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  • I want to introduce you to an amazing woman.

    我想向各位介紹 一位了不起的女人。

  • Her name is Davinia.

    她的名字叫達維妮雅,

  • Davinia was born in Jamaica, emigrated to the US at the age of 18,

    達維妮雅出生於牙買加, 18 歲時移民到美國。

  • and now lives just outside of Washington, DC.

    現在住在首都華盛頓 哥倫比亞特區的外圍。

  • She's not a high-powered political staffer,

    她不是掌握大權的政府官員,

  • nor a lobbyist.

    也不是一位說客。

  • She'd probably tell you she's quite unremarkable,

    她可能會告訴你,她很平凡,

  • but she's having the most remarkable impact.

    但她的影響力卻相當的不平凡。

  • What's incredible about Davinia

    達維妮雅不平凡的地方在於,

  • is that she's willing to spend time every single week

    她願意每週花時間

  • focused on people who are not her:

    去關注那些和她沒有關係的人:

  • people not her in her neighborhood, her state, nor even in her country --

    既不是她的鄰居、也不是她所住的州, 甚至也不是她國家的人──

  • people she'd likely never meet.

    而是那些她可能從未見過的人。

  • Davinia's impact started a few years ago

    達維妮雅的影響力 從幾年前開始,

  • when she reached out to all of her friends on Facebook,

    當時她在臉書上尋求朋友幫助,

  • and asked them to donate their pennies

    她邀請他們捐點零錢,

  • so she could fund girls' education.

    這樣她就可以資助女孩的教育。

  • She wasn't expecting a huge response,

    她沒想過會有這麼大的回響,

  • but 700,000 pennies later,

    在獲得 70 萬便士後,

  • she's now sent over 120 girls to school.

    她送了 120 位女孩去上學。

  • When we spoke last week,

    我們上禮拜有聊到,

  • she told me she's become a little infamous at the local bank

    她說,她變得有點 不受當地銀行的歡迎了,

  • every time she rocks up with a shopping cart full of pennies.

    因為她每次都突然現身 還帶著一卡車零錢。

  • Now -- Davinia is not alone.

    如今,達維妮雅並不孤單。

  • Far from it.

    她離孤單還差得遠的呢。

  • She's part of a growing movement.

    她是這股成長趨勢的一分子。

  • And there's a name for people like Davinia:

    有一個詞可以形容 像達維妮雅這樣的人:

  • global citizens.

    「世界公民」。

  • A global citizen is someone who self-identifies first and foremost

    世界公民是指,

  • not as a member of a state, a tribe or a nation,

    不把「自我認同」優先定位在 一個州、國家或部落之上的人,

  • but as a member of the human race,

    而是把自我認同優先定位在 身為人類的一分子,

  • and someone who is prepared to act on that belief,

    並準備好以此信念來採取行動、解決

  • to tackle our world's greatest challenges.

    我們世界上最大的挑戰。

  • Our work is focused on finding,

    我們的工作就是找出

  • supporting and activating global citizens.

    支持和動員這些世界公民。

  • They exist in every country

    他們存在每個國家

  • and among every demographic.

    與群眾之中。

  • I want to make the case to you today

    我今天要向各位說明一個觀點,

  • that the world's future depends on global citizens.

    就是,世界的未來 仰賴於世界公民。

  • I'm convinced that if we had more global citizens active in our world,

    我有信心,如果世界上 有更多的世界公民參與,

  • then every single one of the major challenges we face --

    那我們現在所面臨的各種挑戰——

  • from poverty, climate change, gender inequality --

    從貧窮、氣候變化到性別不平等——

  • these issues become solvable.

    這些議題都可以迎刃而解。

  • They are ultimately global issues,

    它們都是全球最棘手的問題,

  • and they can ultimately only be solved

    而最終能解決的方式,

  • by global citizens demanding global solutions from their leaders.

    就只有透過世界公民向他們的領導者要求 並提出全球性的解決方案才能做到。

  • Now, some people's immediate reaction to this idea

    現在,肯定會有人會立刻覺得

  • is that it's either a bit utopian or even threatening.

    這個想法有點異想天開, 甚至有些威脅的意味。

  • So I'd like to share with you a little of my story today,

    所以今天我想告訴你們 一個我的小故事,

  • how I ended up here,

    告訴你,我最終是怎麼 站在這裡的,

  • how it connects with Davinia

    以及這件事如何與 達維尼亞連結起來,

  • and, hopefully, with you.

    我更希望可以和你們產生共鳴。

  • Growing up in Melbourne, Australia,

    我在澳洲的墨爾本長大,

  • I was one of those seriously irritating little kids

    我小時候特別煩人,

  • that never, ever stopped asking, "Why?"

    總是不停地問「為什麼?」

  • You might have been one yourself.

    各位過去可能也是如此。

  • I used to ask my mum the most annoying questions.

    我過去常常問我媽媽 一些相當惱人的問題。

  • I'd ask her questions like, "Mum, why I can't I dress up

    我問像是: 「媽,為什麼我不能穿衣打扮,

  • and play with puppets all day?"

    然後跟木偶玩上一整天?」

  • "Why do you want fries with that?"

    「你為什麼要加那個下去炒? 」

  • "What is a shrimp,

    「蝦子是什麼?

  • and why do we have to keep throwing them on the barbie?"

    為什麼我們一直要把牠們 扔到芭比娃娃的頭上?」

  • (Laughter)

    (意旨:BBQ 烤蝦子)(笑聲)

  • "And mum -- this haircut.

    「還有,媽,這髮型……

  • Why?"

    為什麼?」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • The worst haircut, I think.

    我覺得是史上最醜的髮型。

  • Still terrible.

    真的很糟糕。

  • As a "why" kid, I thought I could change the world,

    身為愛問為什麼的男孩, 我自認能改變世界,

  • and it was impossible to convince me otherwise.

    而且那時我不可能會被說服。

  • And when I was 12 and in my first year of high school,

    在我 12 歲上中學的第一年,

  • I started raising money for communities in the developing world.

    我開始籌錢幫助那些 發展中國家的社區。

  • We were a really enthusiastic group of kids,

    我們是一群熱情四溢的小鬼頭,

  • and we raised more money than any other school in Australia.

    而且我們在澳洲籌到了 比其它任何學校還要多的錢。

  • And so I was awarded the chance to go to the Philippines to learn more.

    因此我得到了一個 去菲律賓學習的機會。

  • It was 1998.

    當時是 1998 年。

  • We were taken into a slum in the outskirts of Manila.

    我們被帶到馬尼拉郊外的 一個貧民窟裡。

  • It was there I became friends with Sonny Boy,

    在那裡,我跟桑尼男孩 變成了好朋友,

  • who lived on what was literally a pile of steaming garbage.

    他就生活在那種 會冒熱氣的垃圾堆當中。

  • "Smoky Mountain" was what they called it.

    他們把這座垃圾山 叫做「冒煙山」。

  • But don't let the romance of that name fool you,

    但不要被這浪漫的名字給騙了,

  • because it was nothing more than a rancid landfill

    因為它只不過是 散著惡臭味的垃圾堆,

  • that kids like Sonny Boy spent hours rummaging through every single day

    這些像桑尼的孩子們, 每天要花大量的時間

  • to find something, anything of value.

    在這些垃圾堆中尋找值錢的東西。

  • That night with Sonny Boy and his family changed my life forever,

    那晚,桑尼和他的家人 徹底改變了我的一生,

  • because when it came time to go to sleep,

    因為睡覺的時候,

  • we simply laid down on this concrete slab the size of half my bedroom

    我們就睡在只有我的 臥室一半大的混凝土地板上,

  • with myself, Sonny Boy, and the rest of his family,

    而且是我、桑尼和他的家人 大家一起睡。

  • seven of us in this long line,

    7 個人成排睡在這麼寬的空間,

  • with the smell of rubbish all around us

    伴隨著身邊的垃圾臭味,

  • and cockroaches crawling all around.

    還有滿地爬的蟑螂。

  • And I didn't sleep a wink,

    我根本闔不上眼,

  • but I lay awake thinking to myself,

    我躺著,卻清醒地在想一件事:

  • "Why should anyone have to live like this

    「當我擁有這麼多的同時, 為什麼還有人必須住在這樣的地方?」

  • when I have so much?

    為什麼桑尼男孩 實現他夢想的能力

  • Why should Sonny Boy's ability to live out his dreams

    是由他的出生地所決定?

  • be determined by where he's born,

    或者就像華倫巴菲特說: 「娘胎是張大樂透」?

  • or what Warren Buffett called 'the ovarian lottery?'"

    我就是搞不懂,

  • I just didn't get it,

    而且我需要知道為什麼。

  • and I needed to understand why.

    我後來才理解,

  • Now, I only later came to understand

    我在菲律賓看到的貧窮,

  • that the poverty I'd seen in the Philippines

    是各種由人有意或無意 所制定的決策而產生的後果,

  • was the result of decisions made or not made, man-made,

    像是一次又一次外來強權的殖民,

  • by a succession of colonial powers and corrupt governments

    或是除了桑尼男孩心願以外 什麼都想要的腐敗政府所造成。

  • who had anything but the interests of Sonny Boy at heart.

    沒錯,「冒煙山」不是他們創造的, 但也是由他們促成的。

  • Sure, they didn't create Smoky Mountain, but they may as well have.

    如果我們想要幫助 像桑尼男孩這樣的孩子,

  • And if we're to try to help kids like Sonny Boy,

    給他們一點小錢

  • it wouldn't work just to try to send him a few dollars

    或者清理他們住家的垃圾 都沒有太大的用處,

  • or to try to clean up the garbage dump on which he lived,

    因為核心問題仍躺在那邊還沒解決。

  • because the core of the problem lay elsewhere.

    我這幾年做了一些社區發展計畫,

  • And as I worked on community development projects over the coming years

    像是試著建學校、

  • trying to help build schools,

    培訓老師、對抗愛滋病毒。

  • train teachers, and tackle HIV and AIDS,

    我開始發現社區的發展,

  • I came to see that community development

    應該是由社區本身來驅動的,

  • should be driven by communities themselves,

    雖然對他們的捐助是必要的, 但這些還不夠。

  • and that although charity is necessary, it's not sufficient.

    我們面對這些的挑戰

  • We need to confront these challenges

    必須採取一個全球性、 有系統的方式。

  • on a global scale and in a systemic way.

    而我能幫上最大的忙,

  • And the best thing I could do

    就是去動員這些世界公民回家,

  • is try to mobilize a large group of citizens back home

    去督促我們的領導人 參與這個系統性的變革。

  • to insist that our leaders engage in that systemic change.

    這也是為什麼幾年之後,

  • That's why, a few years later,

    我跟一群大學的朋友,

  • I joined with a group of college friends

    一起在澳洲舉行 「讓貧窮成為歷史」的運動。

  • in bringing the Make Poverty History campaign to Australia.

    我們的夢想是舉辦一個小型音樂會,

  • We had this dream of staging this small concert

    就在 G20 會議期間, 與澳洲當地的藝人一起共襄盛舉,

  • around the time of the G20 with local Aussie artists,

    就在我們接到來自

  • and it suddenly exploded one day

    波諾、The Edge、 珍珠果醬樂團的來電後, 這場盛事,一天內就突然爆紅了起來,

  • when we got a phone call from Bono, the Edge and Pearl Jam,

    他們都答應在我們的 音樂會上擔綱主角。

  • who all agreed to headline our concert.

    那天我有點激動, 你可以看得出來。

  • I got a little bit excited that day, as you can see.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    但令我們驚訝的是,

  • But to our amazement,

    澳洲政府聽到 我們全體的聲音了,

  • the Australian government heard our collective voices,

    他們答應,會把投入全球 健康和發展的經費提高一倍——

  • and they agreed to double investment into global health and development --

    額外增加 62 億的預算。

  • an additional 6.2 billion dollars.

    這感覺就像——

  • It felt like --

    (掌聲)

  • (Applause)

    這感覺像是一個 不可思議的驗證。

  • It felt like this incredible validation.

    透過將世界公民團結在一起,

  • By rallying citizens together, we helped persuade our government

    我們說服了我們的政府 去做一些不敢想像的事情,

  • to do the unthinkable,

    並採取行動去解決那些 離我們國界數英哩遠地區的問題。

  • and act to fix a problem miles outside of our borders.

    但問題是,

  • But here's the thing:

    這並沒有持續很久。

  • it didn't last.

    你看,政府裡發生了變化,

  • See, there was a change in government,

    六年以後,所有之前新追加的預算

  • and six years later, all that new money

    全都被砍掉了。

  • disappeared.

    我們從中學到了什麼?

  • What did we learn?

    我們學到了,曇花一現是不夠的。

  • We learned that one-off spikes are not enough.

    我們需要的是可以不斷持續地運動,

  • We needed a sustainable movement,

    而不會受到政治家 情緒波動的干擾,

  • not one that is susceptible to the fluctuating moods of a politician

    或經濟衰退預警的影響。

  • or the hint of an economic downturn.

    運動必須在世界各地發生;

  • And it needed to happen everywhere;

    否則,各國政府就有 制式的官方理由推託說,

  • otherwise, every individual government would have this built-in excuse mechanism

    這些全球性的活動, 以一國之力負擔不起。

  • that they couldn't possibly carry the burden of global action alone.

    所以,我們開始進行這項工作。

  • And so this is what we embarked upon.

    當我們開始進行這項挑戰時, 我們自問,

  • And as we embarked upon this challenge, we asked ourselves,

    我們要如何獲得足夠的壓力 並建立起一支足夠強大的部隊

  • how do we gain enough pressure and build a broad enough army

    來贏得這場長期的戰爭?

  • to win these fights for the long term?

    我們只想出了一種辦法。

  • We could only think of one way.

    我們需要以某種方式, 讓人參與「讓貧窮成為歷史」運動

  • We needed to somehow turn that short-term excitement

    可以從短時間的興奮

  • of people involved with the Make Poverty History campaign

    轉變為長時間的熱情,

  • into long-term passion.

    成為他們自我認同的一部分。

  • It had to be part of their identity.

    所以 2012 年我們成立了一個 專門為達成這個目標的組織。

  • So in 2012, we cofounded an organization that had exactly that as its goal.

    這個組織只有一個適合的名字:

  • And there was only one name for it:

    「世界公民」。

  • Global Citizen.

    但這與任何組織都無關。

  • But this is not about any one organization.

    這與公民是否採取行動有關。

  • This is about citizens taking action.

    研究數據告訴我們,

  • And research data tells us

    關注世界問題的總人口當中,

  • that of the total population who even care about global issues,

    大概只有 18% 的人付出了行動。

  • only 18 percent have done anything about it.

    不是大家不想做,

  • It's not that people don't want to act.

    而是他們通常不知道要怎麼做,

  • It's often that they don't know how to take action,

    或者他們覺得自己的行動 起不了作用。

  • or that they believe that their actions will have no effect.

    所以我們需要以某種方式來招募

  • So we had to somehow recruit and activate millions of citizens

    並激勵這些來自 不同國家的無數公民,

  • in dozens of countries

    去向他們的領導人施壓, 請他們無私地付出。

  • to put pressure on their leaders to behave altruistically.

    當我們這樣做之後, 我們發現了一些令人振奮的事情,

  • And as we did so, we discovered something really thrilling,

    就是當你把世界公民運動 當做你的任務,

  • that when you make global citizenship your mission,

    你會突然發現,你身邊有一群 非凡的盟友與你並肩作戰。

  • you suddenly find yourself with some extraordinary allies.

    全球的問題不僅僅只有貧窮,

  • See, extreme poverty isn't the only issue that's fundamentally global.

    還有氣候變遷、

  • So, too, is climate change,

    人權、性別平等,

  • human rights, gender equality,

    甚至衝突。

  • even conflict.

    我們發現我們正與那些

  • We found ourselves shoulder to shoulder

    同樣對解決全球問題 有熱情的人,一起並肩作戰。

  • with people who are passionate about targeting all these interrelated issues.

    但是我們要如何去招募,

  • But how did we actually go about recruiting

    並讓這些世界公民參與活動呢?

  • and engaging those global citizens?

    我們用了世界的共同語言:

  • Well, we used the universal language:

    音樂。

  • music.

    我們在紐約市中心的中央公園

  • We launched the Global Citizen Festival

    舉辦「世界公民音樂節」,

  • in the heart of New York City in Central Park,

    我們說服了一些世界上 最大咖的音樂家來參加。

  • and we persuaded some of the world's biggest artists to participate.

    我們要確保這些活動

  • We made sure that these festivals coincided

    能與聯合國大會會議同時進行,

  • with the UN General Assembly meeting,

    讓那些需要聆聽 我們聲音的領導者們,

  • so that leaders who need to hear our voices

    沒辦法再忽略我們的聲音。

  • couldn't possible ignore them.

    但有一個前提就是:

  • But there was a twist:

    你不能買門票。

  • you couldn't buy a ticket.

    你必須透過實際行動來賺得門票。

  • You had to earn it.

    你必須要為全球議題發聲,

  • You had to take action on behalf of a global cause,

    唯有這樣,你才有足夠的點數 來獲取門票。

  • and only once you'd done that could you earn enough points to qualify.

    行動才是入場券。

  • Activism is the currency.

    我對公民權沒有興趣,因為它無非 只是些讓你自我感覺良好的東西。

  • I had no interest in citizenship purely as some sort of feel-good thing.

    對我而言,公民權利意味著你必須要行動, 而那才是我們所需要的。

  • For me, citizenship means you have to act, and that's what we required.

    驚人的是,起作用了。

  • And amazingly, it worked.

    去年,光是紐約區域 就有超過 15.5 萬的公民,

  • Last year, more than 155,000 citizens in the New York area alone

    取得了足夠參與音樂會的點數。

  • earned enough points to qualify.

    綜觀全球,我們目前已經有來自超過 150 個國家的世界公民登記。

  • Globally, we've now signed up citizens in over 150 countries around the world.

    去年一整年,我們每個星期

  • And last year, we signed up more than 100,000 new members

    都有超過 10 萬人 登記成為新會員。

  • each and every week of the whole year.

    你看,我們不需要無中生有 創造什麼世界公民出來。

  • See, we don't need to create global citizens from nothing.

    我們已經在世界各處了。

  • We're already everywhere.

    我們只需要組織起來,

  • We just need to be organized

    或者動員起來去採取行動。

  • and motivated to start acting.

    而這也是我相信我們可以 從達尼維雅那裡學到的東西,

  • And this is where I believe we can learn a lot from Davinia,

    身為世界公民的她, 在 2012 年就已經展開許多行動。

  • who started taking action as a global citizen back in 2012.

    她是這麼做的。

  • Here's what she did.

    這不是什麼特別難的事。

  • It wasn't rocket science.

    她開始寫信,

  • She started writing letters,

    寄電子郵件到政治人物的辦公室。

  • emailing politicians' offices.

    她在當地社區貢獻自己的時間。

  • She volunteered her time in her local community.

    在她開始與社交媒體接觸

  • That's when she got active on social media

    並開始募零錢後——

  • and started to collect pennies --

    她募到了很多零錢。

  • a lot of pennies.

    也許你們覺得 這些零錢好像沒有很多。

  • Now, maybe that doesn't sound like a lot to you.

    這樣哪能完成什麼事呢?

  • How will that achieve anything?

    其實,我們完成了很多事, 因為她並不孤單。

  • Well, it achieved a lot because she wasn't alone.

    她的行動, 有 14.2 萬的世界公民參與,

  • Her actions, alongside 142,000 other global citizens',

    讓美國政府

  • led the US government to double their investment

    在全球公民意識的教育上 增加了一倍的預算。

  • into Global Partnership for Education.

    這位是美國國際開發組 組長拉吉夫.沙赫博士

  • And here's Dr. Raj Shah,

    發布該項聲明。

  • the head of USAID, making that announcement.

    你看,當數以千計的世界公民 從彼此間找到熱情時,

  • See, when thousands of global citizens find inspiration from each other,

    你會看到他們群聚的力量 真的很驚人。

  • it's amazing to see their collective power.

    像達維妮雅這樣的世界公民 也協助說服世界銀行

  • Global citizens like Davinia helped persuade the World Bank

    增加他們投入在水資源 及公共衛生的經費。

  • to boost their investment into water and sanitation.

    這位是世界銀行總裁吉姆.金,

  • Here's the Bank's president Jim Kim announcing 15 billion dollars onstage

    他在全球公民講台上 宣布要投入 150 億元經費。

  • at Global Citizen,

    印度總理莫迪宣布了他的承諾,

  • and Prime Minister Modi of India affirmed his commitment

    在 2019 年前,他要讓印度 每個家庭及學校都有廁所。

  • to put a toilet in every household and school across India by 2019.

    全球公民受到深夜主持人 史提芬.荷伯的鼓勵,