仔細想想我們也是一樣,

  • say it's improved their relationships.

    無論老少。

  • Some people are choosing to share homes not with family,

    長久以來,我們假裝 幸福就是窩在自己的城堡。

  • but with other people who understand the health and economic benefits

    但研究顯示事實並非如此。

  • of daily community.

    最健康、最幸福也最安全的情況,

  • CoAbode, an online platform for single moms looking to share homes

    假如說天災或是有突發狀況,

  • with other single moms,

    和鄰居做好守望相助很重要。

  • has 50,000 users.

    我自己也有切身體驗。

  • And people over 65 are especially prone

    過去幾年我都住在一個共居社區。

  • to be looking for these alternative living arrangements.

    有 1.5 英畝的柿子樹林,

  • They understand that their quality of life

    黑莓樹在社區花園蜿蜒,

  • depends on a mix of solitude and solidarity.

    我們就坐落在奧克蘭城區。

  • Which is true of all of us when you think about it,

    九棟建築設計迥異,

  • young and old alike.

    不同坪數,不同外形,

  • For too long, we've pretended that happiness is a king in his castle.

    但都盡可能綠化。

  • But all the research proves otherwise.

    所以我們屋頂上有裝太陽能板,

  • It shows that the healthiest, happiest and even safest --

    所以我們每個月電費基本上

  • in terms of both climate change disaster, in terms of crime, all of that --

    不會超過五塊美金。

  • are Americans who live lives intertwined with their neighbors.

    我們總共 25 位住戶

  • Now, I've experienced this firsthand.

    年齡、政治傾向、職業都不同,

  • For the last few years, I've been living in a cohousing community.

    但我們住的地方五臟俱全。

  • It's 1.5 acres of persimmon trees,

    而且,

  • this prolific blackberry bush that snakes around a community garden,

    我們共用一個工業級廚房和用餐區,

  • all smack-dab, by the way, in the middle of urban Oakland.

    每周有兩次共餐。

  • The nine units are all built to be different,

    通常我跟人家介紹時,

  • different sizes, different shapes,

    基本上有兩種極端反應:

  • but they're meant to be as green as possible.

    要嘛就說:「大家都應該這樣住啊!」

  • So big, shiny black solar cells on our roof

    不然就是:「聽起來有點可怕。

  • mean our electricity bill rarely exceeds

    我應該死都不會住進去。」

  • more than five bucks in a month.

    但我跟你保證, 我們絕對尊重互相的隱私,

  • The 25 of us who live there are all different ages and political persuasions

    也致力於所謂「極致的待客之道」,

  • and professions,

    沒有五星級酒店廣告這麼誇張,

  • and we live in homes that have everything a typical home would have.

    但確保每一個人都被善意款待,

  • But additionally,

    就這麼簡單。

  • we share an industrial-sized kitchen and eating area,

    住在這種社區最大的驚喜?

  • where we have common meals twice a week.

    大家一起分擔家事, 修繕、烹飪、園藝,

  • Now, people, when I tell them I live like this,

    有時也分擔心理的壓力。

  • often have one of two extreme reactions.

    與其依賴少數幾個家庭成員,

  • Either they say, "Why doesn't everyone live like this?"

    去負擔你所有的情緒,

  • Or they say, "That sounds totally horrifying.

    這邊你有二十幾個人可以找,

  • I would never want to do that."

    聊聊今天工作多勞累,

  • So let me reassure you: there is a sacred respect for privacy among us,

    或是請教怎麼處理學校的壞老師。

  • but also a commitment to what we call "radical hospitality" --

    社區的青少年通常會去尋求

  • not the kind advertised by the Four Seasons,

    父母外成年人的建議。

  • but the kind that says that every single person is worthy of kindness,

    這是作家 bell hooks 說的「新式教養」,

  • full stop, end of sentence.

    我們相信這些孩子有更多榜樣

  • The biggest surprise for me of living in a community like this?

    去依賴和模仿會更健康。

  • You share all the domestic labor -- the repairing, the cooking, the weeding --

    而且成年人也會更健康。

  • but you also share the emotional labor.

    其實要變成白色藩籬裡

  • Rather than depending only on the idealized family